Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Diamond DA20-C1 Katana, N85WP, registered to and operated by Falcon Aviation Academy LLC (and) Beechcraft F33A Bonanza, N6027K: Fatal accident occurred September 07, 2016 at West Georgia Regional Airport (KCTJ), Carrollton, Carroll County, Georgia

Taylor Nicole Stone
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Lt Col William L. "Bill" Lindsey
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The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:  
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Atlanta, Georgia
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas 

N6027K Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

N85WP Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

N6027K  Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

N85WP  Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

N6027K  Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

N85WP  Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

William L. Lindsey: http://registry.faa.gov/N6027K

Falcon Aviation Academy LLC: http://registry.faa.gov/N85WP




Location: Carrollton, GA
Accident Number: ERA16FA312A
Date & Time: 09/07/2016, 1048 EDT
Registration: N6027K
Aircraft: BEECH F33
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Midair collision
Injuries: 1 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

Location: Carrollton, GA
Accident Number: ERA16FA312B
Date & Time: 09/07/2016, 1048 EDT
Registration: N85WP
Aircraft: DIAMOND AIRCRAFT IND INC DA20
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Midair collision
Injuries: 2 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

Analysis

The Diamond flight instructor and student pilot were in the traffic pattern at the non-towered airport practicing landings. The Beech pilot entered the traffic pattern on an extended left downwind leg with the intention of landing. Pilots of other airplanes in the pattern reported that the Diamond instructor was making standard traffic pattern callouts on the common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF); however, the Beech pilot was not transmitting on the CTAF. Witness observations, radar data, GPS data, and examination of the wreckage of the two airplanes revealed that, while both airplanes were on final approach for landing, the Beech overtook the Diamond from above and behind. The landing gear of the Beech struck the horizontal stabilizer and elevator of the Diamond, and then both airplanes abruptly descended into the terrain short of the runway. The Beech came to rest inverted and on top of the Diamond. An examination of wreckage of both airplanes did not reveal evidence of any preaccident anomalies or malfunctions.

Testing of the Beech's VHF communications radio revealed that it was set to an old CTAF frequency for the airport that had been changed about 5 years before the accident. A local airport frequency card dated 7 years before the accident that was found in the Beech's cockpit listed the old CTAF frequency that was set in the Beech's radio. Another pilot at a different airport heard the Beech pilot making pattern calls on the incorrect frequency about the time of the accident.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be: 

The failure of the Beech pilot to see and avoid the Diamond that was in front of and below his airplane on final approach and his use of an incorrect radio communication frequency for the airport. 



Findings

Aircraft
VHF communication system - Incorrect use/operation (Cause)

Personnel issues
Use of equip/system - Pilot (Cause)
Use of policy/procedure - Pilot (Cause)
Monitoring other aircraft - Pilot (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Approach-VFR pattern final
Midair collision (Defining event)

Uncontrolled descent
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

On September 7, 2016, at 1048 eastern daylight time, a Beech F33A, N6027K, and a Diamond Aircraft Industries DA20-C1, N85WP, collided in midair on the final approach leg of the traffic pattern to runway 35 at West Georgia Regional Airport (CTJ), Carrollton, Georgia. The Beech was substantially damaged, and the private pilot was fatally injured. The Diamond was destroyed, and the flight instructor and the student pilot were fatally injured. The Beech was registered to and operated by the private pilot. The Diamond was registered to and operated by Falcon Aviation Academy LLC. Both flights were conducted under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91; the Beech pilot was conducting a personal flight, and the Diamond pilots were conducting an instructional flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plans were filed for either flight. The Beech departed from Fulton County Airport (FTY), Atlanta, Georgia, about 0915, and the Diamond departed from Newnan Coweta County Airport (CCO), Newnan, Georgia, about 1000.

According to personnel from Falcon Aviation Academy, the pilots of the Diamond were practicing traffic pattern operations and landings at CTJ. The Diamond entered the traffic pattern, followed a few minutes later by N263CF and then by N169PS, both Falcon Aviation Academy DA20s. The flight instructor and student pilot on board N263CF saw the Beech on the downwind leg of the traffic pattern. Moments later, the flight instructor and student pilot on board N169PS entered the traffic pattern from the east. They looked down and to the left, in the direction of the final approach path for runway 35, and saw two airplanes collide. The instructors and the students on board both trailing DA20s reported that they did not hear the Beech pilot broadcasting his intentions on the CTJ common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) but they heard the accident Diamond making position calls in the traffic pattern before the collision, with the last call being made on the final approach.

