Saturday, April 24, 2021

Aerodynamic Stall / Spin: Fatal accident occurred April 24, 2021

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board

The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; San Antonio, Texas
Cirrus Aircraft; Duluth, Minnesota 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:

Location: Port Aransas, Texas
Accident Number: CEN21FA199
Date and Time: April 24, 2021, 13:12 Local
Registration: N587CD
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Aerodynamic stall/spin 
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 2 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Personal

On April 24, 2021, about 1312 central daylight time, a Cirrus SR-22 airplane, N587CD, was destroyed when it was involved in an accident near Port Aransas, Texas. The pilot was fatally injured, and the two passengers sustained serious injuries. The airplane was operated as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight.

The local flight departed from Mustang Beach Airport (RAS), Port Aransas, as a Young Eagles flight sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA). The Young Eagles event consisted of about eight volunteer pilots who offered children and parents a discovery flight to introduce the children to aviation.

The Young Eagles volunteer pilots were provided with a suggested flightpath for runway 30 departures. The procedure called for a right turn at 500 ft after takeoff and to visually fly along the Corpus Christi ship channel until reaching the municipal harbor. The procedure then called for a left turn toward a lighthouse then a right turn to fly along the beach southbound. The procedure finally called for two right turns to enter back into a right downwind traffic patter to runway 30.

On the morning of the accident, the pilot flew the airplane to RAS and arrived about 1042. At 1153, the pilot departed runway 30 for his first Young Eagles flight. According to witness and air traffic information, the accident pilot made three approaches to runway 12 before landing on runway 12 at 1221 (see figure 1). At 1215, the wind was reported from 140° at 6 knots.

During the second flight of the day, the pilot took a child and the child’s father for their discovery flight. The child sat in the aft right seat, and the father was seated in the front right seat.

The accident flight departed runway 30 about 1305; however, the airplane’s flight track did not follow the suggested route for the event for reasons that could not be determined (see figure 2).

Witnesses stated that the airplane was “low and slow” on the approach to runway 30, and the airplane almost touched down short of the runway. Before landing, the pilot appeared to initiate a go-around; the engine power increased, the airplane’s nose pitched up sharply, the left wing dropped, the engine power decreased, and the airplane impacted the ground inverted in a nose low angle in front of a row of hangers adjacent to the runway. After ground impact, the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System deployed, and the airplane was destroyed during the impact sequence.

A cell phone video recorded by the front-seat passenger captured the accident flight and impact sequence. About 8 seconds before the impact, the video showed the flap selector switch in the UP (0%) position. About 5 seconds before the impact, the video and audio captured an increase in engine rpm, followed by a left roll, an immediate decrease in engine rpm, and terrain impact in a left-wing low attitude.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private 
Age: 76, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land 
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None 
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None 
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 With waivers/limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: July 6, 2020
Occupational Pilot: No 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: March 6, 2021
Flight Time: 173 hours (Total, all aircraft), 73 hours (Total, this make and model), 88 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 1.8 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 1.8 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0.8 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

According to the pilot’s logbook, the pilot began his flight training on July 7, 2018, and received his private pilot certificate on March 8, 2019. Most of his flight training was conducted in a Cessna C-172 airplane; his last month of training and practical exam (12.8 hours total) were completed in a Piper PA-28. Upon completion of his private certification, the pilot had a total of 99.8 hours of flight time. He started to fly the accident airplane 3 days after he received his private pilot certificate and had a total of 72.5 hours in the accident airplane as of March 6, 2021.

The pilot received flight training in the accident airplane between November 16, 2019, and December 15, 2019, logging 17.3 hours of dual instruction and 19 hours of ground instruction.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Registration: N587CD
Model/Series: SR22 
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2005
Amateur Built:
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 1695
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle 
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: December 23, 2020 Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3400 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 16 Hrs
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 2971.1 Hrs at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: CONT MOTOR
ELT: Installed, not activated 
Engine Model/Series: IO-550 SERIES
Registered Owner: 
Rated Power: 300 Horsepower
Operator: On file 
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

The airplane was equipped with an electro-pneumatic stall warning system to provide audible warning of an approach to aerodynamic stall. The system is designed to sound the warning at approximately 5 knots above stall with full flaps and power off in wings level flight and at slightly greater margins in turning and accelerated flight.

According to page 4-21 in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-approved Airplane Flight Manual, dated October 10, 2003, both power-on and poweroff approaches to landing are conducted with full flaps.

