Saturday, May 18, 2019

Bell UH-1H, registered to and operated by Farm Ag Enterprises under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 137 as an aerial application flight, N175SF: Accident occurred October 05, 2016 in Gila Bend, Maricopa County, Arizona

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Scottsdale, Arizona

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N175SF

Location: Gila Bend, AZ
Accident Number: WPR17LA002
Date & Time: 10/05/2016, 0900 MST
Registration: N175SF
Aircraft: Tamarack Helicopters Inc UH-1H
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Part(s) separation from AC
Injuries: 1 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 137: Agricultural 

On October 5, 2016, about 0900 mountain standard time, a Tamarack Helicopters Inc. UH-1H, N175SF, rolled over during a forced landing near Gila Bend, Arizona, after the 90° tail rotor gearbox separated. The commercial pilot sustained minor injuries, and the helicopter was substantially damaged. The helicopter was registered to and operated by Farm Ag Enterprises, under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 137 as an aerial application flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan had been filed.The local flight departed a private airstrip about 0700.

The pilot reported that he had just completed a series of passes over a cotton field, and was maneuvering the helicopter for a return to the fuel truck. The helicopter was moving at about 20 knots and climbing, when after reaching about 100 ft above ground level he heard a loud bang. The helicopter then began to spin to the right, and would not respond to foot pedal inputs, so he lowered the collective and initiated an autorotation. The helicopter was still spinning as it descended, and as it approached the ground the skids made contact with cotton bushes, and the helicopter rolled onto its left side.

During the impact the tailboom partially detached from the aft bulkhead. The tail rotor assembly, which included both tail rotor blades and the outer case of the 90° gearbox, was located about 30 ft from the helicopter (See Figure 1). The input quill and sleeve assembly of the case remained attached to the vertical fin. (See Figure 2)


Figure 1 – Tail Gearbox Rotor and Rotor Assembly

Figure 2 – Vertical Fin with Input Drive Quill to 90° Gearbox

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 33, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Helicopter
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/01/2016
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 02/15/2016
Flight Time:  3778.8 hours (Total, all aircraft), 118.6 hours (Total, this make and model), 3714 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 64 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 17.9 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1.5 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Tamarack Helicopters Inc
Registration: N175SF
Model/Series: UH-1H
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Year of Manufacture: 1969
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Restricted
Serial Number: 69-16713
Landing Gear Type: High Skid;
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/07/2016, Continuous Airworthiness
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 9500 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 69 Hours
Engines: 1 Turbo Shaft
Airframe Total Time: 5157.9 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: HONEYWELL
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: T5313B
Registered Owner: Farm Ag Enterprises
Rated Power: 1400 hp
Operator: Farm Ag Enterprises
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Agricultural Aircraft (137)
Operator Does Business As:
Operator Designator Code: 7FAG 

The helicopter was manufactured in 1969 as a UH-1H, and after military services it was demilitarized, and ownership transferred to the Sheriff's Department of Seminole County, Florida. FAA records indicated that a condition of transfer was that the helicopters sole purpose be restricted to, "Airborne Fire Suppression, Air Search and Rescue, water/Marine Rescue, Disaster Response, SWAT Response, Medivac, Regional Support"

In 2007, the helicopter was then sold to a private company which specialized in charter, forestry, and contract flight services.

In January 2014 it was issued a special airworthiness certificate in the restricted category after being disassembled and converted through a supplemental type certificate (STC) held by Tamarack Helicopters. The helicopter was purchased by the accident operator on April 4, 2016, 279.1 flight hours after the conversion, and 20.4 hours before the accident.

The helicopter was maintained under a continuous airworthiness inspection program, and according to the maintenance logbooks, the most recent inspection event was for a 50-hour inspection, on June 7, 2016, 68.8 flight hours before the accident.

The most recent documented maintenance action requiring the disassembly of the 90° gearbox was for its overhaul in August 19, 2013, following which it was installed on the helicopter during the conversion to a Tamarack UH-1H.

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KBXK, 1021 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 27 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1615 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 5°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 10 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction: 90°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:
Altimeter Setting: 29.89 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 24°C / 1°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Gila Bend, AZ
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Gila Bend, AZ
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0700 MST
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor
Latitude, Longitude: 32.975556, -112.728611 (est) 

Tests And Research

The tail rotor 90° gearbox, input quill, and upper portion of the vertical fin and sleeve assembly were examined at the NTSB Office of Research and Engineering, Materials Laboratory Division. A complete report is contained in the public docket.

