Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Canadair CL-600-2B19 Regional Jet CRJ-200ER, N261PS: Accident occurred September 13, 2017 at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (KCLT), North Carolina

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Charlotte, North Carolina

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

http://registry.faa.gov/N261PS



Location: Charlotte, NC
Accident Number: DCA17CA197
Date & Time: 09/13/2017, 1545 EDT
Registration: N261PS
Aircraft: BOMBARDIER INC CL 600 2B19
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Ground collision
Injuries: 1 Serious, 53 None
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 121: Air Carrier - Scheduled

Analysis 

On September 13, 2017, at 3:45 pm eastern daylight time, PSA Airlines flight 5233, a Bombardier CRJ-200, N261PS, collided with a TLD Jet-16 baggage tug operated by Piedmont Airlines while taxiing at Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (KCLT), Charlotte, North Carolina. The airplane received substantial damage to the left wing and the tug canopy section was damaged. The tug driver was seriously injured and there were no injuries to the 53 passengers and crew onboard the CRJ-200. Weather was daytime visual meteorological conditions.

After landing on runway 18R, the airplane was instructed to taxi to Gate E4. While taxiing in a narrow alleyway near the north end of concourse E, between the concourse and the baggage transfer point, the ground tug impacted the left wingtip.

The tug was driving on non-movement area of the terminal ramp. The baggage tug was slightly in front of the aircraft at about a 10 o'clock position to the captain of the aircraft. A terminal road crosses the taxi alleyway from near Gate E38 to the beginning of area designated as the baggage transfer point. The transfer point is located outside the alleyway and is lined with concrete barriers. Airplane taxi within the alleyway and ground equipment travel perpendicular to aircraft movement when accessing the transfer point. As the tug turned onto the service road and began to cross the roadway he noticed the airplane taxing in the alley. The driver indicated that, in order to avoid a collision, he tightened his right turn in the opposite direction the airplane was traveling before colliding with the left hand wing. The canopy of the baggage tug was sheared off and the leading edge and winglet of the airplane was substantially damaged. The final resting place of the tug was just behind the trailing edge of the wing. There were skid marks from the airplane tires consistent with maximum braking starting when the airplane made contact with the baggage tug. According to airline ground movement procedures, an airplane on the non-movement area always has the right of way. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
the tug operator's initiation of a right turn onto the perpendicular terminal road in proximity to the airplane.

Findings

Personnel issues
Incorrect action performance - Ground crew (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

After landing
Ground collision (Defining event) 

Pilot Information

Certificate:  Airline Transport; Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 34
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Multi-engine
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1
Last FAA Medical Exam: 
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:  6837 hours (Total, all aircraft), 192 hours (Total, this make and model) 

Co-Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age:
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s):
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s):
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): 
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 
Flight Time: 29440 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1025 hours (Total, this make and model) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: BOMBARDIER INC
Registration: N261PS
Model/Series: CL 600 2B19 100
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2004
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Transport
Serial Number: 7959
Landing Gear Type:  Retractable - Tricycle
Seats:
Date/Type of Last Inspection:
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 43100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines:  2 Turbo Fan
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: GE
ELT: 
Engine Model/Series: CF34 SERIES
Registered Owner:  AFS INVESTMENTS 71 LLC
Rated Power: 9140 hp
Operator:  PSA AIRLINES INC
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Flag carrier (121)
Operator Does Business As:
Operator Designator Code:  VNAA 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: CLT
Observation Time:
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 0°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Unknown
Temperature/Dew Point: 27°C / 18°C
Lowest Ceiling: Broken
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 18 knots/ 24 knots, 230°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting:
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point: Charleston, WV (CRW)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: IFR
Destination: Charlotte, NC (CLT)
Type of Clearance: IFR
Departure Time: 1422 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class B 

Airport Information

Airport: CHARLOTTE/DOUGLAS INTL (CLT)
Runway Surface Type: N/A
Airport Elevation: 747 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Unknown
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: Unknown
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: Unknown 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 3 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 50 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries:  1 Serious, 53 None
Latitude, Longitude:  35.130000, -80.560000 (est)