Another flight instructor employed by Falcon Aviation Academy reported that he was familiar with the Beech pilot and his airplane. He had just completed a flight at CCO and heard the Beech pilot broadcasting traffic pattern calls for CTJ about the time of the accident; however, the Beech pilot was broadcasting over the CCO CTAF of 122.7 MHz. The flight instructor reported that the Beech pilot was not in the traffic pattern at CCO at the time of the transmissions.

Radar data provided by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic control personnel indicated that the Beech pilot entered an extended left downwind for CTJ from the north, above and behind the accident Diamond, which was on the downwind leg of the traffic pattern. The ground speed of the Beech was about 50 knots greater than the ground speed of the Diamond. The last radar returns were on the downwind leg, about 2,000 ft above mean sea level, or about 850 ft above the ground. The locations of the last radar returns showed the airplanes approaching the base leg for runway 35.

The Diamond was not equipped with GPS data recording capability. A portable GPS receiver recovered from the Beech recorded the accident flight. The recording indicated that the Beech was established on the downwind leg for runway 35, about 2,500 ft GPS altitude and 150 knots groundspeed. The CTJ airport elevation was 1,164 ft. The Beech descended toward the base leg, turning base about 2,200 ft and 122 knots. The Beech turned onto final about 1,450 ft and 79 knots. The last recorded data point was at 1048:00, with the Beech at 1,201 ft and 76 knots, about 607 ft south of the runway 35 threshold.




Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 24, Female
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 03/17/2016
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 02/05/2016
Flight Time: 850 hours (Total, all aircraft), 621 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft) 

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 20, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/05/2016
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 
Flight Time:  20 hours (Total, all aircraft)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 79, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 10/05/2015
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 10/30/2015
Flight Time: 2500 hours (Total, all aircraft) 

The Beech Pilot

The pilot of the Beech, age 79, held an FAA private pilot certificate with airplane single-engine land and instrument airplane ratings. He held an FAA third-class medical certificate with a restriction to have glasses available for near vision. He reported 2,500 total hours of flying experience on his FAA third-class medical certificate application that was dated October 5, 2015. His personal pilot logbook was not located.

According to the owner's representative (insurance adjuster), the Beech pilot reported that he completed a Beechcraft Pilot Proficiency Program on October 30, 2015, at Blairsville, Georgia. This was confirmed verbally and accepted as a current flight review by the insurance company.

The Diamond Flight Instructor

The flight instructor in the Diamond, age 24, held an FAA commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane multi-engine land, airplane single-engine land, and instrument airplane. She held an FAA flight instructor certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine, and she held an FAA first-class medical certificate with a restriction to wear glasses. She was seated in the right cockpit seat. She reported 600 total hours of flying experience on her FAA first-class medical certificate application that was dated March 16, 2016. A review of her pilot logbook revealed about 850 hours total time, including 721 hours in single-engine airplanes and 366 hours as a flight instructor.

The Diamond Student Pilot

The student pilot in the Diamond, age 20, held an FAA student pilot certificate. He held an FAA second-class medical certificate with no restrictions. He was seated in the left cockpit seat. He enrolled in the ab initio training program at Falcon Aviation Academy on August 4, 2016, and had logged about 22 hours of flight time.



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: BEECH
Registration: N6027K
Model/Series: F33 A
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1978
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: CE-833
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 07/13/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3400 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 4549 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Continental
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: IO-520-BB
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 285 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Beech

The off-white- and blue/gold-colored Beech F33A was a single-engine, low-wing airplane with a conventional tail. A review of the airplane's maintenance and airworthiness records revealed that an enhanced Whelen light-emitting diode (LED) wingtip position and anti-collision light system, model OR6502GE/OR6502RE, and a Whelen LED tail position and anti-collision light system, model OR5002V, were installed on the airplane per FAA Supplemental Type Certificate, dated November 10, 2014. The airplane was equipped with landing and taxi lights. The airplane was not equipped with a traffic advisory system (TAS), traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS), or automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) equipment or displays. The Beech's avionics suite included a King KX 155 VHF communication/navigation transceiver and a Garmin GNS 530 GPS/communication/navigation all-in-one unit.

According to information provided by the owner's representative, the Beech's most recent annual inspection was completed on or about July 13, 2016. At the time of the inspection, the airframe had accumulated about 4,549 total hours of operation.