Examination revealed that the six studs which attached the gearbox case to the input quill sleeve assembly on the fin had fractured at the gearbox housing joint line.

The threaded portion of the fractured studs remained within the gearbox case. All six stud fracture surfaces displayed topographies and arrest lines indicating bending fatigue cracking. In each case, the fatigue initiated in the thread root radii on the same side of each stud relative and perpendicular to the center of the bolt hole radius. The fatigue cracks propagated diametrically across each stud terminating in small overstress regions, with a small area of secondary reversed bending fatigue cracking at the opposite side of each stud. The fatigue cracks penetrated between 89% and 98% of each stud cross section. (See Figure 3)


Figure 3 – Threaded Portions of Fractured Studs Within the Gearbox Case. (Excerpt from the NTSB Materials Laboratory Report)

Magnified examinations of the corresponding stud sections from the vertical fin revealed fracture areas with fatigue cracks that had initiated at either the first, second or third full thread from the grip portion of the stud. The thread roots were smooth and typical of rolled thread roots, and yellow paste material consistent with zinc chromate paste was present in all thread roots.

The unthreaded grip sections of all studs exhibited fretting wear on the side opposite the main fatigue crack origin areas. In most cases the wear scars corresponded to the length of the stud that passed through the vertical fin structure, and in some instances, was present on the adjacent thread crests.

The locations corresponding to stud passage on the fin structure were worn and slightly out-of-round (See Figure 4). Examination of the interior of the fin holes also revealed wear and damage corresponding to the fretting on the studs.


Figure 4 - Stud Passage on Fin Structure. 
(Excerpt from the NTSB Materials Laboratory Report)

The interface between the input quill sleeve housing and the vertical fin showed no significant fretting or wear.

According to the helicopters illustrated parts manual, the studs were 2.875 inches long, and the AN126420 type. Three studs were tested for hardness and material composition. All met the appropriate specifications required by AN126420.

Additional Information

Bell Helicopter Inc. was the original designer and manufacturer of the UH-1 series helicopter, which was built for military purposes and never commercially certificated. The FAA registration database lists about 450 UH-1H's currently registered in the US under more than 12 different manufacturers names, including Bell.

The NTSB accident database included two other accidents involving UH-1 series helicopters with similar separations of the 90° gearbox.

A gearbox separation with similar fatigue damage to the gearbox attachments studs occurred on September 21, 1999 involving a Garlick Helicopters version of the UH-1H, which was being utilized for logging operations. The probable cause was determined to be, "Fatigue failure of the 90-degree gearbox attachment studs, resulting in separation of the tailrotor and 90-degree gearbox from the vertical fin". See NTSB accident number SEA99LA171.

On October 7, 2012 the tailrotor gearbox separated from a Garlick Helicopters UH-1H during firefighting operations with a Bambi bucket. Data was limited because the gearbox and four studs were not recovered. The NTSB materials laboratory report indicated an uneven use of sealant at the gearbox mounting flange, and a resultant lack of mounting bolt preload. The probable cause was determined to be, "The separation of the tail rotor gearbox and tail rotor assembly as a result of fatigue to the tail rotor gearbox input quill assembly attachment studs." See NTSB accident number WPR13FA006.

A representative from Tamarack Helicopters stated that the 90° gearbox is typically removed and overhauled after 1,200 flight hours, or if grey material indicative of fretting is observed at any of the gearbox mating surfaces. He further stated that fretting damage to one or two attachment studs along with associated ovaling of the pass-through holes on the vertical fin structure was not uncommon (and that maintenance documents exist for quantifying and repairing such damage), but he has never seen damage to all mounting studs before.

Van’s RV-6A, registered to and operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight, N596JB: Fatal accident occurred May 18, 2019 in Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio

The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Cincinnati, Ohio
Continental Motors; Mobile, Alabama 

Aviation Accident Preliminary Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


https://registry.faa.gov/N596JB


Location: Chillicothe, OH
Accident Number: CEN19FA144
Date & Time: 05/18/2019, 1245 EDT
Registration: N596JB
Aircraft: Vans RV6
Injuries: 1 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On May 18, 2019, about 1245 eastern daylight time, a Vans RV6 A experimental amateur-built airplane, N596JB, impacted trees and terrain near Chillicothe, Ohio. The private pilot, who was the sole occupant, was fatally injured and the airplane was destroyed during the accident. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed in the area about the time of the accident and the flight was not operated on a flight plan. The flight originated from the Pickaway County Memorial Airport (CYO), near Circleville, Ohio, about 1230 and was destined for the Pike County Airport, near Waverly, Ohio.