The handbook also provided the following caution, in part:

Landings should be made with full flaps. Landings with less than full flaps are recommended only if the flaps fail to deploy or to extend the aircraft’s glide distance due to engine malfunction. Landings with flaps at 50% or 0%; power should be used to achieve a normal glidepath and low descent rate. Flare should be minimized.

For a balked landing (go-around) climb, the handbook stated that the pilot was to “disengage the autopilot (if installed), apply full power, then reduce the flap setting to 50%. If obstacles must be cleared during the go-around, climb at 75-80 knots indicated airspeed with 50% flaps. After clearing any obstacles, retract the flaps and accelerate to the normal flaps-up climb speed.”

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual (VMC)
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: RAS,5 ft msl 
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 13:15 Local 
Direction from Accident Site: 307°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility 10 miles
Lowest Ceiling: None 
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 10 knots / 
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:  /
Wind Direction: 350° 
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:  /
Altimeter Setting: 29.86 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 33°C / 11°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Port Aransas, TX 
Type of Flight Plan Filed:
Destination: Port Aransas, TX 
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 5 ft msl
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 30
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3482 ft / 1061 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full stop

The airport was equipped with a single asphalt-paved runway designated 12/30, which measured 3,482 ft long and 70 ft wide. Runway 30 had an elevation of 4.5 ft, and the threshold crossing height was 22 ft. Runway 30 was also served by a two-light precision approach path indicator (PAPI) on the left side of the runway (3.2ยบ visual glidepath angle).

Runway 12 had a 3-ft dropoff near the end of the runway, and runway 30 had a 3-ft ditch located 180 ft from the end of the runway. Runway 30 also had a 29-foot power line located 1,133 feet from the threshold both left and right of the runway 30 centerline. There was a 48-ft powerline located 1,791 ft from the runway 30 threshold, both left and right of the runway 30 centerline.

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: 2 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries:
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal, 2 Serious
Latitude, Longitude: 27.810318,-97.087355(est)

The initial impact point was located about 80 ft left of the runway centerline, and the main wreckage came to rest about 90 ft west of the initial impact. Fragmented fiberglass fuselage components and the nose wheel were located between the initial impact and main wreckage.

The main wreckage comprised the engine, cockpit/cabin, both wings, and the empennage. The upper cockpit and cabin structure was destroyed by impact and rescue efforts. The CAPS parachute canopy and suspension lines were deployed and came to rest on the ground adjacent to the main wreckage. The CAPS activation T-handle was found stowed in its receptacle. The outboard left- and right-wing leading edges were crushed aft and wing skin was partially delaminated.

Flight control continuity was established from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. The wing flap actuator position was consistent with the flaps in the retracted position. No evidence of any preimpact mechanical malfunctions or failures were noted with airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

The Avidyne primary flight display (PFD) and multifunction display (MFD) units were recovered and sent to the National Transportation Safety Board Vehicle Recorders laboratory for data extraction. The PFD sustained impact damage; however, the two internal nonvolatile memory chips were undamaged. The PFD recording contained records of 68 power cycles, to include the accident flight that was about 14 minutes in duration. The MFD compact flash card was recovered and in good condition. The data were downloaded, and the card contained 124 data files from December 14, 2019, through April 24, 2019, to include the accident flight that was about 14 minutes in duration.

The data downloaded from the PFD showed that just prior to the accident, the airplane’s nose pitched to about 22o, as the airplane rolled to the left and then descended rapidly with a pitch of 30o nose down. The airspeed at the time the data ended was 71 knots. The left roll continued until the data ended.

Additional Information


According to page 4-10 in the FAA Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3B, dated 2016), at the same gross weight, airplane configuration, and power setting, a given airplane will consistently stall at the same indicated airspeed if no acceleration is involved. The airplane will, however, stall at a higher indicated airspeed when excessive maneuvering loads are imposed by steep turns, pull-ups, or other abrupt changes in its flightpath. Stalls entered from such flight situations are called “accelerated maneuver stall,” a term which had no reference to the airspeeds involved. Stalls which result from abrupt maneuvers tended to be more rapid, or severe, than unaccelerated stalls, and because they occur at higher-than-normal airspeeds, and/or may occur at lower than anticipated pitch attitudes, they may be unexpected by an inexperienced pilot. Failure to take immediate steps toward recovery when an accelerated stall occurred may result in a complete loss of flight control, notably power-on spins.

An accelerated stall may be encountered any time excessive back-elevator pressure is applied and/or angle of attack is increased too rapidly.