Diamond

The white- and blue-colored Diamond DA20 was a single-engine, low-wing airplane with a T-tail configuration. It was equipped with wingtip-mounted anti-collision strobe lights and navigation position lights, and a landing and taxi light. The airplane was not equipped with a TAS, TCAS, ADS-B equipment or displays. The Diamond's avionics suite included an iCOM AC-A200 VHF air band transceiver and a Garmin GNS 430 GPS/communication/navigation all-in-one unit.

The Diamond's most recent annual inspection was completed on August 9, 2016. At the time of the inspection, the airframe had accumulated about 1,990 total hours of operation. 



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: CTJ, 1165 ft msl
Observation Time: 1055 EDT
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 8500 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 30°C / 19°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: Calm
Visibility (RVR): 
Altimeter Setting: 30.3 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV): 
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: ATLANTA, GA (FTY)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Carrollton, GA (CTJ)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0915 EDT
Type of Airspace:  Class G 

The CTJ 1055 weather observation included wind calm, visibility 10 statute miles, scattered clouds at 8,500 ft, temperature 30°C, dew point 19°C, and an altimeter setting 30.30 inches of mercury. 



Airport Information

Airport: West Georgia Regional (CTJ)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1164 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 35
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 5503 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Traffic Pattern

CTJ was a public, non-towered, uncontrolled airport with a single runway, designated 17/35. The runway was 5,503 ft long and 100 ft wide. The published traffic pattern direction for runway 35 was to the left. Falcon Aviation Academy personnel reported that their pilots frequently used CTJ for training purposes.

The CTAF/UNICOM frequency for CTJ at the time of the accident was 122.975 MHz. CTAF communications were not recorded. The airport manager reported that the CTJ CTAF frequency was changed from 122.7 MHz to 122.975 MHz in 2011.

N85WP Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 33.623333, -85.149167

N6027K Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 33.623333, -85.149167

General

The main wreckage of both airplanes came to rest in a grass field, about 408 ft south of the approach end of runway 35, on the extended centerline of the runway. The Diamond came to rest in an upright position. The Beech came to rest inverted and on top of the Diamond wreckage. The wreckage debris field was about 350 ft long and about 80 ft wide, oriented on a heading of 350º. All major structural components of both airplanes were accounted for within the wreckage debris field.

Beech

The wreckage of the Beech was generally intact; the wings and empennage remained attached to the fuselage. Flight control cable continuity was established from the cockpit controls to the flight control surfaces. The ailerons, elevator, and rudder remained attached in their respective positions on the wings, horizontal stabilizer, and rudder. Blue-colored paint transfer marks were found on the lower surface of the right wing, near wing station 108. Impact damage with paint transfer was found on the top of the fuselage around station 131.

The nose gear separated from the airplane during the impact sequence. White paint transfer markings were observed on the nose gear tire. The left and right main landing gear were found in the extended positions. White paint transfer markings were observed on the left, main gear tire. The wing flaps were extended 20º.

The master and avionics switches were found in the "on" positions. The strobe light switch was found in the "on" position. The taxi light switch was found in the "on" position, and the landing light was found in the "off" position; however, both switches had impact damage. The position of the navigation light switch could not be determined because of impact damage.

The engine remained attached to the firewall. External examination of the engine did not reveal physical evidence of a mechanical malfunction or anomaly. The propeller assembly separated from the engine at the crankshaft/propeller flange junction. The fracture surfaces exhibited features consistent with overload. The propeller blades remained attached to the hub and displayed chordwise scratches, blade twisting, leading edge gouging, and surface polishing.

A laminated card titled "LOCAL AREA FREQ" and dated April 27, 2009, was found in the Beech's cockpit. The card, which listed the frequencies for multiple airports in the area, listed the frequency for the CTAF at CTJ as 122.7 MHz.

Diamond

The Diamond came to rest upright, under the wreckage of the Beech. Flight control continuity was confirmed from the elevator and rudder to the cockpit controls. Aileron control continuity was confirmed from the right aileron to the cockpit controls. The left wing separated from the fuselage during the impact sequence. The left aileron control tubes had multiple fractures that exhibited overload signatures. The empennage separated from the fuselage about 14 inches forward of the vertical stabilizer root leading edge.

Blue paint transfer marks were observed on the leading edge of the Diamond's right wing. The marks were about 8 inches long and 12 inches from the wing root. The Diamond's landing, taxi, strobe, and position light switches were impact-damaged, and their preimpact positions could not be determined.