United Airlines, Boeing 737-900, N69813 -and- Air Canada, Boeing 767-375, C-GHOZ: Accident occurred September 12, 2017 at Los Angeles International Airport (KLAX), California

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Los Angeles, California

N69813 Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

N69813  Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N69813

Location: Los Angeles, CA
Accident Number: DCA17CA195A
Date & Time: 09/12/2017, 1310 PDT
Registration: N69813
Aircraft: BOEING 737-924ER
Aircraft Damage: Minor
Defining Event: Ground collision
Injuries: 140 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 121: Air Carrier - Scheduled 

On September 12, 2017, at 1310 pacific daylight time, United Airlines flight 447, a Boeing 737, N69813, collided with Air Canada flight 785, a Boeing 767, C-GHOZ, while taxiing on taxiway C near gate 69B at the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), Los Angeles, California. Both aircraft were regularly scheduled passenger flights and there were no injuries aboard either airplane. The right winglet of the B737 had minor damage and the right horizontal stabilizer of the B767 was substantially damaged.

The B767 was being marshaled onto gate 69B and was instructed to stop approximately 15 feet short of the stop line because it is normally a tow-in gate. The flight crew shut down the engines and awaited the ground crew to hook up the tow bar. There are white lines painted around each gate area to aid ground vehicles driving on the ramp. The B767 tail protruded beyond the white lines perpendicular to, and adjacent to, taxiway C.

The B737 was taxiing out for departure via taxiway C in accordance with ATC instructions. The captain reported that he saw the B767 and maneuvered left of centerline for more clearance. He asked the first officer (FO), who was heads down making FMS entries, to look and verify if they had enough clearance. The FO reported he saw that the B767 was hooked up to the tug but wasn't sure if it was being towed. He judged that there was about 5 feet of clearance. He said he saw no action by the marshallers indicating they thought the airplanes were too close.

As the airplane continued taxiing, the right winglet of the B737 contacted the horizontal stabilizer of the B767. The flight crew reported that they did not feel an impact but were told by ATC that the collision had occurred. The B737 returned to the gate and deplaned passengers normally. The B767 was towed into the gate and deplaned passengers normally.

Surveillance video from Gate 69B was obtained and captured the event. The B737 nosewheel was tracking along the yellow centerline of taxiway C. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport
Age: 47
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot:  Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 03/18/2017
Flight Time:  25000 hours (Total, all aircraft), 2760 hours (Total, this make and model), 20000 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 210 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft) 

Co-Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport
Age:
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s):
Restraint Used:  5-point
Instrument Rating(s):
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s):
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification:
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot:  Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:  04/18/2017
Flight Time:  8100 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1320 hours (Total, this make and model), 220 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: BOEING
Registration: N69813
Model/Series: 737-924ER 924
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2014
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Transport
Serial Number: 43531
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 187
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 08/28/2017,
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 174198 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 2
Airframe Total Time:  13045 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: CFM INTL
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: CFM56-7B27E
Registered Owner: United Airlines
Rated Power: 0 hp
Operator: United Airlines
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Flag carrier (121) 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation:
Observation Time:  
Distance from Accident Site:
Direction from Accident Site:
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Temperature/Dew Point:
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction:
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting:
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point:  Los Angeles, CA (LAX)
Type of Flight Plan Filed:  IFR
Destination: San Francisco, CA (SFO)
Type of Clearance: IFR
Departure Time:  PDT
Type of Airspace:

Airport Information

Airport: Los Angeles International Airport (LAX)
Runway Surface Type:
Airport Elevation: 0 ft
Runway Surface Condition:
Runway Used:  N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 7 None
Aircraft Damage: Minor
Passenger Injuries: 133 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 140 None
Latitude, Longitude:  33.000000, -118.000000 (est)

C-GHOZ  Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

C-GHOZ  Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Location: Los Angeles, CA
Accident Number: DCA17CA195B
Date & Time: 09/12/2017, 1310 PDT
Registration: C-GHOZ
Aircraft: Boeing 767-375
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Ground collision
Injuries: N/A
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 129: Foreign 

On September 12, 2017, at 1310 pacific daylight time, United Airlines flight 447, a Boeing 737, N69813, collided with Air Canada flight 785, a Boeing 767, C-GHOZ, while taxiing on taxiway C near gate 69B at the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), Los Angeles, California. Both aircraft were regularly scheduled passenger flights and there were no injuries aboard either airplane. The right winglet of the B737 had minor damage and the right horizontal stabilizer of the B767 was substantially damaged.