The airplane departed from CYO according to initial information from a witness at CYO. The witness indicated that the airplane lifted off from the runway in a short distance.

According to a witness near the accident site, the airplane "engine slowed or stalled." The engine "refired" and subsequently "stalled." The airplane was observed in a left bank turn and the engine sounded "wide open." The airplane sound was "wide open" to the crash site.

The pilot held a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) private pilot certificate with an airplane single engine land rating. The pilot's last third-class FAA medical certificate was issued to him on February 6, 2017 with no limitations. The pilot reported that he had accumulated 1,967 hours of total fight time and 22 hours in the six months before that exam. The pilot's logbook showed that he had a flight review completed on April 24, 2019. The pilot applied for Basic Med courses.

N596JB was an experimental amateur-built Vans RV6 A, two-seat, low-wing, fixed tricycle gear airplane, with serial number 24723. It was powered by a Mattituck TMXOF-360, 180-horsepower engine with serial number 39-6. The engine drove a two-bladed, fixed pitch Prince Aircraft Company propeller. Airplane records showed that the airplane's most condition inspection was performed on September 4, 2018, and that the airplane had accumulated 830 hours total time at that date.

At 1235, the recorded weather at the Ross County Airport (RZT), Chillicothe, Ohio, was: Wind 250° at 10 kts; visibility 10 statute miles; sky condition scattered clouds at 4,600 ft, scattered clouds at 6,500 ft; temperature 27° C; dew point 16° C; altimeter 29.97 inches of mercury.

The airplane wreckage came to rest in a wooded area about 145° and 12 nautical miles from RZT. A tree trunk about 12 inches in diameter was separated about 30 ft above ground level. The separated end of the upper portion of that tree came to rest on the ground. Fragments of the airplane were found in the separation and in branches of the upper portion of the separated tree. The rear section of fuselage and empennage came to rest about 57 ft and 70° from the separated tree. The engine came to rest about 33 ft and 70° from the separated tree. The engine cowling, canopy, wings, and forward portion of the fuselage were highly fragmented and found in the branches of trees and on the ground between the separated tree and the empennage. The rudder cables were traced from the rudder to the rear section of the fuselage. Elevator flight control continuity was traced from its servo at the rear portion of the fuselage, aftward to its control surface. All separations in flight control tubing exhibited separations consistent with overload. The engine control cable was fragmented and was not able to be traced. Tree leaves in the area of the empennage exhibited an appearance consistent with fuel blight. One engine FADEC (full authority digital engine control) was found destroyed and the other FADEC sustained minor damage. The engine speed sensor also exhibited minor damage. The engine was disassembled and no preimpact anomalies were observed.

The Ross County Coroner's Office was asked to conduct an autopsy on the pilot and to take toxicological samples.

The engine FADEC and speed sensor are being retained for further examination. 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Vans
Registration: N596JB
Model/Series: RV6 A
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Amateur Built:  Yes
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: RZT, 725 ft msl
Observation Time: 1235 EDT
Distance from Accident Site:
Temperature/Dew Point: 27°C / 16°C
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 4600 ft agl
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 10 knots / , 250°
Lowest Ceiling:  
Visibility:  10 Miles
Altimeter Setting: 29.97 inches Hg
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Departure Point: Circleville, OH (CYO)
Destination: Waverly, OH (EOP)

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 39.284167, -82.874444

Those who may have information that might be relevant to the National Transportation Safety Board investigation may contact them by email eyewitnessreport@ntsb.gov, and any friends and family who want to contact investigators about the accident should email assistance@ntsb.gov. 


Glen Ray Galloway
September 7, 1928 - May 18, 2019 
Born in Huntington, West Virginia 
Resided in Waverly, Ohio


Glen Ray Galloway, 90, of Barker Lane, Waverly, Ohio died approximately 1:00 p.m. Saturday in Ross County, Ohio as a result of an airplane accident.