Lightweight pieces of the Diamond were found on a northerly path, beginning 340 ft south of the main wreckage. One of the most southerly pieces of wreckage debris was the right half of the Diamond's elevator. Closer examination revealed black transfer markings on the upper surface of the elevator that were consistent in color and tread pattern with the right main landing gear tire of the Beech. Examination of the Diamond's horizontal stabilizer revealed similar transfer markings on its upper surface. The other small pieces of debris located south of the main wreckage were identified as sections of the Diamond's canopy and wing root/fuselage skin. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The Beech Pilot

The Georgia Bureau of Investigation Division of Forensic Sciences performed an autopsy of the Beech pilot and the cause of death was blunt trauma of the head and chest, and the manner of death was accident.

The FAA's Bioaeronautical Research Sciences Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, performed toxicology testing and identified doxazosin and losartan in the pilot's blood, and doxazosin, dextromethorphan, and its metabolite dextrorphan in urine. Doxazosin and losartan are blood pressure medications also named Cardura and Cozaar, respectively. The pilot reported the use of doxazosin and losartan to the FAA during his most recent FAA third-class physical. Dextromethorphan is an over-the-counter cough suppressant available in a number of products.

The Diamond Flight Instructor

The Georgia Bureau of Investigation Division of Forensic Sciences performed an autopsy of the Diamond flight instructor and the cause of death was blunt head trauma, and the manner of death was accident.

The FAA's Bioaeronautical Research Sciences Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, performed toxicology testing of the flight instructor. The specimens tested negative for carbon monoxide, ethanol, and a wide range of drugs, including major drugs of abuse.

The Diamond Student Pilot

The Georgia Bureau of Investigation Division of Forensic Sciences performed an autopsy of the Diamond student pilot and the cause of death was blunt trauma of the head and torso, and the manner of death was accident.

The FAA's Bioaeronautical Research Sciences Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, performed toxicology testing of the student pilot. The specimens tested negative for carbon monoxide, ethanol, and a wide range of drugs, including major drugs of abuse.

Tests And Research

The King KX 155 VHF transceiver and the Garmin GNS 530 all-in-one unit from the Beech were sent to the NTSB Vehicle Recorders Laboratory to determine the frequencies in use at the time of the accident. The examination revealed that the KX 155 communication frequencies were set to 118.17 MHz (active) and 126.22 MHz (standby). The GNS 530 communication frequencies were set to 122.7 MHz (active) and 124.050 MHz (standby). The waypoint communications information page for CTJ was accessed during the examination even though the installed GNS 530 aviation database expired as of November 12, 2015. The CTAF/UNICOM on the displayed page showed the correct frequency of 122.975 MHz.



Additional Information

FAA Rules, Regulations, and Guidance to Pilots

Title 14 CFR 91.113 addresses aircraft right-of-way rules and states, in part, the following:

(b) General. When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation is conducted under instrument flight rules or visual flight rules, vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see and avoid other aircraft. When a rule of this section gives another aircraft the right-of-way, the pilot shall give way to that aircraft and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear.

(f) Overtaking. Each aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and each pilot of an overtaking aircraft shall alter course to the right to pass well clear.

(g) Landing. Aircraft, while on final approach to land or while landing, have the right-of-way over other aircraft in flight or operating on the surface, except that they shall not take advantage of this rule to force an aircraft off the runway surface which has already landed and is attempting to make way for an aircraft on final approach. When two or more aircraft are approaching an airport to landing, the aircraft at the lower altitude has the right-of-way, but it shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is on final approach to land or to overtake that aircraft.

The FAA's Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), dated December 10, 2015, paragraph 5-5-8, includes pilot procedures for see-and-avoid while in flight and states, "When meteorological conditions permit, regardless of type of flight plan or whether or not under control of a radar facility, the pilot is responsible to see and avoid other traffic, terrain, or obstacles."

The AIM, paragraph 4-1-9, also describes operations to/from airports without an operating control tower and the use of a CTAF and states, in part, the following:

a. Airport Operations Without Operating Control Tower

1. There is no substitute for alertness while in the vicinity of an airport. It is essential that pilots be alert and look for other traffic and exchange traffic information when approaching or departing an airport without an operating control tower…To achieve the greatest degree of safety, it is essential that all radio-equipped aircraft transmit/receive on a common frequency identified for the purpose of airport advisories.

b. Communicating on a Common Frequency

The key to communicating at an airport without an operating control tower is selection of the correct common frequency…A CTAF is a frequency designated for the purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or from an airport without an operating control tower.