P-Factor, Torque, and Slipstream Effects

The FAA Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge also states that an airplane is subject to multiple left-turning tendencies in flight, which include:

 - P-Factor - A tendency for an aircraft to yaw to the left due to the descending propeller blade on the right producing more thrust than the ascending blade on the left (clockwise rotation of the propeller as seen from the cockpit). This occurs when the aircraft’s longitudinal axis is in a climbing attitude in relation to the relative wind.

- Torque - In an airplane, the tendency of the aircraft to turn (roll) in the opposite direction of rotation of the engine and propeller.

- Spiraling slipstream - The slipstream of a propeller-driven airplane rotates around the airplane. This slipstream strikes the left side of the vertical fin, causing the aircraft to yaw slightly. Rudder offset is sometimes used by aircraft designers to counteract this tendency.

- Corkscrew Effect - The high-speed rotation of an aircraft propeller gives a corkscrew or spiraling rotation to the slipstream. At high propeller speeds and low forward speed (as in the takeoffs and approaches to power-on stalls), this spiraling rotation is very compact and exerts a strong sideward force on the aircraft’s vertical tail surface.

- Gyroscopic precession. An inherent quality of rotating bodies, which causes an applied force to be manifested 90° in the direction of rotation from the point where the force is applied. With an AOA just under the AOA which may cause an aerodynamic buffet or stall warning, the flight controls are less effective. The elevator control is less responsive and larger control movements are necessary to retain control of the airplane. In propeller-driven airplanes, torque, slipstream effect, and P-factor may produce a strong left yaw, which requires right rudder input to maintain coordinated flight. The closer the airplane is to the 1G stall, the greater the amount of right rudder pressure is required.

Medical and Pathological Information

The Office of the Medical Examiner, Corpus Christi, Texas, performed an autopsy on the pilot. The autopsy listed the cause of death as “multiple blunt force injuries.”

Toxicology testing performed at the FAA Forensic Sciences Laboratory found 20 (mg/dL, mg/hg) of ethanol in the pilot’s blood; no ethanol was detected in the pilot’s urine; 6 (mg/dL) of glucose in the urine; and no drugs of abuse were detected in the blood. Contamination of the specimen by gastrointestinal tract contents can lead to fermentation, which could cause a spurious body cavity blood alcohol result. The absence of alcohol in urine does not rule in or rule out alcohol consumption. Ideally, samples from other organs would be available for comparison. Under these circumstances, it is more likely than not that these results were due to postmortem artifact. 

Carrol V. Jorgenson 
March 29, 1945 ~ April 24, 2021

Carrol V. Jorgenson, 76, of Corpus Christi, Texas, left this earth and entered the arms of his Heavenly Father on April 24, 2021.

Carrol was a Veteran of the Navy. He began his service as a young man in the late 1960's. It was there that he discovered his passion for airplanes; avionics specifically. After completing his military service, he got a job with Lockheed-Martin. It is here that he dedicated the whole of his 45+ years career in service to this field.

He had many interests throughout his lifetime. His most passionate were Classic Ford cars, politics and his Cirrus Aircraft.

He was a giver to those in need, a patient ear, a professor of calm and sage advice, a fixer of the malfunctioning, a relisher of grandchildren and a champion in the eyes of his children. In short, he was the rock of our family.

Carrol is survived by his former wife and best friend, Wanda Jorgenson, and five children: Daughter Michele Sprague, Daughter Lori Edwards, Daughter Amy Black, Son Curtis Sprague and Son Scott Jorgenson. He is also survived by fifteen grandchildren and five great grandchildren.

Memorial Services will be held on Friday, May 7, 2021 at 1:15 p.m. at Guardian Funeral Home Chapel A located at 5922 Crosstown Access Road in Corpus Christi. A celebration of life will follow the service at Guardian Hall located at 5813 Ayers Street (2 Blocks from the Funeral Home)

CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas — Jill Reed has lived near Mustang Beach Airport in Port Aransas for 15 years and said she was afraid when she heard about the plane crash.

“I was so afraid that it was one of my friends that it was one of their planes…but obviously it wasn’t as I would’ve heard from them,” Reed said.

Reed said it’s shocking hearing about those in the crash and that the crash was loud.

“There was no smoke. That’s for sure…. when I saw the fire engines and what not…that there was going to be a fire over here…but there was no fire,” Reed said.

DPS said Carrol V Jorgenson, 76, the male pilot, was pronounced dead on the scene and 2 male passengers, ages 40 and 8 were also on board and had serious injuries. DPS said the passengers were ejected from the plane but still secured in their seats.

Mark Davis, a local from Aransas Pass, was working on his friend’s boat during the crash and arrived on the scene where another friend told him he cut the 8-year-old boy’s seatbelt.