He was born 7 September 1928 in Huntington, West Virginia, the son of the late Norman Ray Galloway and Corinne (Mays) Galloway. On 19 October 1950 Glen was united in marriage to Dorothy (Bess) Galloway who preceded him in death on 19 January 1968. He then was united in marriage to Mary Ethel (Hall) Perry Galloway on 1 May 1969 who also preceded him in death on 7 Jan 2018.

Surviving are a son, Glenn Erwin Galloway and wife Claudia of Gainesville, Florida, daughters, Vickie Himmelman and husband John of Columbus, Ohio, Laura Bennett and husband Tom of Athens, Ohio, and Debbie Niese and husband Michael of Cincinnati, Ohio, grandchildren, Sean Himmelman, Joe Himmelman and wife Jenna Johnson and David Himmelman and wife Sierra, Natalie Bennett, Jessica Galloway, Michelle Niese and husband Kevin Kamonseki and Matthew Niese and wife Ashley, four great grandchildren and a special Friend, Helen Murray.

Glen was a Veteran of WW II, U.S. Army, was a Lieutenant of the U.S. Navy Reserves, member of American Legion Merritt Post #142, Waverly, former member of the Civil Air Patrol, avid pilot and a graduate of Marshall University. After 30+ years, Glen retired from a rewarding career with Merck, Sharp and Dohme.

Family members feel very blessed to have had Glen for so many years, while he enjoyed a meaningful life. His enthusiasm and zest for life were infectious. He will be sorely missed, but his memory will live on. 

Memorial services will be held 2:00 p. m. Thursday, 23 May 2019 at the BOYER FUNERAL HOME in Waverly with Pastor Doug Campbell, officiating.
Family will receive friends at the Boyer Funeral Home one hour prior to the service on Thursday.

Memorial Contributions may be made to: Disabled American Veterans, P.O. Box 14301, Cincinnati, Ohio 45250. 

https://www.boyerfuneral.com



CHILLICOTHE - One person died in a small plane crash located on a portion of property owned by Southeastern Local Schools.

The single-engine plane crashed in a wooded area around 1 p.m. on Saturday, according to State Highway Patrol Lieutenant Tim Karwatske. There were no damages to any structures other than the plane.

The pilot was identified as Glenn Galloway, a 90-year-old man from Waverly. He was the only occupant in the aircraft, according to Karwatske.

The district track meet, which included local teams such as Paint Valley, Adena and Huntington, was going on at the time. 

Witnesses to the event, who were working concessions at the time, say they heard an aircraft that sounded like it was low flying. There was a mechanical whizzing sound and then, a large boom when the impact occurred. People immediately ran from the track to the field where the incident occurred, according to witnesses.

 Karwatske says that officers guarded the crash throughout the night until aviation officials could clear the scene.

No determination has been made if the crash is a result of mechanical failure or pilot error. The National Transportation Safety Board will investigate the crash.

Original article ➤ https://www.chillicothegazette.com




ROSS COUNTY, Ohio — One person has died following a small plane crash in Ross County, according to the Ohio State Highway Patrol.

OSHP says it happened Saturday afternoon off of Lancaster Road just south of U.S. 50. The first call came in shortly before 1 p.m.

Authorities tell 10TV the victim has been identified as 90-year-old Glen Galloway of Waverly, the pilot of the plane.

The National Transportation Safety Board will investigate the crash.


Original article can be found here ➤ https://www.10tv.com





Authorities say one man was killed in a small aircraft crash near a high school in Ross County.

According to the Ross County Sheriff's Office, spectators at a track and field meet at Southeastern Local High School reported the crash around 12:45pm. Witnesses told investigators they heard the plane's engine cut out and then saw the plane crash. 

Investigators say the pilot, identified as 90-year-old Glen R. Galloway, of Waverly, Ohio, was the only person on board at the time of the crash. He died on impact. 

The Federal Aviation Administration confirmed the plane was a Van's RV-6A. 

The cause of the crash remains under investigation. 