The AIM describes the recommended communication procedures regarding departure aircraft on the CTAF and states, "Pilots of inbound traffic should monitor and communicate as appropriate on the designated CTAF from 10 miles to landing. Pilots of departing aircraft should monitor/communicate on the appropriate frequency from start-up, during taxi, and until 10 miles from the airport unless the CFRs or local procedures require otherwise."

The Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (FAA-H-8083-24A), section 13, addresses scanning procedures for visually acquiring traffic:

The pilot can contribute to collision avoidance by being alert and scanning for other aircraft. This is particularly important in the vicinity of an airport.



The See-and-Avoid Concept

The FAA issued AC 90-48D, "Pilots' Role in Collision Avoidance," in April, 2016 to alert all pilots "…to the potential hazards of midair collisions and near midair collisions (NMAC), and to emphasize those basic problem areas related to the human causal factors where improvements in pilot education, operating practices, procedures, and improved scanning techniques are needed to reduce midair conflicts."

AC 90-48D stated that each person operating an aircraft, regardless of whether the operation was conducted under IFR or VFR, shall maintain a vigilant lookout for other aircraft at all times. Regarding visual scanning, the AC specifically stated that "Pilots should remain constantly alert to all traffic movement within their field of vision, as well as periodically scanning the entire visual field outside of their aircraft to ensure detection of conflicting traffic.". AC 90-48D also described several specific methods that pilots could use to visually acquire other traffic. 



Preventing Similar Accidents 

Prevent Midair Collisions: Don't Depend on Vision Alone

The "see-and-avoid" concept has long been the foundation of midair collision prevention. However, the inherent limitations of this concept, including human limitations, environmental conditions, aircraft blind spots, and operational distractions, leave even the most diligent pilot vulnerable to the threat of a midair collision with an unseen aircraft.

Technologies in the cockpit that display or alert of traffic conflicts, such as traffic advisory systems and automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B), can help pilots become aware of and maintain separation from nearby aircraft. Such systems can augment reality and help compensate for the limitations of visually searching for traffic.



What Can You Do?

Educate yourself about the benefits of flying an aircraft equipped with technologies that aid in collision avoidance. Whether you are flying in congested airspace or a remote location, a cockpit display or alert of traffic information will increase your awareness of surrounding traffic.

Become familiar with the symbology, display controls, alerting criteria, and limitations of such technologies in your aircraft, whether the systems are portable or installed in the cockpit. High-density traffic around airports can make interpreting a traffic display challenging due to display clutter, false traffic alerts, and system limitations.

Use information provided by such technologies to separate your aircraft from traffic before aggressive, evasive maneuvering is required. Often, slight changes in rate of climb or descent, altitude, or direction can significantly reduce the risk of a midair collision long before the conflicting aircraft has been seen.

Remember that while such technologies can significantly enhance your awareness of traffic around you, unless your system is also capable of providing resolution advisories, visual acquisition of and separation from traffic is your primary means of collision avoidance (when weather conditions allow).



Interested in More Information?

The following Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) resources can be accessed from www.faa.gov:

Advisory Circular (AC) 90-48D, “Pilots’ Role in Collision Avoidance,” alerts pilots of the potential hazards of midair collisions and emphasizes pilot education, operating practices, procedures, and improved scanning techniques. The AC also discusses technologies in the cockpit that display or alert of traffic conflicts.

The FAA’s NextGen program on ADS-B offers up-to-date requirements, coverage maps, and program information.

The website www.seeandavoid.org, which is funded by the FAA and the Air National Guard, aims to eliminate midair collisions by providing pilots with educational resources and other information about airspace, aircraft visual identification, aircraft performance, and flight hazards.

The NTSB’s Aviation Information Resources web page, www.ntsb.gov/air, provides convenient access to NTSB aviation safety products. This safety alert and others, such as SA-045, “See and Be Seen: Your Life Depends on It,” can be accessed from the Aviation Safety Alerts link.

The NTSB presents this information to prevent recurrence of similar accidents. Note that this should not be considered guidance from the regulator, nor does this supersede existing FAA Regulations (FARs).

















NTSB Identification: ERA16FA312A
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Wednesday, September 07, 2016 in Carrollton, GA
Aircraft: BEECH F33, registration: N6027K
Injuries: 3 Fatal.