The B767 was being marshaled onto gate 69B and was instructed to stop approximately 15 feet short of the stop line because it is normally a tow-in gate. The flight crew shut down the engines and awaited the ground crew to hook up the tow bar. There are white lines painted around each gate area to aid ground vehicles driving on the ramp. The B767 tail protruded beyond the white lines perpendicular to, and adjacent to, taxiway C.

The B737 was taxiing out for departure via taxiway C in accordance with ATC instructions. The captain reported that he saw the B767 and maneuvered left of centerline for more clearance. He asked the first officer (FO), who was heads down making FMS entries, to look and verify if they had enough clearance. The FO reported he saw that the B767 was hooked up to the tug but wasn't sure if it was being towed. He judged that there was about 5 feet of clearance. He said he saw no action by the marshallers indicating they thought the airplanes were too close.

As the airplane continued taxiing, the right winglet of the B737 contacted the horizontal stabilizer of the B767. The flight crew reported that they did not feel an impact but were told by ATC that the collision had occurred. The B737 returned to the gate and deplaned passengers normally. The B767 was towed into the gate and deplaned passengers normally.

Surveillance video from Gate 69B was obtained and captured the event. The B737 nosewheel was tracking along the yellow centerline of taxiway C. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport
Age: 63
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification:  Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/15/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 01/24/2017
Flight Time:  15343 hours (Total, all aircraft), 7758 hours (Total, this make and model), 7758 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 186.7 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 72.32 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 5.8 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Co-Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport
Age: 47
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s):
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s):  Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s):
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification:  Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 02/10/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:  08/03/2017
Flight Time:  6865.06 hours (Total, all aircraft), 3473.57 hours (Total, this make and model), 3385 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 87.2 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 51.35 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 5.08 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: Boeing
Registration: C-GHOZ
Model/Series: 767-375 375
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1989
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 24087
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 223
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 08/23/2017,
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 400004 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines:  2
Airframe Total Time:  120692 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer:
ELT:  C126 installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series:
Registered Owner:  Air Canada
Rated Power:
Operator: Air Canada
Operating Certificate(s) Held:  Foreign Air Carrier (129) 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation:
Observation Time:
Distance from Accident Site:
Direction from Accident Site:
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Temperature/Dew Point:
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction:
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting:
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point:  Toronto, ON (CYYZ)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: IFR
Destination: Los Angeles, CA (LAX)
Type of Clearance: IFR
Departure Time:
Type of Airspace:

Airport Information

Airport: Los Angeles International Airport (LAX)
Runway Surface Type:
Airport Elevation: 0 ft
Runway Surface Condition:
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: N/A

Latitude, Longitude:  33.000000, -118.000000 (est)

Air Tractor AT-402B, N80060: Accident occurred October 11, 2017 in Brawley, Imperial County, California

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; San Diego, California

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N80060

Location: Brawley, CA
Accident Number: GAA18CA010
Date & Time: 10/11/2017, 1600 PDT
Registration: N80060
Aircraft: AIR TRACTOR INC AT 402B
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 137: Agricultural 

The pilot of a tailwheel-equipped airplane reported that, during the landing roll in crosswind conditions, a gust of wind abruptly lifted the right wing. The pilot attempted to correct with control inputs but was unsuccessful. The airplane continued to veer to the left and came to a stop in a canal.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the right wing.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