Original article can be found here ➤ https://www.nbc4i.com

Explosion (Non-Impact): Cessna 182P Skylane, N20844; accident occurred September 17, 2016 near Chandler Municipal Airport (KCHD), Maricopa County, Arizona

The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities: 

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Scottsdale, Arizona 
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: http://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


http://registry.faa.gov/N20844



Location: Gilbert, AZ
Accident Number: WPR16FA183
Date & Time: 09/17/2016, 1918 MST
Registration: N20844
Aircraft: CESSNA 182P
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Explosion (non-impact)
Injuries: 1 Serious, 1 Minor, 4 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Skydiving 

On September 17, 2016, about 1918 mountain standard time, a Cessna 182P airplane, N20844, was destroyed when it impacted a residential structure, following an inflight fire near Gilbert, Arizona. The commercial pilot was seriously injured, and the four passengers were not injured. One of the two occupants of the house sustained a minor injury. The airplane was registered to and operated by P & T Aerial Services LLC under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the local skydiving flight that departed Chandler Municipal Airport (CHD) Chandler, Arizona, about 1904.

The airplane was participating in the Gilbert's Annual Constitution Fair, a private event, which involved a night aerial pyrotechnic display and four skydivers parachuting into a predetermined drop zone. According to the pilot and the lead jumper, as the airplane arrived at the planned jump area and altitude of 5,000 ft mean sea level (msl), they were given the go-ahead to jump. The sparklers in a pyrotechnic box located on the left side of the airplane, were activated by a jumper, and shortly thereafter they heard a loud boom off to the left of the airplane, which the pilot described as an explosion. Afterwards, both the pilot and the lead jumper noticed damage to the underside of the airplane's left wing, evidenced by fuel pouring out. The lead jumper stated that there was jagged metal protruding out of a big hole about 2 ft from the pilot's left window. As the leaking fuel and the left wing became engulfed with flames, the skydivers successfully jumped out of the airplane's right-side door. The pilot stated he shut off fuel to the airplane's left tank and attempted a slip maneuver, which he thought might extinguish the fire. He initially considered landing at CHD but realized he would not make the airport, since the fire and resulting heat had worsened. The pilot then radioed a distress call and egressed and parachuted out of the airplane as it was becoming unflyable. The airplane subsequently impacted a house in a residential area about 4 miles north of CHD.

On the night of the accident, one of the airplane's co-owners, who was also the lead jumper, stated to an investigator with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), that he thought it was possible that an issue with the pyrotechnic box had caused the puncture in the wing and resultant fire. Further, during an interview with a law enforcement officer on the night of the accident, the pilot stated that he believed there was a malfunction or premature deployment of the pyrotechnics that caused the airplane to catch fire. He further reported that there were no mechanical issues with the airplane prior to the explosion.

Radar data showed the airplane departing CHD and performing a climbing right turn towards Gilbert, Arizona. Two clockwise patterns were flown around the vicinity of the Gilbert Civic Center, where the landing zone for the skydivers was located. At 1916:44, a peak altitude of 5,725 ft mean sea level (msl) was attained, and the groundspeed indicated 96 knots. At 1917:27, the altitude began to decrease and the pilot advises air traffic control that he has an emergency situation and fire on the wings. The controller acknowledges the transmission and asks the pilot if he wants to go to Chandler. The pilot does not respond and there are no further transmissions from the pilot. The last recorded data was at 1917:55, at an altitude of 3,350 ft msl, and a groundspeed of 105 knots. 



Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial; Private
Age: 31, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land; Single-engine Sea
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 2 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 10/09/2015
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 05/20/2015
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 875 hours (Total, all aircraft), 200 hours (Total, this make and model)

The pilot held a commercial pilot certificate with airplane multi-engine land, single-engine land, single-engine sea, and instrument airplane ratings. He was issued a second-class airman medical certificate on October 9, 2015, without limitations/waivers. The pilot reported that he had accumulated about 875 total flight hours, with about 200 hours in the same make and model as the accident airplane. 



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Registration: N20844
Model/Series: 182P NO SERIES
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1972
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 182261251
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 1
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 11/23/2015, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2950 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3458 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Continental
ELT: C91  installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-470 U
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 215 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

The high-wing all metal airplane was manufactured in 1972. A review of the airframe logbooks revealed that the last annual inspection was accomplished on November 23, 2015, at a total airframe time of 3,458.0 hours.

