Sunday, January 14, 2018

Cessna 182A Skylane, N6193B, Connecticut Parachutists Inc: Accident occurred June 01, 2017 at Ellington Airport (7B9), Tolland County, Connecticut

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Enfield, Connecticut

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board:https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms 

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Connecticut Parachutists Inc: http://registry.faa.gov/N6193B

Location: Ellington, CT
Accident Number: GAA17CA325
Date & Time: 06/01/2017, 1345 UTC
Registration: N6193B
Aircraft: CESSNA 182
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Landing area overshoot
Injuries: 4 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Skydiving

Analysis

According to the pilot, he landed the airplane on the 1,800-ft-long asphalt runway in the rain at 70 mph with full flaps. He reported that, on final, he had considered conducting a go-around due to wind and weather, but "we were low, slow, and 130 pounds below maximum gross weight with very dynamic wind conditions at the time and …apartment buildings about 400 yards beyond the end of runway 19." During the landing, he touched down with a right crosswind, about 600 ft beyond the runway threshold.

He recalled that he retracted the flaps and pulled the control wheel all the way aft to put as much weight as possible on the main wheels, but he "felt our ground speed was fast and we must have a tailwind." He applied heavy braking, and as the end of the runway approached, he applied full left rudder to avoid a gully that was just beyond the end of the runway. The airplane exited the end of the runway and veered left. The airplane entered the gully and impacted vegetation.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the right-wing spar and aileron.

The nearest METAR was 10 nautical miles east of the accident site, and it reported that the wind was from 270° at 13 knots, gusting to 20 knots. The visibility was 10 statute miles with light rain.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Per the National Transportation Safety Board Pilot Aircraft Accident Report, the pilot noted that the accident could have been prevented by initiating a go-around after he realized that he could not land in the first third of the runway. He noted that the approaching rain and wind conditions added personal pressure to land before conditions deteriorated. Additionally, he reported that under normal, dry conditions, heavy braking was required to prevent an overrun. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's unstabilized approach and failure to go around in rainy, gusting crosswind conditions, which resulted in a runway overrun. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's self-induced pressure to land due to the deteriorating weather conditions. 

Findings

Aircraft
Descent/approach/glide path - Not attained/maintained (Cause)
Landing distance - Capability exceeded (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)
Motivation/respond to pressure - Pilot (Factor)

Environmental issues
Rain - Effect on equipment (Cause)
Crosswind - Effect on operation
Gusts - Effect on operation

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll
Abnormal runway contact
Landing area overshoot (Defining event)
Loss of control on ground
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 65, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 01/12/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 09/22/2016
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 944 hours (Total, all aircraft), 14 hours (Total, this make and model), 832 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 39 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 16 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N6193B
Model/Series: 182 A
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1957
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 34193
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 1
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 07/27/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2950 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 12792.5 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: CONT MOTOR
ELT: C91A installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-470
Registered Owner: CONNECTICUT PARACHUTISTS INC
Rated Power: 230 hp
Operator: CONNECTICUT PARACHUTISTS INC
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KBDL, 179 ft msl
Observation Time: 1751 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 10 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 274°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Few / 5000 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 21°C / 11°C
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 7000 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 13 knots/ 20 knots, 270°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 29.88 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV): 
Precipitation and Obscuration: Light - Rain
Departure Point: Ellington, CT (7B9)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Ellington, CT (7B9)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 1345 UTC
Type of Airspace: Class E

Airport Information

Airport: ELLINGTON (7B9)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 253 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Wet
Runway Used: 19
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 1800 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 3 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 4 None
Latitude, Longitude: 41.925556, -72.457222 (est)

Cessna TU206B Super Skywagon, N10AR, K Airmotive LLC: Accident occurred July 23, 2017 at McKinnon Airpark (OG29), Sandy, Clackamas County, Oregon



Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Portland, Oregon

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

K Airmotive LLC: http://registry.faa.gov/N10AR




Location: Sandy, OR
Accident Number: GAA17CA432
Date & Time: 07/23/2017, 1220 PDT
Registration: N10AR
Aircraft: CESSNA TU206B
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control in flight
Injuries: 4 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

According to the pilot, he checked the wind sock at the airpark and made left traffic for a landing on the turf surface of runway 25.

