Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Piper PA-38-112 Tomahawk, N2452C, operated by American Flight Academy: Fatal accident occurred February 22, 2017 in East Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Location: East Haven, CT
Accident Number: ERA17FA112
Date & Time: 02/22/2017, 0956 EST
Registration: N2452C
Aircraft: PIPER PA38
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Sys/Comp malf/fail (non-power)
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

Analysis 

The flight instructor and the student pilot were practicing touch-and-go landings in the airplane. During the initial climb after the fourth landing, the flight instructor reported an emergency to air traffic control and indicated that he was going to return and land on a runway at the airport. During that transmission, a stall warning horn was sounding. The airplane then spun to the left and descended to impact in a marsh.

The damage to the airplane was consistent with the airplane being in a left spin at impact, and the propeller displayed little damage, which is consistent with the engine not producing power at impact. The fuel selector handle was found positioned to the right main fuel tank; however, examination of the fuel selector's polymeric insert revealed that it had fractured and was in a position that provided openings of about 20% for the right main fuel tank inlet and for the engine outlet, instead of the 100% openings that would have been present with an intact polymeric insert. With only 20% of the normal fuel flow available, the airplane likely experienced a total loss of engine power due to fuel starvation. One of the pilots likely switched fuel tank positions during the previous touch-and-go landing, and the polymeric insert failed at that time. Examination of the wreckage did not reveal any other preimpact mechanical malfunctions.

Metallurgical examination of the fuel selector valve revealed that the lower portion of the polymeric insert exhibited fracture features consistent with rotational ductile overstress. Abrasive wear was present on the outer portion of the insert due to contact with burs on the valve housing. The wear likely took place over a period during which the fuel selector handle would have been difficult to move and excessive force would have been required to move the handle from one position to another.

Review of maintenance records did not reveal any prior anomalies with the fuel selector. The airplane maintenance manual contained instructions, applicable to 100-hour inspections, for the fuel selector to be inspected for condition, security, and operation. The instructions stated that, if the valve binds, sticks, or is otherwise difficult to operate, the fuel selector valve should be lubricated. However, about 5 months had passed since the most recent 100-hour inspection was completed on the airplane. During that time, the airplane had been operated about 78 hours. The investigation could not determine the condition of the fuel selector valve at the last 100-hour inspection.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The failure of the fuel selector valve in a position that restricted fuel flow to the engine, resulting in a total loss of engine power during initial climb due to fuel starvation. Also causal was the operator's failure to effectively detect and resolve the wear and progressive binding of the fuel selector valve before it failed due to excessive rotational force being applied. Contributing was the flight instructor's exceedance of the airplane's critical angle of attack during an emergency return to the airport, which resulted in an aerodynamic stall/spin. 

Findings

Aircraft
Fuel selector/shutoff valve - Failure (Cause)
Fuel selector/shutoff valve - Fatigue/wear/corrosion (Cause)
Fuel selector/shutoff valve - Not serviced/maintained (Cause)
Angle of attack - Capability exceeded (Factor)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Instructor/check pilot (Factor)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Initial climb
Sys/Comp malf/fail (non-power) (Defining event)
Fuel starvation
Loss of engine power (total)

Emergency descent
Aerodynamic stall/spin

Uncontrolled descent
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Robert Gretz, National Transportation Safety Board senior air safety investigator. 

 
The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Windsor Locks, Connecticut
Lycoming Engines; Williamsport, Pennsylvania
Piper Aircraft; Vero Beach, Florida 

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

International Aviation LLC:  http://registry.faa.gov/N2452C


Location: East Haven, CT
Accident Number: ERA17FA112
Date & Time: 02/22/2017, 0956 EST
Registration: N2452C
Aircraft: PIPER PA38
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Sys/Comp malf/fail (non-power)
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

On February 22, 2017, about 0956 eastern standard time, a Piper PA-38-112, N2452C, was destroyed when it impacted terrain in East Haven, Connecticut, during the initial climb from Tweed-New Haven Airport (HVN), New Haven, Connecticut. The flight instructor was seriously injured, and the student pilot was fatally injured. The airplane was operated by American Flight Academy as an instructional flight conducted under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the local flight.