“I guess the seatbelt was pinching right through him and they couldn’t get the clasp undone so he took his pocket knife and cut it and when he did, the whole tail of the plane fell off. It was actually the seatbelt that was holding the tail of the plane on,” Davis said.

DPS said the 40-year-old was transported by halo-flight to Spohn Shoreline Hospital in Corpus Christi and the 8-year-old boy was taken by ground ambulance to Doctors Regional Hospital and later Driscoll Children’s Hospital, both of them with non-life-threatening injuries.

Tom Rushing has lived near the airport for 23 years, saying he’s never heard of a fatal crash at the airport but has heard of other crashes that didn’t involve deaths. He described the crash as sounding like an aluminum building folding in. He said he saw 2 planes on the taxiway and everyone running towards the crash site. He then got in his golf cart and described the scene as a tragedy.

“The ambulances were pulling up when we got there and we could hear the little boy crying so we know he was awake and vocal anyways and we hope he’s okay,” Rushing said.

The Federal Aviation Administration is leading the investigation and the National Transportation Safety Board is investigating as well. 

Fatal accident occurred April 24, 2021 at Mustang Beach Airport  (KRAS),  Port Aransas, Texas.

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; San Antonio, Texas

October 12, 2017:  Aircraft on takeoff, blew a tire and went off the runway at Corpus Christi International Airport  (KCRP),  Nueces County, Texas.

Kaffie Investment Company

Date: 12-OCT-17
Time: 21:22:00Z
Regis#: N587CD
Aircraft Make: CIRRUS
Aircraft Model: SR22
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Activity: UNKNOWN
Flight Phase: TAKEOFF (TOF)
State: TEXAS


  1. Chute obviously deployed but apparently at too low an altitude. What in the world happened here. No video yet.

  2. Chute deployment probably was after impact. ADS-B track shows taxi, takeoff and landing. Maybe a stall after touch and go?

    Was real busy practicing just before the "leg 3" crash:

  3. maybe cut that last base-final turn a little too tight?

  4. I know Carrol, very active on the Cirrus FB page and a couple other flying pages. He was a great guy. Semi retired electronic guy from Lockheed Martin.
    He was doing some Young Eagle flights to orientate young people to flying.
    He had done a flight a couple hours before this one. You can see his track on Flight Aware.
    He took on this flight and for some reason (I have listened to the radio calls) he came back in for a low an over or landing or go around, nobody knows for sure. Another aircraft was right behind him in the pattern on short final and over the numbers Carrol pulled up, the nose went pretty high and at about 200 ft give or take the right wing dropped (indicative of a stall) and the plane flipped over hit the ground beside the runway nose first, kind of cartwheeled a 180 and came to rest as shown. Carrol was stuck inside and first responders did some of the damage seen trying to extract Carrol.
    There has been a lot of discussion about distractions etc on other pages including the Cirrus Owner Group forum.
    It appears from the wreckage the flaps are up. Did he inadvertently switch from full to fully retracted on the go around? Did he not have full on on final? We will have to wait for the data acquisition for that.
    If he did inadvertently pull the flaps fully retracted, he would have lost lift going slow on final and would have started to sink. Maybe pulled back on control to stop the sink going too slow and then the stall.
    The witnesses said it all happened in a blink of an eye. Nose up, wing drop and into the ground. This accident want not type dependant as in would not have mattered what aircraft he was in. Too close to the ground for CAPS. It deployed on impact as did the airbags.
    I was just talking to Carrol the night before. He was an electrical guru. RIP my friend.

    1. Thank you for your post, I was married to Carrol for many yrs. He was a wonderful man. We divorced but unlike many couples, we were good friends. My children and our child are mourning the loss of a great man.

    2. Thank you for the clarification first hand. I made the first comment at the top inquiring about the chute not knowing it deploys on impact. Not sure why but not knowing a thing about Cirrus aircraft other than they are not forgiving like a 182 for an attention-deficit pilot in the pattern, I'm sure there's a reason. Sorry for your loss and sorry for his friends and family.

  5. I am a pilot out of Conroe. This is awful. But, I must ask, at what point to we as pilots say, I am too old, my reflexes are not what they used to be, the plane I fly is more than I can handle? Flying has risks, much different than most other endeavors.

    1. Just as there old airplanes in horrible condition and old airplanes in great condition, there old guys in their 70s and 80s who shouldn't even be driving a car while other old guys like that are totally OK to fly an airplane. And by the way, flying a Cirrus does *not* require any thing special in the way of "reflexes."