NTSB Identification: ERA16FA312B
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Wednesday, September 07, 2016 in Carrollton, GA
Aircraft: DIAMOND AIRCRAFT IND INC DA20, registration: N85WP
Injuries: 3 Fatal.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On September 7, 2016, at 1047 eastern daylight time, a Beech F33A, N6027K, and a Diamond Aircraft Industries DA20-C1, N85WP, collided in midair on the final approach leg of the traffic pattern to runway 35 at West Georgia Regional Airport (CTJ), Carrollton, Georgia. The Beech was substantially damaged and the private pilot was fatally injured. The Diamond was destroyed and the flight instructor and one student pilot were fatally injured. The Beech was registered to and operated by the private pilot. The Diamond was registered to and operated by Falcon Aviation Academy LLC. Both flights were conducted under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91; the Beech pilot was conducting a personal flight to CTJ and the Diamond pilots were conducting a local, instructional flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plans were filed for the Beech or the Diamond. The Beech departed from Fulton County Airport (FTY), Atlanta, Georgia about 1020, and the Diamond departed from Newnan Coweta County Airport (CCO), Newnan, Georgia about 1000.

According to personnel from Falcon Aviation Academy, the pilots of the Diamond were practicing traffic pattern operations and landings at CTJ. The Diamond was the first airplane to enter the traffic pattern, followed a few minutes later by N263CF and then by N169PS, both Falcon Academy DA20s. The flight instructor and student pilot on board N263CF observed a Beech Bonanza on the downwind leg of the traffic pattern; however, the Beech pilot did not appear to be broadcasting his intentions on the CTJ common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF). Moments later, the flight instructor and student pilot on board N169PS entered the traffic pattern from the east. They looked down and to the left, in the direction of the final approach path for runway 35, and observed two airplanes merge, then collide. They also did not hear the pilot of the Beech broadcasting his intentions on the CTAF. All pilots on board both trailing DA20s heard the flight instructor on board the accident Diamond making her position calls in the traffic pattern prior to the collision, the last call being made on the final approach leg of the traffic pattern.

Initial radar data provided by air traffic control indicated that the pilot of Beech entered an extended downwind from the north, above and directly behind the Diamond, which was also on downwind leg of the traffic pattern. The ground speed of the Beech was about 50 knots greater than the Diamond. The last radar returns, were about 2,000 feet above mean sea level, or about 850 feet above the ground. The locations of the last radar returns were in an area on the downwind leg of the traffic pattern, approaching the base leg of the traffic pattern for runway 35.

Initial examination of the wreckage revealed that both airplanes remained physically attached after the collision until ground impact. The main wreckage of both airplanes came to rest about 408 feet south of the approach end of runway 35, and on the extended centerline of the runway. The wreckage of the Beech was inverted and on top of the Diamond wreckage. Lightweight pieces of the Diamond were found on a northerly path, beginning 340 feet south of the main wreckage. All major structural components of both airplanes were accounted for within the wreckage path boundary. One of the most southerly pieces of wreckage debris was the right half of the Diamond's elevator. Closer examination revealed black transfer markings on the upper surface that were consistent in color and tread pattern with the right main landing gear tire of the Beech. Examination of the Diamond's horizontal stabilizer revealed similar transfer markings on its upper surface. The other small pieces of debris located south of the main wreckage were identified as sections of the Diamond's canopy and wing root/fuselage skin.

The pilot of the Beech, age 79, held a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) private pilot certificate with airplane single engine land and instrument airplane ratings. He held a FAA third class medical certificate with a restriction to have glasses available for near vision. He reported 2,500 total hours of flying experience on his medical certificate application that was dated October 5, 2015.

The flight instructor in the Diamond, age 24, held a FAA commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane multiengine land, airplane single engine land, and instrument airplane. She was seated in the right cockpit seat. She held a FAA flight instructor certificate with a rating for airplane single engine. She reported 600 total hours of flying experience on her FAA first class medical certificate application that was dated March 16, 2016.

The student pilot in the Diamond, age 20, held a FAA student pilot certificate. He held a FAA second-class medical certificate with no restrictions. He was seated in the left cockpit seat. He enrolled in the ab initio training program at Falcon Aircraft Academy on August 4, 2016, and had logged about 20 hours of flight time.

CTJ was a public, non-towered airport with a single runway, designated 17/35. The runway was 5,503 feet long and 100 feet wide. The published traffic pattern direction for runway 35 was to the left. Falcon Aviation Academy personnel reported that their pilots frequently used CTJ for training purposes. CTAF communications were not recorded.