The automated weather observation system about 13 nautical miles from the accident site reported that, about 7 minutes before the accident, the wind was from 160° at 4 knots. The pilot reported that he landed to the east.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 45, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Single
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 11/12/2016
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 04/07/2017
Flight Time:   (Estimated) 4100 hours (Total, all aircraft), 300 hours (Total, this make and model), 3800 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 270 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 50 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: AIR TRACTOR INC
Registration: N80060
Model/Series: AT 402B B
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2017
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Restricted
Serial Number: 402B-1355
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 1
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 08/04/2017, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 7000 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Turbo Prop
Airframe Total Time:  190.4 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Pratt & Whitney
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: PT6-34AG
Registered Owner: BANK OF UTAH TRUSTEE
Rated Power: hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Agricultural Aircraft (137) 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KIPL, -58 ft msl
Observation Time: 2253 UTC
Distance from Accident Site:  13 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 235°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Few / 12000 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 34°C / 1°C
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 4 knots, 160°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 29.73 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration:  No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point:  Brawley, CA (NA)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination:  Brawley, CA (NA)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1555 PDT
Type of Airspace: Class G 

Airport Information

Airport:  Private Strip (NA)
Runway Surface Type: Dirt
Airport Elevation: -127 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 09
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:  2400 ft / 120 ft
VFR Approach/Landing:  Full Stop; Straight-in 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:  32.960278, -115.366944 (est)

Piper J-3C, N48694: Accident occurred October 03, 2017 at Yakima Air Terminal / McAllister Field (KYKM), Yakima County, Washington



Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Spokane, Washington

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N48694

Location:  Yakima, WA
Accident Number: GAA18CA001
Date & Time: 10/03/2017, 1030 PDT
Registration: N48694
Aircraft: PIPER J3C
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

The flight instructor of the tailwheel equipped airplane reported that the purpose of the flight was to demonstrate a short field takeoff to an observing student.

During the takeoff roll, about rotation speed, the left wing unexpectedly dropped and impacted the ground. Subsequently the airplane ground looped and sustained substantial damage to both wings and the empennage.

The flight instructor reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 84, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Rear
Other Aircraft Rating(s):  Balloon; Glider; Helicopter
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Multi-engine; Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: BasicMed With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/10/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:  10/29/2015
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 3800 hours (Total, all aircraft), 300 hours (Total, this make and model), 3500 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 29 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 9 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0.6 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 75, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification:  BasicMed Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/25/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 06/02/2017
Flight Time: (Estimated) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: PIPER
Registration: N48694
Model/Series: J3C
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1943
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 10377
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 04/08/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1220 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:  3037.7 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: CONT MOTOR
ELT: C91  installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: C-85-12F
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 85 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KYKM, 1066 ft msl
Observation Time: 1753 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 285°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 1°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: Light and Variable, Variable
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.34 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Yakima, WA (YKM)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Yakima, WA (YKM)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 1030 PDT
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information

Airport: YAKIMA AIR TERMINAL/MCALLISTER (YKM)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1098 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 27
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 7604 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: None

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude:  46.566667, -120.535833 (est)

Cessna 172F Skyhawk, N7870U: Fatal accident occurred July 04, 2016 in Brookings, Oregon

John Luke Belnap

Ryan Merker and Maxel Jed Belnap


The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident. 

Additional Participating Entity: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Hillsboro, Oregon

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/aN7870U 

Location: Brookings, OR
Accident Number: WPR16LA138
Date & Time: 07/04/2016, 2300 PDT
Registration: N7870U
Aircraft: CESSNA 172
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Collision during takeoff/land
Injuries: 3 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis 

The non-instrument-rated pilot departed for the third leg of a cross-country flight in the airplane during dark (moonless) night conditions. The departure path was toward the ocean and over an area with few ground-based light sources to provide visual cues. A witness heard an airplane flying nearby and assumed that it was taking off from the airport. As the airplane continued, he heard a reduction in engine power, like a pilot throttling back while landing. According to the witness, the engine did not sputter. Review of the recorded radar data showed that the airplane turned left shortly after takeoff and climbed to about 700 ft above ground level as it passed near the witness's location. The airplane did not arrive at its destination, and a search was initiated. The wreckage of the airplane was found in ocean waters about 2 miles west of the departure airport. Although visual meteorological conditions prevailed, no natural horizon and few external visual references were available during the departure. This required the pilot to monitor the flight instruments to maintain awareness of the airplane's attitude and altitude. Given the lack of external visual cues and the the pilot's lack of recent night flight experience and his lack of an instrument rating, it is likely that the pilot became spatially disorientated during the departing left turn.