As the airplane touched down, it encountered a gust of wind from the left. The right-wing struck the ground, followed by the left-wing and the propeller striking the ground. The nose landing gear collapsed, and the airplane came to rest upright, on the main landing gear and the fuselage.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the right and left-wing spars.

The pilot reported the wind was from 270 degrees at 7 knots, unknown if it was gusting.

The nearest METAR, 10 miles northwest of the airpark, reported that about the time of the accident the wind was variable at 3 knots, the ceiling was overcast at 2,100 feet and the visibility was greater than 10 statute miles.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation. 



Pilot Information


Certificate: Private
Age: 77, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 11/10/2014
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 08/20/2015
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 2360 hours (Total, all aircraft), 630 hours (Total, this make and model), 2360 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 7 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 4.4 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information


Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N10AR
Model/Series: TU206B B
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1966
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: U206-0738
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 03/18/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3600 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3190.13 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Continental
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: TS10520C
Registered Owner: K AIRMOTIVE LLC
Rated Power: 285 hp
Operator: K AIRMOTIVE LLC
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KTTD, 29 ft msl
Observation Time: 1853 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 10 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 316°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Temperature/Dew Point: 22°C / 16°C
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 2100 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: Light and Variable, Variable
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.03 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: SANDY RIVER AIR, OR (0629)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Sandy, OR (0629)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1220 PDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information


Airport: MC KINNON AIRPARK (OG29)
Runway Surface Type: Grass/turf
Airport Elevation: 658 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 25
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3000 ft / 50 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Straight-in 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 3 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 4 None
Latitude, Longitude: 45.430556, -122.241944 (est)

Piper L-21B, N3907E: Accident occurred July 22, 2017 at Cartersville Airport (KVPC), Bartow County, Georgia

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Atlanta, Georgia

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N3907E

Analysis

The pilot in the tailwheel-equipped airplane reported that the purpose of flight was to meet takeoff and landing requirements necessary to carry passengers. During the pilot's second landing, during the landing roll, the airplane veered right, and he attempted to correct with left rudder. The rudder input was ineffective, and he attempted to gain directional control using differential braking. However, during the brake applications, the airplane nosed over and came to rest inverted.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the horizontal stabilizer and the rudder.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's loss of directional control during the landing roll and subsequent excessive brake application, which resulted in a nose-over. 

Findings

Aircraft
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)
Brake - Incorrect use/operation (Cause) 

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)
Use of equip/system - Pilot (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Runway excursion

Nose over/nose down

Location: CARTERSVILLE, GA
Accident Number: GAA17CA428
Date & Time: 07/22/2017, 1345 EDT
Registration: N3907E
Aircraft: PIPER L 21B
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

The pilot in the tailwheel equipped airplane reported that the purpose of flight was to meet takeoff and landing requirements necessary to carry passengers. During the pilot's second landing, during the landing roll, the airplane veered to the right and he attempted to correct with left rudder. The rudder input was ineffective, and he attempted to gain directional control using differential braking. However, during the brake applications the airplane nosed over and came to rest inverted.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the horizontal stabilizer and the rudder.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 47, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: 
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 01/04/2016
Occupational Pilot: 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 12/02/2016
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 199 hours (Total, all aircraft), 64 hours (Total, this make and model), 152 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 3 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: PIPER
Registration:  N3907E
Model/Series:  L 21B B
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 53-7759
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 11/04/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.:  1750 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3670 Hours
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91A installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-320 B2B
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 160
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KVPC, 763 ft msl
Observation Time: 1653 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 260°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 3400 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 32°C / 25°C
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 4700 ft agl
Visibility:  8 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: Light and Variable, Variable
Visibility (RVR): 
Altimeter Setting: 30.03 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV): 
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: CARTERSVILLE, GA (VPC)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: CARTERSVILLE, GA (VPC)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1300 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: CARTERSVILLE (VPC)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 759 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 19
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 5760 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor
Latitude, Longitude: 34.123056, -84.848611 (est)

de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver, N364RA, Bay Air Inc: Accident occurred July 21, 2017 at Shannons Pond Seaplane Base (0Z3), Dillingham, Alaska