The wreckage of both airplanes was retained by the NTSB for further examination.

Cessna 172S Skyhawk, N452ER, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University: Accident occurred November 26, 2017 in Daytona Beach, Volusia County, Florida

Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University Inc
http://registry.faa.gov/N452ER

NTSB Identification: GAA18CA080
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Sunday, November 26, 2017 in Daytona Beach, FL
Aircraft: CESSNA 172, registration: N452ER

NTSB investigators will use data provided by various entities, including, but not limited to, the Federal Aviation Administration and/or the operator, and will not travel in support of this investigation to prepare this aircraft accident report.

Eurocopter AS350 B3, N790AM, United States Department of Homeland Security: Accident occurred December 06, 2017 in Tucson, Pima County, Arizona

United States Department of Homeland Security
http://registry.faa.gov/N790AM

NTSB Identification: GAA18CA070
14 CFR Public Aircraft
Accident occurred Wednesday, December 06, 2017 in Tucson, AZ
Aircraft: EUROCOPTER AS 350 B3, registration: N790AM

NTSB investigators will use data provided by various entities, including, but not limited to, the Federal Aviation Administration and/or the operator, and will not travel in support of this investigation to prepare this aircraft accident report.

Piper PA-28-235 Cherokee, N8856W: Accident occurred December 09, 2017 in Pocasset, Grady County, Oklahoma

http://registry.faa.gov/N8856W

NTSB Identification: GAA18CA082
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Saturday, December 09, 2017 in Pocasset, OK
Aircraft: PIPER PA28, registration: N8856W

NTSB investigators will use data provided by various entities, including, but not limited to, the Federal Aviation Administration and/or the operator, and will not travel in support of this investigation to prepare this aircraft accident report.

Monday, December 11, 2017

Mobile County, Alabama approves aerospace company incentives

Just in time for Christmas, hundreds of thousands of dollars in economic development incentives are being approved for two big Mobile aerospace projects announced earlier this year.

On Monday, the Mobile County Commission approved its part of incentives for Safran USA, which announced in August that it will open a new manufacturing operation in Mobile. Commissioners also approved the county share of an incentive package for Continental Motors, which announced in March that it was spending more than $60 million to build an entirely new facility to house its existing operations at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley.

The Mobile City Council's agenda for Tuesday includes sister measures related to the city's share of the two incentive packages. The council could approve both on Tuesday, although if it follows normal procedure with new resolutions, it will hold them over for a week's consideration before voting.

The county and the city each are giving Continental Motors $217,500, for a total of $435,000. Each is putting up $150,000 for the Safran, for a total of $300,000. That's aside from any other incentives, such as tax abatements.

The two projects are substantially different, as is the handling of the incentives.

Continental, which makes engines for small aircraft, has been based in Mobile for decades and has a workforce of more than 400 people in the area. Faced with a need to modernize, the company - and its parent, China-based AVIC Holding Company - also considered a move to one of several other locations in the United States, company officials said in March.

But it opted to remain in Mobile, and its "Project Blue Marlin" project has what Continental President and CEO Rhett Ross described as an aggressive three-year timetable. Officials hope to break ground this summer on a 225,000-square foot facility at the intersection of Broad Street and Michigan Avenue. They'll finalize the building's design by fall, install new manufacturing equipment in 2018 and be fully operational by the end of 2019, Ross said. Along the way it'll consolidate operations from 11 buildings into two. The economic development agreement pegs Continental's investment in the project at about $72 million.

County Attorney Jay Ross told the Commission that the incentive package was "more along the lines of a job retention agreement," since it helped keep the company in the area. Among other conditions, the company is required to employ at least 300 full-time employees with an average hours wage of at least $22.95, or face penalties.

Incentive payments will be paid directly to the company as reimbursement for "capital expenses incurred by the Company in developing, modernizing, expanding and equipping" the new site.

Safran, by comparison, is a smaller project but one that will be an all-new tenant at Brookley. The company will spend about $1 million to start up an operation that builds and installs jet engine nacelles, the components that wrap around a jet engine. It will hire about 20 employees.

The city and county money actually will be paid to the Mobile Airport Authority "to be applied towards tenant improvement credits, including parking lot improvements, or similar payments or incentives ... in support of the Project Site."

The company is obligated to maintain a workforce of 17 full-time employees for two years, within a larger agreement period of five years.