During interviews with NTSB investigators, the airplane co-owner stated that the airplane was equipped with a pyrotechnic box that was mounted to the airframe step on the left side of the airplane. He stated that the pyrotechnic box would typically be operated during the night jumps for a visual effect for those observing on the ground, and that there were no previous problems with the box. He further stated that two pyrotechnic devices were installed in the box that would sparkle as the jumpers egressed. He estimated that the pyrotechnic devices to be about 8 inches long and have a diameter of about 2 ½ inches. The devices had between a 22-30 second burn duration and were activated by a switch box on the airplane's floor by one of the jumpers about 30 seconds prior to the jump.

The airplane was modified and converted for use in skydiving operations by the current owners in what they described as a standard configuration of an airplane used in the skydiving industry. A total of eight modifications were accomplished in accordance with Title 14 CFR Part 43 through the use of two Major Repair and Alteration, FAA Form 337's, both dated September 19, 2012. A separate FAA Form 337, dated January 11, 2014, located in the airworthiness history for the airplane stated, "this document is an amendment for FAA Form 337, dated 19 Sept. 2012." This form did not stipulate which previous Form 337 was being amended, however it appeared to encompass all areas contained within the previous two 337s, and referenced FAA Form 8110-3, which was not previously mentioned. It was approved by the FAA on November 5, 2014. However, a review of the airplane's maintenance logbook found no supporting documentation for a Supplemental Type Certificate, field approval, or logbook entry, for the installation of the pyrotechnic box on the factory equipped left step located on the left main landing gear spring assembly (leg).

According to the airplane's co-owner and the accident pilot, the pyrotechnic box was attached to the airplane's left main landing gear step, just prior to the accident flight. The pilot stated that the co-owner told him that the box was approved and properly tested. When he asked the co-owner about the installed box, the co-owner said that it was a sparkler box that was considered a minor alteration and did not need a field approval since it could easily be removed. The pilot stated he checked the security of the box on his preflight but did not check for its approval in the airplane's paperwork based on the co-owner's statements. The pilot stated that this was his second skydiving night flight that used pyrotechnics with the company. The co-owner stated that three bolts and nuts were used to secure the box and that the FAA was not aware of the box installation.

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Night
Observation Facility, Elevation: KCHD, 1243 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 4 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1918 MST
Direction from Accident Site: 206°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  15 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR): 
Wind Speed/Gusts: 5 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: Variable
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 29.86 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 35°C / -1°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Chander, AZ (CHD)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Chander, AZ (CHD)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 1904 MST
Type of Airspace: Class B

A review of data from the CHD automated weather observation station, located about 4 miles south of the accident site revealed that at 1918 conditions were winds variable at 5 knots, visibility 10 statute miles, clear sky, temperature 35° C, dew point -1° C, and an altimeter setting of 29.86. inches of mercury. 

Airport Information

Airport: CHANDLER MUNI (CHD)
Runway Surface Type: N/A
Airport Elevation: 1243 ft
Runway Surface Condition:
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 
VFR Approach/Landing: None 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: 4 None
Aircraft Fire: In-Flight and On-Ground
Ground Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Explosion: In-Flight
Total Injuries: 1 Serious, 1 Minor, 4 None
Latitude, Longitude: 33.324722, -111.780278 (est) 

Examination of the accident site by the NTSB investigator-in-charge revealed that the airplane penetrated through a roof of a single-story residential house at an elevation of about 1,247 ft msl. A postimpact fire ensued, which consumed most of the airplane and interior of the house. The airplane impacted the residence at a steep nose down attitude. All major components of the airplane were contained within the wreckage site. Most of the wreckage debris was scattered in the back half of the house and backyard. Behind the backyard fence there was an open field.

The majority of both wings were located in the backyard. The wings sustained thermal damage and substantial leading-edge compression. The engine and parts of the propeller dome were located at the point of ground impact. Due to thermal damage, flight control continuity could not be established. The instrument control panel and cabin area were mostly consumed by the postimpact fire. Following the on-scene examination, the airplane wreckage was recovered to a secure facility for further examination.

Further examination of the airplane revealed that the remnants of the interior structure of the left wing, where the fuel tank was located, showed no outward buckling or other similar damage. Portions of the upper and lower left wing skins and all of the left main fuel tank were destroyed by thermal damage.