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Anchorage, Alaska

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


Bay Air Inc: http://registry.faa.gov/N364RA

Analysis 

The pilot stated that he was departing on a postmaintenance flight check in a float-equipped airplane from a short water lane at a remote, unimproved seaplane base. While taxiing for departure, he left the wing flaps in the "up" position to aid in turning the airplane on the water. After aligning the airplane for the takeoff run, he applied full power, and the airplane accelerated onto the step. While attempting to rotate, he realized that he had forgotten to reset the wing flaps to the "takeoff" position. He attempted to reset the manually operated, hydraulically actuated wing flaps, but the incorrect flap setting led to a longer-than-normal takeoff run, and the airplane subsequently impacted the water lane's far bank, which resulted in substantial damage to the left wing and left-wing strut. The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical anomalies with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to set the wing flaps to the "takeoff" position, which resulted in a longer-than-normal takeoff run and collision with terrain.

Findings

Aircraft
LE flap control system - Incorrect use/operation (Cause)

Personnel issues
Use of equip/system - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Terrain - Effect on operation (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Takeoff
Collision during takeoff/land (Defining event)

Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Location: Dillingham, AK
Accident Number: ANC17CA038
Date & Time: 07/21/2017, 1200 AKD
Registration: N364RA
Aircraft: DEHAVILLAND DHC 2
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Miscellaneous/other
Injuries: 3 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

The pilot stated that he was departing on a post-maintenance flight check in a float-equipped airplane from a short waterlane, at a remote unimproved seaplane base. While taxiing for departure, he left the wing flaps in the up position to aid in turning the airplane on the water. After aligning the airplane for the takeoff run, he applied full power and the airplane accelerated onto the step. While attempting to rotate, he realized that he had forgot to reset the wing flaps to the takeoff position. He attempted to reset the manually operated hydraulically actuated wing flaps, but the airplane impacted the waterlane's far bank sustaining substantial damage to the left wing, and left-wing strut. The pilot stated that there were no preaccident mechanical anomalies that would have precluded normal operation.

In the recommendation section of the NTSB Accident/Incident Reporting Form 6120.1, the pilot stated that the accident may have been prevented if he would have utilized the airplane's checklist or rechecked the position of the wing flaps. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport
Age: 58, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land; Single-engine Sea
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Multi-engine; Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/08/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 10/13/2016
Flight Time: 23732 hours (Total, all aircraft), 6972 hours (Total, this make and model), 23601 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 110 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 110 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: DEHAVILLAND
Registration: N364RA
Model/Series: DHC 2 MARK I
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1951
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 364 
Landing Gear Type: Float
Seats: 7
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 07/13/2017, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.:
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 15677 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: P&W
ELT: C126 installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: R-985 SERIES
Registered Owner: BAY AIR INC
Rated Power: 450 hp
Operator: BAY AIR INC
Operating Certificate(s) Held: On-demand Air Taxi (135) 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: PADL
Observation Time: 1956 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 3 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 240°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 18°C / 11°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 5 knots, 180°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 29.97 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV): 
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Dillingham, AK (OZ3)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Dillingham, AK (OZ3)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1200 AKD
Type of Airspace: Class G 

Airport Information

Airport: Shannon Pond (OZ3)
Runway Surface Type: Water
Airport Elevation: 80 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Water--calm
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: None 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 3 None
Latitude, Longitude: 59.199444, -158.741944 (est)

Cessna 170B, N2714D: Accident occurred July 11, 2017 at Friday Harbor Airport (KFHR), San Juan County, Washington

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Seattle, Washington

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board:https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

http://registry.faa.gov/N2714D

Location: Friday Harbor, WA
Accident Number: GAA17CA426
Date & Time: 07/11/2017, 1225 PDT
Registration: N2714D
Aircraft: CESSNA 170
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Business

Analysis 

The pilot in the tailwheel-equipped airplane reported that, following a personal flight, he made a three-point landing on runway 16. He recalled that, during the landing flare, the airplane encountered a wind gust, and following touchdown, the airplane exited the left side of the runway and ground looped to the left. The airplane slid down an embankment, and the right wing struck the ground.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the right-wing spar and aileron.

The METAR at the airport reported that the wind was from 180° at 5 knots with 10 statute miles visibility and clear skies.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's loss of directional control during landing.