According to an air traffic control transcript provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the airplane completed four touch-and-go landings on runway 20, a 5,600-ft-long by 150-ft-wide asphalt runway. At 0955:43, during initial climb after the fourth landing, one of the pilots declared an emergency and stated, "mayday mayday mayday we're going to land on the other runway." The controller cleared the airplane to land, and no further communications were received from the pilots. Another flight instructor, who was also flying in the HVN airport traffic pattern at the time of the accident, stated that he heard the emergency transmission and could hear the airplane's stall warning horn in the background during the transmission. According to a witness, the airplane then spun to the left, descended in a nose-down attitude, and impacted terrain about 1,000 ft southeast of the departure end of runway 20. Review of radar data did not reveal any targets that could be correlated with the accident airplane during the initial climb in which the accident occurred.

The flight instructor was subsequently interviewed at a hospital by an FAA inspector. The flight instructor told the FAA inspector that he remembered practicing airwork and then returning to the airport to practice touch-and-go landings, but he did not recall the accident sequence. 

Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 20, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 11/14/2014
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 12/23/2016
Flight Time:  236.3 hours (Total, all aircraft), 11.9 hours (Total, this make and model), 30.9 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 27.8 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: None
Age: 31, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: None
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot:  No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 16.8 hours (Total, all aircraft), 14.6 hours (Total, this make and model), 3 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 2.1 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

The flight instructor held a commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane multi-engine land, and instrument airplane. He also held a flight instructor certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine. His most recent FAA first-class medical certificate was issued on November 14, 2014. Review of the flight instructor's logbook revealed that he had accumulated a total flight experience of about 236 hours, of which 12 hours were in the same make and model as the accident airplane. The flight instructor had flown about 28 hours during the 30-day period preceding the accident.

Review of the student pilot's logbook revealed that he had accumulated a total flight experience of about 17 hours of which 15 hours were in the same make and model as the accident airplane. The student pilot had not yet flown solo. 






Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: PIPER
Registration: N2452C
Model/Series: PA38 112
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture:
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 38-79A0192
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 09/30/2016, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1670 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 78 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 8472.9 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91A installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-235
Registered Owner: INTERNATIONAL AVIATION LLC
Rated Power: 112 hp
Operator: INTERNATIONAL AVIATION LLC
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None
Operator Does Business As: American Flight Academy
Operator Designator Code: 

The two-seat, low-wing, fixed tricycle-gear airplane was manufactured in 1978. It was powered by a Lycoming O-235, 112-horsepower engine, equipped with a two-blade, fixed-pitch Sensenich propeller.

Review of the airplane's logbooks revealed that, at the time of the accident, the airframe had accumulated about 8,473 total hours of operation, and the engine had accumulated 2,508 hours since major overhaul. The airplane had been operated for 78 hours since its most recent 100-hour inspection, which was completed on September 30, 2016. Review of maintenance records did not reveal any prior anomalies with the airplane's fuel selector. Review of the airplane maintenance manual revealed instructions, applicable to 100-hour inspections, for the fuel selector to be inspected for condition, security, and operation. According to the instructions, if the fuel selector valve binds, sticks, or is otherwise difficult to operate, the fuel selector valve should be lubricated. Specifically, the insert, position washer, and "O" rings should be lubricated. 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: HVN, 12 ft msl
Observation Time: 0953 EST
Distance from Accident Site: 1 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 360°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Temperature/Dew Point: 6°C / 2°C
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 7500 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 5 knots, 210°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.03 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: East Haven, CT (HVN)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: East Haven, CT (HVN)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0955 EST
Type of Airspace:

The reported weather at HVN, at 0953, included wind from 210° at 5 knots, visibility 10 statute miles, and an overcast ceiling at 7,500 ft. 

Airport Information

Airport: Tweed-New Haven Airport (HVN)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 12 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 20
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 5600 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: None 



Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Latitude, Longitude:   41.253611, -72.885556 

No debris path was observed, and the wreckage came to rest upright in a marsh, oriented on a near north magnetic heading. Both wings remained attached to the airframe, and the ailerons and flaps remained attached to their respective wings. The ailerons were about neutral, and the flaps were partially extended. The fuel caps remained secured to their respective wing fuel tanks, and, although both wing fuel tanks were breached during impact, several gallons of fuel remained in each wing. The right wing was buckled. The left wing exhibited more leading edge damage than the right wing, and its wingtip was bent upward, consistent with the left wing impacting terrain before the right wing.