Examination of the left main landing gear leg revealed holes with wires that ran from the pyrotechnic box along the gear leg, under the gear leg fairing, through a hole in the landing gear bulkhead, and then through a hole drilled in the cabin floor inspection plate, into the cabin. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The FAA's Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, performed toxicological testing on the pilot. Testing was negative for ethanol. The following drugs were tested for: amphetamines, opiates, marijuana, cocaine, phencyclidine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants, and antihistamines. Positive results for morphine and ondansetron were present. Tests were negative for the remainder of the drugs.

A review of the pilot's postaccident medical care by the NTSB's Chief Medical Officer revealed that the pilot was administered amounts of morphine for pain during his evacuation from the accident scene and ondansetron during his evaluation at the emergency department. The positive toxicology results were consistent with the medications administered to the pilot during his postaccident treatment.

Tests And Research

Several pieces of aluminum sheet metal, the mounting bracket, and remnants of a pyrotechnic device, were located on the ground near the drop zone. The aluminum metal pieces were examined by specialists in the NTSB Materials Laboratory. A complete report is contained in the public docket. The recovered aluminum metal pieces were consistent with the pyrotechnic box that was constructed with folded and riveted aluminum sheet metal, to contain two pyrotechnics devices, and attached to the airplane, on a step, on the left main landing gear leg.

Two recovered aluminum pieces of the sheet metal had circular holes in them, consistent with those used to mount the pyrotechnic box to the step on the left main landing gear leg. The top of the pyrotechnic box appeared to have a top with a long piano hinge on one side, presumably to access the box. Three recovered pieces of aluminum sheet metal had screw holes for the piano hinge distributed along their top edge.

Examination of the aluminum metal pieces revealed a high degree of fragmentation, fractures along the fold lines, outward deformation, pedaling and curling of some of the edges, and cratering from high velocity particle impact, that were consistent with an explosion that originated from the inside of the pyrotechnics box. The aluminum metal pieces were consistent with shrapnel from the explosion.

Additional Information

According to Title 14 CFR Part 105, section 105.21: "no person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command of an aircraft may allow a parachute operation to be conducted from that aircraft, over or into a congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or open-air assembly of persons, unless a certificate of authorization for that parachute operation has been issued."

An FAA Certificate of Authorization (COA) was approved for the night of the accident flight that authorized parachute operations at Gilbert, Arizona, between 19:00 to 20:00 by the Arizona Skyhawk Parachute Demonstration Team. The planned parachute operation listed was for one pass with four jumpers, at an altitude of 4,000 ft msl, or as authorized by ATC (higher if possible). The FAA National Aviation Events Program's website lists examples of night airborne pyrotechnic special provisions that should be included in the COA for those events conducted at night. However, there was no special provision in the approved COA for the accident night, that authorized the use of pyrotechnics by the airplane.

The authorization included a provision where the airplane owner would contact Lockheed Martin Prescott Flight Service Station (FSS) of the date, time, place, areas, altitudes, nature of activity, duration, and request a NOTAM be issued. However, a NOTAM search by the FSS failed to locate any NOTAMs issued for the accident flight and jump.

The pilot stated that he was unaware that the use of pyrotechnics during the flight was not authorized by the FAA. He further stated that he did not read the COA for the parachute jump event. The airplane's co-owner and lead jumper also stated that the four jumpers had a small pyrotechnic device that they mounted to their ankle, similar but smaller to that on the airplane, that would sparkle as they jumped.

According to Title 14 CFR Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 1, section 1.1, the definition of the pilot-in-command (PIC): "means the person who has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight." The PIC is responsible for the overall safety of the flight, including ensuring the flight is in compliance with all applicable regulations. The language of a former NTSB decision stated factors to consider when determining the extent of a PIC's responsibilities: "As a general rule, the PIC is responsible for the overall safe operation of the aircraft. However, a particular task is the responsibility of another, if the PIC has no independent obligation (e.g. based on operating procedures or manuals) or ability to ascertain the information, and if the captain has no reason to question the other's performance, then and only then will no violation be found." (FAA letter to Mr. Johnson, February 13, 1997).