Story and comments ➤ http://www.al.com

Incident occurred December 11, 2017 in Corpus Christi, Texas



Two men flying in an ultralight had a close call this afternoon.

The men were flying just off of Padre Island, near the Gulf Stream Condos when the aircraft engine died shortly after takeoff. 

The pilot and passenger were able to land safely in the gulf, but had to wait about 30 minutes for rescue crews to get to them. 

Neither of the men were hurt, and lifeguards were there to help them pull their ultralight back to shore.

Story and video ➤ http://www.kristv.com

Studio to Transmitter Link (STL) Allegedly Caused Interference at McCarran International Airport (KLAS), Las Vegas, Nevada: Region Three Regional Director issued a Notice of Violation to Silver State Broadcasting on December 8th

Before the Federal Communications Commission 
Washington, D.C. 20554
In the Matter of Silver State Broadcasting LLC 
Licensee of Station WLI700
Las Vegas, Nevada
File No.:  EB-FIELDWR-17-00025445
NOTICE OF VIOLATION
Released: December 8, 2017

WASHINGTON — FCC Enforcement Bureau Region Three Regional Director Lark Hadley issued a Notice of Violation to Silver State Broadcasting on December 8.

According to the notice, aural studio to transmitter link station WLI700 in Las Vegas was found to be the source of alleged interference to aircraft and controllers at the Las Vegas Nevada McCarran International Airport.

Agents from the bureau’s Los Angeles and San Francisco Offices investigated a complaint from the Federal Aviation Administration that a spurious emission on 118.75 MHz was causing interference. The agents investigated from October 23–24 direction finding techniques and determined that the signal was transmitting from 6725 Via Austi Parkway in Las Vegas was the source of the reported interference.

At this time, the FCC seeks additional information concerning the violations and any remedial actions taken from Palm Desert, Calif.-based Silver State Broadcasting (WLI700’s licensee) but has not issued a Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture.

Original article  ➤ http://www.radiomagonline.com

Supervisors hear airport success story from western New York official: Floyd Bennett Memorial Airport (KGFL)

Queensbury at-Large Supervisor Doug Beaty, with his arms raised, asks  Genesee County Highway Superintendent Tim Hens, facing camera, a question about about management practices during a meeting Monday. 



QUEENSBURY — Warren County leaders heard Monday from a western New York official who told how his county took over operations of its airport, cut its losses and essentially breaks even on the airstrip after years of losses.

Tim Hens, the highway superintendent in Genesee County, said the county has run its airport between Rochester and Buffalo for about 20 years and accrues a surplus of between $90,000 to $130,000 annually. That surplus covers the costs of debt for improvements at the facility near Batavia.

“We were losing $200,000 a year before the switch,” he said. “The airport was a very negative item.”

That changed after the county took over, allowing for investment in upgrades on the property and a runway extension, he told Warren County supervisors and regional economic development leaders.

Warren County supervisors are trying to determine whether to fully privatize the airport to cut costs, but some have questioned whether doing away with a private fixed base operator (Rich Air LLC) and taking over flight operations in addition to the facilities management that is done by the county could be more financially beneficial.




The county extended the airport’s runway by 1,000 feet, to 5,500 feet, in 2005 and has had success attracting more traffic, including jets based at the airport, he explained. The airport has 3.5 full-time equivalent employees, and the county DPW handles snowplowing, grass-cutting and other maintenance, with airport revenue paying the tab.

By being aggressive when seeking grants and taking all of the fuel sales revenue, the financial picture has improved significantly.

Hens said his experience has been that running an airport with some public and some private resources seems to be problematic.

“I think you have to be all one way or the other,” he said.

County supervisors and members of the local Airport Advisory Committee quizzed Hens on different issues. Queensbury at-Large Supervisor Doug Beaty, a proponent of fully privatizing Warren County airport, pointed out that the Batavia airport is “not making money. In a good year, you’re going to break even.”

Warren County supervisors asked Hens for more information about different aspects of the operation and also discussed potentially hiring him as a consultant as it moves forward seeking a potential privatization of the airport in Queensbury.

Glens Falls 1st Ward Supervisor Dan Girard, chairman of the county board’s Facilities Committee, said the Genesee County input was information to help Warren County “see what our avenues are.”

“The situation in Warren County may not line up on all fours with Genesee County, but it shows there are other options to take a look at,” said Ed Bartholomew, president of the EDC Warren County economic development organization.

Story and photos ➤ http://poststar.com