The empennage was curled up and to the left. The horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, rudder, and elevator remained intact. Flight control continuity was confirmed from all flight control surfaces to the cockpit area. Examination of the elevator trim wheel revealed that the elevator trim cable remained wrapped around the spool twice, which equated to an elevator trim position between neutral and full nose up. Examination of the cockpit revealed that the seatbelts and shoulder harnesses remained intact. The throttle and mixture levers were in the forward position, and the magnetos were selected to both. The fuel selector handle was found positioned to the right main fuel tank.

The engine was partially buried in mud but remained attached to the airframe, and the propeller remained attached to the engine. The two propeller blades did not exhibit rotational damage. The wreckage was further examined at a recovery facility, and the engine was separated from the airframe for the examination. The valve covers were removed, and oil was noted throughout the engine. The top spark plugs were removed, and the propeller was rotated by hand. Camshaft, crankshaft, and valve train continuity were confirmed to the rear accessory section. Thumb compression was attained on all cylinders. The engine-driven fuel pump was removed from the engine. Several drops of fuel were recovered from the pump. When the pump was actuated by hand, suction and compression were confirmed at the inlet and outlet ports. The electric fuel pump activated when connected to a battery.

The throttle and mixture cables remained attached to the carburetor. The carburetor was disassembled, and its float and needle were intact. The carburetor inlet screen was absent of contamination. The carburetor bowl contained a mixture of fuel and water, consistent with its submersion in the marsh. The oil filter was opened, and no contamination was observed. The left magneto remained attached to the engine and produced spark at all four leads when rotated by hand. The right magneto had separated from the engine during impact and did not produce spark when rotated. The right magneto was disassembled, and the plastic housing that secured the breaker points was found fractured, resulting in no gap in the points. The spark plug electrodes remained intact and exhibited normal wear signatures when compared to a Champion Aviation Check-A-Plug chart. The bottom spark plugs exhibited corrosion consistent with submersion in the brackish marsh water.

During the airframe examination, the fuel selector valve would not move when the fuel selector handle was moved. The fuel selector was then removed and partially disassembled for examination. The examination revealed that the fuel selector valve's polymeric insert had fractured and was in a position that provided openings of about 20% to the right main fuel tank inlet and to the engine outlet, instead of the 100% openings that would have been present with an intact polymeric insert. The fuel selector valve was retained and forwarded to the NTSB Materials Laboratory, Washington, DC.

Metallurgical examination of the fuel selector valve revealed that the lower portion of the polymeric insert exhibited fracture features consistent with rotational ductile overstress. Abrasive wear was present on the outer portion of the insert due to contact with burs on the valve housing. (For more information, see the Materials Laboratory Factual Report in the public docket for this accident.) 

Medical And Pathological Information

The State of Connecticut, Office of the Chief Medical Examiner performed an autopsy on the student pilot. The cause of death was reported as blunt trauma.

Toxicological testing was performed by the FAA Bioaeronautical Science Research Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on samples from both pilots. The results were negative for the student pilot. Positive results for the flight instructor were consistent with the emergency medical treatment that he received after the accident.


Robert J. Gretz, Air Safety Investigator - National Transportation Safety Board

NTSB Identification: ERA17FA112
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Wednesday, February 22, 2017 in East Haven, CT
Aircraft: PIPER PA38, registration: N2452C
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On February 22, 2017, about 0957 eastern standard time, a Piper PA-38-112, N2452C, was substantially damaged when it impacted terrain in East Haven, Connecticut, during the initial climb from Tweed-New Haven Airport (HVN), New Haven, Connecticut. The flight instructor was seriously injured and the student pilot was fatally injured. The airplane was operated by American Flight Academy as an instructional flight conducted under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed and no flight plan was filed for the local flight.