Birdstrike: Southwest Airlines, Boeing 737-700, N249WN; accident occurred March 27, 2019 near Berry-Nashville International Airport (KBNA), Tennessee

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

https://registry.faa.gov/N249WN

Location: Nashville, TN
Accident Number: DCA19CA130
Date & Time: 03/27/2019, 1925 CDT
Registration: N249WN
Aircraft: Boeing 737
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Birdstrike
Injuries:N/A 
Flight Conducted Under: Part 121: Air Carrier - Scheduled

Analysis 

On March 27, 2019 at 7:25pm central daylight time (EDT), a Boeing 737-700, N249WN, operated by Southwest Airlines as flight 975 struck a bird with the left horizontal stabilizer while descending through 2,500 feet on approach to the Berry-Nashville International Airport (KBNA), Nashville, Tennessee. The airplane landed at KBNA with no further incident. There were no injuries and the airplane was substantial damaged. The regularly scheduled passenger flight was operating under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 121 from the Pittsburgh International Airport (KPIT), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to KBNA.

Damage to the airplane included a 12 inch crack in the forward spar, requiring replacement of the horizontal stabilizer. Bird residue was sent to the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History laboratory, and identified as a Great Blue Heron.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
a collision with a bird.

Findings

Environmental issues
Animal(s)/bird(s) - Effect on equipment (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Approach
Birdstrike (Defining event) 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Engineer
Age: 56
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 01/13/2019
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 08/16/2018
Flight Time:  23718 hours (Total, all aircraft), 15630 hours (Total, this make and model), 14771 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 154 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 62 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2.5 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Co-Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 33
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): 
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine; Instrument Airplane
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 02/12/2019
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 02/18/2019
Flight Time: 4988 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1317 hours (Total, this make and model), 1128 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 161 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 61 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Boeing
Registration: N249WN
Model/Series:737 7H4 
Aircraft Category:Airplane 
Year of Manufacture:
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Transport
Serial Number: 34951
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 151
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 02/19/2019,
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 154500 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 2 Turbo Fan
Airframe Total Time: 44455 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Cfm Intl
ELT: Installed
Engine Model/Series: CFM56-7B24
Registered Owner: Southwest Airlines Co
Rated Power: 10142 hp
Operator: Southwest Airlines
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Flag carrier (121)

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Night
Observation Facility, Elevation: KBNA
Distance from Accident Site: 10 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 2353
Direction from Accident Site:
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 2500 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 6 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:
Wind Direction: 210°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:
Altimeter Setting: 30.25 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 2°C
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point: Pittsburgh, PA (KPIT)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: IFR
Destination: Nashville, TN (KBNA)
Type of Clearance: IFR
Departure Time: 1925 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class C

Airport Information

Airport: Nashville International Airpor (KBNA)
Runway Surface Type:
Airport Elevation: 599 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Unknown
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: Visual
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: N/A
Latitude, Longitude: 36.124444, -86.678056

Piper PA-18-225 Super Cub (Tubbs S/performance Air Inc), registered to and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight, N727WW: Accident occurred April 22, 2019 near McCall Municipal Airport (KMYL), Valley County, Idaho

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Boise, Idaho

Aviation Accident Preliminary Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

PuddleJumpers LLC 

https://registry.faa.gov/N727WW

Location: McCall, ID
Accident Number: WPR19LA120
Date & Time: 04/22/2019, 2020 MDT
Registration: N727WW
Aircraft: Piper PA 18 225 DD
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On April 22, 2019, about 2020 mountain daylight time, a Piper PA-18, N727WW, collided with trees following a loss of engine power about 4.5 miles east of McCall Municipal Airport (MYL), McCall, Idaho. The private pilot was not injured, and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the night flight and no flight plan was filed. The flight departed from a private ranch near Challis, Idaho, about 2000, with an intended destination of MYL.

The pilot reported that 10 miles east of MYL he began a cruise descent for landing from 10,500 ft at a reduced power setting. Shortly after the power reduction, the engine continued to run, but did not respond to throttle input. The pilot began to trouble shoot the issue, but the airplane continued to descend. As there was no place to land, other than trees, the pilot concentrated on flying the airplane and to slow it down as much as possible without stalling, thereafter the airplane impacted the trees. While the pilot awaited rescue, he reported that fuel was leaking from the airplane.

The airplane was recovered for further examination.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Piper
Registration: N727WW
Model/Series: PA 18 225 DD No Series
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Amateur Built: No
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site:
Condition of Light:
Observation Facility, Elevation:
Observation Time:
Distance from Accident Site:
Temperature/Dew Point:
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: / ,
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility:  
Altimeter Setting:
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Departure Point: Challis, ID (LLJ)
Destination: McCall, ID (MYL)

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 44.881111, -116.003611 (est)