The main wreckage was not recovered. Therefore, it could not be determined whether any preimpact mechanical malfunctions or anomalies were present.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's spatial disorientation and loss of situational awareness during the departure turn in dark night conditions, which resulted in an in-flight collision with water.

Findings

Personnel issues
Spatial disorientation - Pilot (Cause)
Situational awareness - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Dark - Effect on personnel (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Initial climb
Collision during takeoff/land (Defining event)

On July 4, 2016, about 2300 Pacific daylight time, a Cessna 172F, N7870U, impacted the Pacific Ocean shortly after takeoff from Brookings Airport (BOK), Brookings, Oregon. The private pilot and two passengers were fatally injured, and the airplane was destroyed. The airplane was registered to Cessna 7870U, LLC, and was operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Night visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the third leg of the cross-country flight, and no flight plan was filed. The destination was Grants Pass Airport, Grants Pass, Oregon.

According to the co-owner of the airplane, on the morning of the accident, the pilot departed from Hollister Municipal Airport (CVH), Hollister, California. According to airport documentation and a fuel receipt, he refueled at Rohnerville Airport (FOT), Fortuna, California, that afternoon before continuing to BOK, where he landed about 1430. The pilot did not report to the co-owner any problems with the airplane during that flight.

A witness located about 1.5 miles west of BOK and near the ocean shoreline, reported that around the time of the accident, he heard an airplane flying nearby and assumed that it was taking off from BOK. As the airplane continued, he heard a reduction in engine power, like a pilot throttling back while landing, but he could not remember whether it stopped before it went out of hearing range. He further stated that the engine did not sputter.

Review of the recorded radar data depicted that the airplane turned left to a west heading shortly after takeoff and then climbed to about 700 ft above the ground as it neared the ocean shoreline. The area was sparsely populated. The last recorded radar target was near the witness's location, west of BOK, and about 1.5 miles southeast of where personal effects from the occupants of the airplane were found washed ashore.

Information provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) revealed that the pilot's family contacted local authorities after they became concerned when the pilot did not arrive at his intended destination. The FAA subsequently issued an alert notification that was then cancelled on July 7 after personal effects from the occupants of the airplane were found washed ashore on the beach about 3 miles northwest of BOK. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 46, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 01/13/2014
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:   207 hours (Total, all aircraft), 207 hours (Total, this make and model) 

The pilot held a private pilot certificate with an airplane single-engine land rating. He did not hold an instrument rating. He was issued an FAA third-class airman medical certificate on January 13, 2014, with the limitation that he must wear corrective lenses. According to the pilot's logbook, he had accumulated 207 total flight hours, all of which were in the accident airplane. The last entry recorded in the pilot's logbook was dated March 7, 2016, and was for a cross-country trip with a total duration of 13.87 flight hours of which 3 hours were at night. No other night flight time was recorded in the 6 months before the accident. 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N7870U
Model/Series: 172 F
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1964
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 17251870
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 11/11/2015, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2299 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines:  1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 4372 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: CONT MOTOR
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-300 SER
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 145 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None
Operator Does Business As:
Operator Designator Code: 

The four-seat, high-wing airplane, serial number (S/N) 17251870, was manufactured in France in 1964 as a flight training airplane for the United States Air Force. It was powered by a Continental Motors O-300 engine. Review of the maintenance records showed that the engine was overhauled on November 15, 2013, at a total operating time of 4,372 hours. The last annual inspection was completed on November 11, 2015, at which time the engine had accumulated a total of 279 hours since the overhaul. 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Night/Dark
Observation Facility, Elevation: KBOK, 459 ft msl
Observation Time: 0556 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 3 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 114°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 13°C / 9°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: Calm
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.06 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: BROOKINGS, OR (BOK)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: GRANTS PASS, OR (3S8)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1100 PDT
Type of Airspace: Unknown 

The nearest weather reporting station was BOK. According to recorded information, at 2256, the weather conditions were winds calm, visibility 10 statute miles or greater, sky clear, temperature 13°C, dew point 09°C, and an altimeter setting of 30.06 inches of mercury.