According to preliminary information from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the airplane was performing touch-and-go landings on runway 20, a 5,600-foot-long, 150-feet-wide, asphalt runway. After three uneventful landings, one of the pilots declared an emergency during initial climb by stating "mayday" on the air traffic control tower frequency, but he did not specify the nature of the emergency. The airplane then spun to the left, descended and impacted terrain about 1,000 feet southeast of the departure end of runway 20. Another flight instructor, who was also flying in the airport traffic pattern at HVN during the time of the accident, stated that he heard the emergency transmission and could hear the airplane's stall warning horn in the background during the transmission.

No debris path was observed and the wreckage came to rest upright in a marsh, oriented about a magnetic heading of north. Both wings remained attached to the airframe, with the ailerons and flaps attached to their respective wing. The ailerons were approximately neutral and the flaps were partially extended. The fuel caps remained secured to their respective wing fuel tanks and although both wing fuel tanks were breached during impact, several gallons of fuel remained in each wing. The right wing was buckled, while the left wing exhibited more leading edge damage and its wingtip was bent upward.

The empennage was curled up and to the left. The horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, rudder, and elevator remained intact. Flight control continuity was confirmed from all flight control surfaces to the cockpit area. Examination of the cockpit revealed that the seatbelts and shoulder harnesses remained intact. Additionally, the throttle and mixture levers were in the forward position and the magnetos were selected to both. The fuel selector was found positioned to the right main fuel tank.

The engine was partially buried in mud, but remained attached to the airframe and the propeller remained attached to the engine. The two propeller blades did not exhibit rotational damage. The wreckage was retained for further examination.

The two-seat, low-wing, fixed tricycle-gear airplane was manufactured in 1978. It was powered by a Lycoming O-235, 112-horsepower engine, equipped with a two-blade, fixed-pitch Sensenich propeller. Review of the airplane's logbooks revealed that at the time of the accident, the airframe had accumulated about 8,473 total hours of operation and the engine had accumulated 2,508 hours since major overhaul. The airplane had been operated for 78 hours since its most recent 100-hour inspection, which was completed on September 30, 2016.

The flight instructor held a commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane multiengine land and instrument airplane. He also held a flight instructor certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine. His most recent FAA first-class medical certificate was issued on November 14, 2014. Review of the flight instructor's logbook revealed that he had accumulated a total flight experience of approximately 236 hours; of which, 12 hours were in the same make and model as the accident airplane. The flight instructor had flown about 28 hours during the 30-day period preceding the accident.

Review of the student pilot's logbook revealed that he had accumulated a total flight experience of approximately 17 hours; of which, 15 hours were in the same make and model as the accident airplane.

The reported weather at HVN, at 0953, included wind from 210° at 5 knots, visibility 10 statute miles and an overcast ceiling at 7,500 feet.

Rans S-12 Airaile, N154BH, registered to a private individual: Accident occurred March 07, 2015 near Cherokee County Airport (KJSO), Jacksonville, Texas



The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Irving, Texas

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


http://registry.faa.gov/N154BH



Analysis 

The passenger had purchased the experimental amateur-built airplane about 2 weeks before the accident flight and was conducting a familiarization flight with a private pilot. The pilot had about 11,000 hours of total flight time, with about 2 hours in the accident make and model. Witnesses reported that the airplane was conducting touch and go takeoffs and landings but that the engine did not sound normal. They subsequently saw the airplane maneuver toward a field before it stalled, collided with trees, and impacted the ground. There was evidence of fuel at the accident site, and inspection of the airframe and engine did not reveal any abnormalities. According to the carburetor icing probability chart, the airplane was operating in an environment conducive to light carburetor icing at cruise or descent power; it is unlikely that the loss of engine power was the result of carburetor ice accumulation. The reason for the loss of engine power could not be determined based on available information. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
A partial loss of engine power for reasons that could not be determined based on the available information. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's failure to maintain control while maneuvering for a forced landing, which resulted in the airplane exceeding its critical angle of attack and experiencing an aerodynamic stall. 

Findings

Aircraft
Angle of attack - Not attained/maintained (Factor)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Factor)

Not determined
Not determined - Unknown/Not determined (Cause)


Factual Information

Location: Rusk, TX
Accident Number: CEN15LA169
Date & Time: 03/07/2015, 1230 CST
Registration: N154BH
Aircraft: HOKE BOBBY F RANS S 12
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (partial)
Injuries: 2 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On March 7, 2015 about 1230 central standard time, a Rans S-12 homebuilt experimental airplane, N154BH, registered to a private individual, collided with trees and the ground while maneuvering to land after reported engine problems while in the landing pattern at the Cherokee County Airport (JSO), near Rusk, Texas. The pilot and passenger sustained serious injuries and the aircraft was substantially damaged. The local flight was being conducted under the provisions of Federal Code of Regulations Part 91. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed in the area and a flight plan was not filed.