    2. @MoodyRiver - No it does not, but it does require much more attention than a Warrior or Skyhawk during takeoff and landing maneuvering at low air speeds. There's a reason so many fatalities in Cirrus aircraft, specifically around the high performance SR22, have happened during takeoff and landing maneuvering in the pattern. One of the worst videos posted here years ago was a real estate agent trying to land at busy Houston's Hobby who got flustered and had to go around twice in her SR20 with two others on board. She tried a third time and lost control while turning final and crashed into a parked car at an Ace Hardware.

      Not sure what happened here, but reflexes as you say do not save or kill a pilot. Staying on top of it does.

  6. Very sorry to hear about the loss of your friend Cameron. Sounds like the kind of person we want in aviation. Anyone of us can make a mistake and most of us that have been flying for very long have all done plenty. Most of us are lucky enough to have gotten away with it. Hopefully we can all learn something from this so we don't repeat it- that I feel is one of the best ways to honor a fallen aviator.

    To Dave- I think so 76 year olds should hang it up, but others are still super sharp. There are also plenty of 30-40-50, etc. year olds that probably shouldn't be flying either.

  7. Sounds like the same stall condition as the lady at Hobby airport a few years ago.

  8. Sure sounds like a go-around accident. A lot going on. Power, right rudder, flaps, trim trim trim. Something that needs to be practiced more often. That initial pitch up when adding power to a plane properly trimmed for landing can surprise even the most seasoned pilot. I suspect the most common mistakes are adding power too quickly and lack of right rudder input. Tragic. RIP

  9. "Go-Around/Balked Landing"
    - At any point in the approach a go-around/balked landing
    may be executed
    - Smoothly apply maximum power, level the wings and
    transition to a pitch attitude that will slow/stop descent.
    - After descent has stopped, reduce flaps 50%
    - Pitch for Vy (101 KIAS)
    - Retract flaps to 0%
    o Note: Ensure you have a positive rate of climb, are
    at a safe altitude above all obstacles, and above 80
    KIAS prior to retraction."
    @ Cirrus SR22 Maneuver Profiles: Takeoff, Landings, and Go-Arounds

  10. My wife and I were on 361 going north at the time the crash happened. We observed Carroll's plane cross over the highway at a rather high speed and low altitude. I commented to my wife that it seemed too fast and too low at the time. Since I was driving I was looking forward until we came into alignment with the flight line and as I looked left I saw the plane come up fast and steep and remaked on the ascent angle to my wife. As I said that I saw the plane roll (to what from my vantage point seemed to the left) and then the nose came over and went to ground as I looked back to my wife and told her it just crashed. As outside witnesses we are both deeply concerned for the man and the boy as well as wish to express deepest sympathy for the loss of Mr. Jorgensen. We did report out observations to the authorities and have kept open to updates. Many prayers and thoughts to those affected.

  11. another low time Cirrus pilot....76 years old....what in the world was he doing flying a dad and his son around? Not many excuses for the pilot.

    Cirrus should include 1 million dollar life insurance policy with each sale. Its apparent that the life insurance is needed much more often than the parachute.

    1. The bird was 16 years old, why would Cirrus need to provide insurance??

  12. Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) archive data for the flight of Cirrus SR22 N587CD that departed the Mustang Beach Airport (KRAS) at 1800 UTC on 24 April 2021 UTC and crashed in the Port Aransas, Texas area at approximately 1815 UTC on 24 April 2021 UTC.

  13. Any and all information involving Cirrus SR22 N587CD, Port Aransas, Texas, D/A: 24 April 2021 UTC.

  14. I am shocked that EAA will let pilots with so few hours fly these types of missions. Less than 100 hours in any plane is not enough to deal with the challenges of these types of flight.

    1. I agree. Low hour pilots are the last people we want participating in these passenger flights.

  15. Father and son, sue the estate of that unqualified asshole. If you don't, I will.

    1. I'm pleased that I
      took the time to reread and reconsider your comment. You are clearly an expert on aeronautics and pilot training, an authority on civil law, and an acute judge of character. On first reading of your comment, one might be forgiven for assuming it to be just another tirade by another self-important, uneducated, keyboard-commanding, basement-dwelling, mentally retarded internet troll. I'm glad I was able to make that distinction.

      Having been personally well acquainted with Mr. Jorgensen, I can assure you that he was very well qualified and well-practiced in the care and operation of his aircraft, and he was extremely meticulous in following safety procedures.

      Mr. Jorgensen was a fine man, and I was proud to know him.
      He is grievously missed by his friends and relations.

      The terms "unqualified" and "asshole" were never associated with him. The world is a lesser place without him in it. I'm certain that these last two statements will never apply to you.

      s/ Joe Black


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