Findings

Aircraft
Landing flare - Not attained/maintained (Cause)
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Sloped/uneven terrain - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-flare/touchdown
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)

Landing-landing roll
Runway excursion

Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Location: Friday Harbor, WA

Accident Number: GAA17CA426
Date & Time: 07/11/2017, 1225 PDT
Registration: N2714D
Aircraft: CESSNA 170
Aircraft Damage: Unknown
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 91: General Aviation - Business

The pilot in the tailwheel equipped airplane reported that following a personal flight he made a three-point landing on runway 16.

He recalled that during the landing flare, the airplane encountered a wind gust, and following touch down the airplane exited the left side of the runway and ground looped to the left. The airplane slid down an embankment and the right wing struck the ground.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the right-wing spar and aileron.

The METAR at the airport, reported that the wind was from 180° at 5 knots, with 10 statute miles visibility and clear skies.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.
  
Pilot Information

Certificate: None
Age: 71, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s):  None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 03/04/2015
Occupational Pilot:  
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 07/16/2015
Flight Time: (Estimated) 823 hours (Total, all aircraft), 498 hours (Total, this make and model), 20 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 3 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N2714D
Model/Series: 170 B
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1953
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 25256
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 10/06/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.:  1451 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3404.6 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: CONT MOTOR
ELT: C91  installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: C145 SERIES
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 145 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KORS, 31 ft msl
Observation Time: 1915 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 12 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 22°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 19°C / 11°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 5 knots, 180°
Visibility (RVR): 
Altimeter Setting: 30.11 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV): 
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Friday Harbor, WA (kfhr)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination:  Friday Harbor, WA (KFHR)
Type of Clearance:  VFR
Departure Time:  1150 PDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: FRIDAY HARBOR (FHR)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 110 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 16
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3402 ft / 75 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Unknown
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:  48.521944, -123.024444 (est)

Robinson R44 II, N3203D, operated by JMX Helicopters LLC: Accident occurred July 07, 2017 in Paoli Township, Orange County, Indiana

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Indianapolis, Indiana

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: 
https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms 

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

http://registry.faa.gov/N3203D

Location: Paoli, IN
Accident Number: GAA17CA401
Date & Time: 07/07/2017, 1600 CDT
Registration: N3203D
Aircraft: ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY R44
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Low altitude operation/event
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 137: Agricultural

Analysis 

The helicopter pilot reported that he was performing an agricultural application flight and was in a hurry to spray the field because of a previous 3-hour delay caused by a broken fuel truck. The pilot reported that the weight of the helicopter was 60 lbs above the helicopter's maximum gross weight and that he "approached the field with the understanding that I was heavier, and it was hotter and more windy than I originally planned for."

The pilot reported that the helicopter was headed south and that the wind was from the southwest about 15 knots. He made a low-altitude, low-airspeed, left turn to the north, and the helicopter entered a nose-low attitude and sank more rapidly than he anticipated. The pilot aborted the turn and chose to maintain a southeast heading to use the crosswind to avoid power lines. He attempted to arrest the sink rate by increasing the collective, but the low rotor rpm horn sounded.

The helicopter impacted the ground, bounced, and then rolled onto its left side. The helicopter sustained substantial damage to the tailboom and the main rotor system.

The nearest METAR was about 32 miles northwest of the accident site, and it reported, at the time of the accident, wind from 230° at 9 knots, gusting to 16 knots. The temperature was 88°F and the dew point was 20°F. The field elevation was 696 ft, and the density altitude was 2,786 ft.

According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Helicopter Flying Handbook, FAA-8083-21A (pg. 2-4, para. 5), "turns in a helicopter increase the load factor exponentially, ultimately increasing the power requirement that is necessary to maintain the helicopter's altitude. Left pedal turns increase the quantity of anti-torque produced by the tail rotor, by demanding additional power from the 260-brake horsepower engine. Pilot flight control inputs demanding more power than the engine is capable of producing, with respect to the atmospheric conditions, adversely affects the helicopter's ability to sustain its altitude. Available engine power is directly correlated to main and tail rotor RPM. When the engine fails to produce the required power to sustain airspeed and altitude at high DA [descent altitude], the main rotor blades will exceed their critical angle of attack, consequently decreasing main rotor blade RPM."