According to the FAA, about 2 weeks prior to the accident, the passenger had purchased the ultralight aircraft. The purpose of the flight was to become familiar with the newly acquired aircraft. The PIC had about 11,000 hours of total flight time, with about 2 hours in the accident make and model. The PIC's most recent BFR was conducted on December 9. 2014. According to a written bill of sale, the passenger purchased the airplane on February 19, 2015. The aircraft's most recent conditional inspection was conducted on March 3, 2015.

Witnesses reported that the ultralight aircraft was doing touch and go landings at JSO. They reported that the engine did not sound normal and observed the aircraft maneuver toward a field before it stalled, collided with trees and impacted the ground. The pilot and passenger were transported to the hospital after the accident. The FAA traveled to the accident scene and inspected the accident area and wreckage. There was evidence of fuel smell at the accident site. Inspection of the airframe and engine at the accident site did not reveal any abnormalities.

The reported weather observation METAR at JSO about the time of the accident was:

KJSO 071735Z AUTO 00000KT 10SM BKN100 12/M05 A3048 RMK AO2 T01211051

According to the Icing Probability Chart, with a temperature of 12 degrees and dew point of 5 degrees, the aircraft engine was operating in an area conducive to light icing at cruise of descent power.

The NTSB did not receive a NTSB form 6120, Pilot/Operator Report or statements from the pilot and passenger. It is unknown if the passenger/owner had flight experience. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 63, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/27/2014
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 12/09/2014
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 11445 hours (Total, all aircraft), 2 hours (Total, this make and model), 3 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: HOKE BOBBY F
Registration: N154BH
Model/Series: RANS S 12
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1995
Amateur Built: Yes
Airworthiness Certificate: Experimental
Serial Number: 0195553
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 03/03/2015, Condition
Certified Max Gross Wt.:
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 1406 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: BOMBARDIER
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: ROTAX (ALL)
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 80 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: JSO, 677 ft msl
Observation Time: 1135 CST
Distance from Accident Site: 1 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 180°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 12°C / -5°C
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 10000 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: Calm
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.51 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point: Rusk, TX (JSO)
Type of Flight Plan Filed:  None
Destination: Rusk, TX (JSO)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time:  CST
Type of Airspace: Class E 

Airport Information

Airport: Cherokee County Airport (JSO)
Runway Surface Type:
Airport Elevation: 667 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Vegetation
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: None 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries:  1 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Serious
Latitude, Longitude:  31.869167, -95.217222 (est)

Cessna 172M Skyhawk, N80377, Seagull Flying Club Inc: Incident occurred January 30, 2018 at San Jose International Airport (KSJC), Santa Clara County, California

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; San Jose

Aircraft aborted takeoff due to striking a runway light.

Seagull Flying Club Inc: http://registry.faa.gov/N80377

Date: 31-JAN-18
Time: 02:18:00Z
Regis#: N80377
Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Aircraft Model: 172M
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: UNKNOWN
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: UNKNOWN
Activity: UNKNOWN
Flight Phase: TAKEOFF (TOF)
Operation: 91
City: SAN JOSE
State: CALIFORNIA

Smith Aerostar 601P, N800AA, J I B LLC: Incident occurred January 30, 2018 at Witham Field Airport (KSUA), Stuart, Martin County, Florida

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Miami

Aircraft on landing had a nose gear collapse and went off the runway into the grass.