According to the Astronomical Applications Department of the United States Naval Observatory, the official sunset was at 2056; the official end of civil twilight was at 2130; and the official moonset was 2104.

Airport Information

Airport: BROOKINGS (BOK)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 462 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 30
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 2900 ft / 60 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: None 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: 2 Fatal
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 3 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude:  42.078889, -124.333333

The main wreckage was identified in high current waters about 2 miles west of BOK and was not recovered. The search and rescue efforts continued for over 30 days until the occupants were recovered. The nose landing gear assembly and seat foam were the only airplane parts recovered. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The Oregon State Police Morgue, Oregon State Police Headquarters, Central Point, Oregon, performed an autopsy of the pilot. The cause of death was reported as severe blunt trauma.

The FAA's Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, performed toxicology testing that identified ethanol at 0.041 gm/dl in cavity blood and 0.017 gm/dl in urine. In addition, N-propanol was identified in cavity blood and urine. Ethanol is the intoxicant found in beer, wine, and liquor. Ethanol may also be produced in postmortem tissues by microbial action; when this occurs other alcohols such as N-propanol may also be formed. 

Additional Information

Spatial Disorientation

According to the FAA Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3), "night flying is very different from day flying and demands more attention of the pilot. The most noticeable difference is the limited availability of outside visual references. Therefore, flight instruments should be used to a greater degree.… Generally, at night it is difficult to see clouds and restrictions to visibility, particularly on dark nights or under overcast. The pilot flying under [visual flight rules] VFR must exercise caution to avoid flying into clouds or a layer of fog." The handbook described some hazards associated with flying in airplanes under VFR when visual references, such as the ground or horizon, are obscured. The handbook states that, "the vestibular sense (motion sensing by the inner ear) in particular tends to confuse the pilot. Because of inertia, the sensory areas of the inner ear cannot detect slight changes in the attitude of the airplane, nor can they accurately sense attitude changes that occur at a uniform rate over a period of time. On the other hand, false sensations are often generated; leading the pilot to believe the attitude of the airplane has changed when in fact, it has not. These false sensations result in the pilot experiencing spatial disorientation."



NTSB Identification: WPR16LA138
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Monday, July 04, 2016 in Brookings, OR
Aircraft: CESSNA 172, registration: N7870U
Injuries: 3 Fatal.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On July 4, 2016, about 2300 Pacific daylight time, a Cessna 172F, N7870U, impacted the Pacific Ocean shortly after takeoff from Brookings Airport (BOK), Brookings, Oregon. The private pilot and two passengers were presumed to have been fatally injured; the search for the airplane continues. The airplane was registered to Cessna 7870U, LLC, and operated by the pilot under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Night visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the local flight, and no flight plan was filed. The flight originated from BOK about 2300, with a destination of Grants Pass Airport, Grants Pass, Oregon.

Information provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), revealed that the family of the pilot contacted local authorities after they became concerned when the pilot had not arrived at his intended destination. The FAA subsequently issued an Alert Notification, which was then cancelled on July 7, after airplane wreckage was found washed up on shore 3 miles northwest of BOK.

Review of the recorded radar data depicted that the airplane turned left shortly after takeoff, and then climbed westward to about 700 feet above the ground. The last recorded radar target was about 1 mile west of BOK, and less than 2 miles southeast from where the airplane wreckage was found.

A witness located 1 1/2 miles west of BOK reported that during the time of the accident, he heard an airplane flying nearby and assumed that it was taking off from the airport. He thought it was unusual for an airplane to be flying that late in the evening. As the airplane continued, he heard the engine slowdown in speed but couldn't remember whether it stopped or went out of hearing range.