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the helicopter that would have precluded normal operation. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's decision to maneuver an overgross weight helicopter at a low altitude and airspeed with a gusting tailwind, which resulted in a high descent rate and collision with terrain. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's self-induced pressure to complete the operations due to a delay before the operations began. 

Findings

Aircraft
Climb rate - Not attained/maintained (Cause)
Maximum weight - Capability exceeded

Personnel issues
Decision making/judgment - Pilot (Cause)
Motivation/respond to pressure - Pilot (Factor)

Environmental issues
Tailwind - Effect on equipment

Location: Paoli, IN
Accident Number: GAA17CA401
Date & Time: 07/07/2017, 1600 CDT
Registration: N3203D
Aircraft: ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY R44
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Aerodynamic stall/spin
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 137: Agricultural

The helicopter pilot reported that he was performing an agricultural flight and was in a hurry to spray the field because of a previous 3-hour delay caused by a broken fuel truck.

The pilot reported that the weight of the helicopter was sixty pounds above the helicopter's maximum gross weight, and "I approached the field with the understanding that I was heavier, and it was hotter and more windy than I originally planned for."

He reported that the helicopter was headed south, and the wind was from the southwest about 15 knots.

The pilot made a low altitude, low airspeed, left turn to the north, and the helicopter entered a nose low attitude and had a more rapid sink rate than he anticipated. The pilot aborted the turn and chose to maintain a southeast heading to utilize the crosswind to avoid powerline wires. He attempted to arrest the sink rate by increasing the collective, but the low rotor RPM horn sounded.

The helicopter impacted the ground and bounced, then it rolled onto its left side. The helicopter sustained substantial damage to the tailboom, and the main rotor system.

The nearest METAR was about 32 miles northwest at the time of the accident reported and the wind was from 230° at 9 knots gusting to 16 knots. The temperature was 88°F and the dew point was 20°F. The field elevation was 696 feet and the density altitude was 2,786 feet.

According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Helicopter Flying Handbook, FAA-8083-21A (pg. 2-4, para. 5), turns in a helicopter increase the load factor exponentially, ultimately increasing the power requirement that is necessary to maintain the helicopter's altitude. Left pedal turns increase the quantity of anti-torque produced by the tail rotor, by demanding additional power from the 260-brake horsepower engine. Pilot flight control inputs demanding more power than the engine is capable of producing, with respect to the atmospheric conditions, adversely affects the helicopters ability to sustain its altitude. Available engine power is directly correlated to main and tail rotor RPM. When the engine fails to produce the required power to sustain airspeed and altitude at high DA, the main rotor blades will exceed their critical angle of attack, consequently decreasing main rotor blade RPM.

According to the FAA Helicopter Instructor's Handbook, FAA-8083-4 (pg. 8-4, para. 5), If a pilot begins a landing approach with a 10 knot tailwind, at some time in the approach, the helicopter experiences a zero knot airspeed, which means a total loss of translational lift and thrust. In order to maintain the approach angle, more power must be added.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the helicopter that would have precluded normal operation.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 28, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 
Instrument Rating(s): Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Helicopter; Instrument Helicopter
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 03/10/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 03/17/2016
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 1548 hours (Total, all aircraft), 797 hours (Total, this make and model), 1450 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft)
  
Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
Registration: N3203D
Model/Series: R44 II
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Year of Manufacture: 2005
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Restricted
Serial Number: 11598
Landing Gear Type:  Skid;
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 03/21/2017, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2400 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 1827 Hours
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: IO-540-F1B5
Registered Owner: Jonathan Mabry
Rated Power: 205 hp
Operator: JMX Helicopters
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Agricultural Aircraft (137)

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KDCY, 470 ft msl
Observation Time: 1955 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 32 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 283°
Lowest Cloud Condition: 
Temperature/Dew Point: 31°C / 20°C
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 4500 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 9 knots/ 16 knots, 230°
Visibility (RVR): 
Altimeter Setting: 29.89 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV): 
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Sparta, IL (SAR)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Washington, IN
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0600 CDT
Type of Airspace: Class G 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 38.585556, -86.464722 (est)