J I B LLC:  http://registry.faa.gov/N800AA

Date: 30-JAN-18
Time: 19:56:00Z
Regis#: N800AA
Aircraft Make: SMITH
Aircraft Model: AEROSTAR 601P
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: UNKNOWN
Activity: UNKNOWN
Flight Phase: LANDING (LDG)
Operation: 91
City: STUART
State: FLORIDA

Spirit Airlines, Airbus A319-132, N530NK: Incident occurred January 30, 2018 at Logan International Airport (KBOS), Boston, Massachusetts

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Boston

Flight 1025:  During push back tug tow bar snapped and injured a ground handler. Aircraft taxied back to gate. 

http://registry.faa.gov/N530NK

Date: 30-JAN-18
Time: 14:25:00Z
Regis#: N530NK
Aircraft Make: AIRBUS
Aircraft Model: A319 132
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: UNKNOWN
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: UNKNOWN
Activity: COMMERCIAL
Flight Phase: PUSHBACK/TOWING (PBT)
Operation: 121
Aircraft Operator: SPIRIT AIRLINES
Flight Number: 1025
City: BOSTON
State: MASSACHUSETTS

American Airlines, Boeing 767-300, N345AN: Accident occurred October 28, 2016 at Chicago O'Hare International Airport (KORD), Illinois

The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

 http://registry.faa.gov/N345AN



Location: Chicago, IL
Accident Number: DCA17FA021
Date & Time: 10/28/2016,  
Registration: N345AN
Aircraft: BOEING 767
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Uncontained engine failure
Injuries: 1 Serious, 20 Minor, 149 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 121: Air Carrier - Scheduled

Analysis 

NTSB investigators traveled in support of this investigation and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

The NTSB's full report is available at http://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AccidentReports.aspx. The Aircraft Accident Report number is NTSB/AAR-18/01.

On October 28, 2016, about 1432 central daylight time, American Airlines flight 383, a Boeing 767-323, N345AN, had started its takeoff ground roll at Chicago O'Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, when an uncontained engine failure in the right engine and subsequent fire occurred. The flight crew aborted the takeoff and stopped the airplane on the runway, and the flight attendants initiated an emergency evacuation. Of the 2 flight crewmembers, 7 flight attendants, and 161 passengers on board, 1 passenger received a serious injury and 1 flight attendant and 19 passengers received minor injuries during the evacuation. The airplane was substantially damaged from the fire. The airplane was operating under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The failure of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) stage 2 disk, which severed the main engine fuel feed line and breached the right main wing fuel tank, releasing fuel that resulted in a fire on the right side of the airplane during the takeoff roll. The HPT stage 2 disk failed because of low-cycle fatigue cracks that initiated from an internal subsurface manufacturing anomaly that was most likely not detectable during production inspections and subsequent in service inspections using the procedures in place. Contributing to the serious passenger injury was (1) the delay in shutting down the left engine and (2) a flight attendant's deviation from company procedures, which resulted in passengers evacuating from the left overwing exit while the left engine was still operating. Contributing to the delay in shutting down the left engine was (1) the lack of a separate checklist procedure for Boeing 767 airplanes that specifically addressed engine fires on the ground and (2) the lack of communication between the flight and cabin crews after the airplane came to a stop. 

Findings

Aircraft
Turbine section - Failure (Cause)
Fuel system - Damaged/degraded

Personnel issues
Use of policy/procedure - Cabin crew (Factor)
Delayed action - Flight crew (Factor)
Lack of communication - Flight crew (Factor)
Lack of communication - Cabin crew (Factor)

Organizational issues
Equipment manufacture - Manufacturer (Cause)
Task design - Manufacturer (Factor)

Factual Information

The NTSB's full report is available at http://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/AccidentReports.aspx. The Aircraft Accident Report number is NTSB/AAR-18/01.

On October 28, 2016, about 1432 central daylight time, American Airlines flight 383, a Boeing 767-323, N345AN, had started its takeoff ground roll at Chicago O'Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, when an uncontained engine failure in the right engine and subsequent fire occurred. The flight crew aborted the takeoff and stopped the airplane on the runway, and the flight attendants initiated an emergency evacuation. Of the 2 flight crewmembers, 7 flight attendants, and 161 passengers on board, 1 passenger received a serious injury and 1 flight attendant and 19 passengers received minor injuries during the evacuation. The airplane was substantially damaged from the fire. The airplane was operating under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident. 

History of Flight

Takeoff-rejected takeoff
Uncontained engine failure (Defining event)

Other
Fire/smoke (non-impact)
Evacuation 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Engineer
Age: 61, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Glider
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/04/2016
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 03/22/2016
Flight Time: 17400 hours (Total, all aircraft), 4000 hours (Total, this make and model) 

Co-Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Engineer
Age: 57, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Glider
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/03/2016
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 09/07/2016
Flight Time:  22000 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1846 hours (Total, this make and model) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: BOEING
Registration: N345AN
Model/Series: 767 323
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2003
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Transport
Serial Number: N345AN
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 220
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 01/15/2011, Continuous Airworthiness
Certified Max Gross Wt.:
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 2 Turbo Fan
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: General Electric
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: CF6-80C2 B6
Registered Owner: American Airlines Group, Inc.
Rated Power: lbs
Operator: AMERICAN AIRLINES INC
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Flag carrier (121)
Operator Does Business As:
Operator Designator Code:  AALA

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KORD
Observation Time: 1951 UTC
Distance from Accident Site:
Direction from Accident Site:
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 2000 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 11°C
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 25000 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 11 knots, 180°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.04 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point: Chicago, IL (KORD)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: IFR
Destination: Miami, FL (KMIA)
Type of Clearance: IFR
Departure Time: 1432 CDT
Type of Airspace: 

Airport Information

Airport: Chicago O'Hare International A (KORD)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt; Concrete
Airport Elevation: 668 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 28R
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 13000 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: None 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor, 8 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Serious, 19 Minor, 141 None
Aircraft Fire:  On-Ground
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Serious, 20 Minor, 149 None
Latitude, Longitude: 41.968889, -87.917778




U.S. air-accident investigators have called for upgraded engine-inspection practices and better-coordinated procedures for passenger evacuations, in their final report about a fire that badly damaged an American Airlines Group Inc. jet on a Chicago runway two years ago.

The findings and recommendations released by the National Transportation Safety Board on Tuesday stem from an October 2016 accident in which a rare manufacturing defect caused part of the right engine on a Boeing Co. 767 bound for Miami to rupture violently late in the takeoff roll. Metal parts flew as far as 3,000 feet, a fuel leak caused a massive fire under the right wing and all 161 passengers used emergency slides to leave the jet.


There were no fatalities, but the National Transportation Safety Board issued industrywide recommendations for modernized engine inspections and stepped-up airline crew training to ensure safer emergency evacuations.


According to the National Transportation Safety Board, United States regulators haven’t updated guidance on conducting emergency evacuations for three decades, despite several high-profile examples of problems getting passengers off airliners in just the past few years.


Investigators concluded that a rare manufacturing flaw dating back to the late 1990s—and likely undetectable through recent years—created microscopic cracks in the high-energy internal disc that eventually led to the accident at O’Hare International Airport. General Electric Co. manufactured the engines.


Even with significant safety advances in engines and overall airline performance over the last few decades, “there’s still improvements that can be made,” said Robert Sumwalt, the safety board’s chairman. Inspection methods “that can fail to uncover a defect in a safety critical component of an airliner,” he said, “need a closer look.:


Regarding the crew’s response, the National Transportation Safety Board concluded that the pilots, after hearing a loud bang, acted appropriately to halt the takeoff and shut down the damaged engine. But the report was critical of the level of cooperation between the cockpit crew and flight attendants.


Investigators, among other things, found that flight attendants hadn’t received adequate training on systems to communicate with the cockpit or passengers. Two attendants told the safety board they couldn’t operate the intercoms to contact the pilots, as smoke billowed inside the cabin and passengers disregarded instructions by climbing over seats and insisting on grabbing carry-on bags.


With one of the wide-body jet’s engines still running as the evacuation began, a passenger suffered a serious injury as he was hit by jet blast. The pilots told investigators the only emergency engine shut-off checklist they had didn’t call for immediately turning off the remaining engine.


Modern jet turbines are designed to prevent broken parts from being spewed outside the engine cover. But violent disintegration of some internal parts has dogged certain models of GE’s CF6-80 model engines since 2000, prompting a series of stepped-up safety actions by the manufacturer and the Federal Aviation Administration.


An Federal Aviation Administration spokeswoman didn’t have any immediate comment on the nonbinding safety recommendations.


American, which has revamped flight attendant training, told investigators the cabin crew took appropriate steps to initiate the evacuation despite communication difficulties.



Original article can be found here ➤ https://www.wsj.com