Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Cessna R172K Hawk XP, N736AS: Fatal accident occurred March 05, 2017 in Nome, Alaska


Thomas Joseph Grainger 


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident. 

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office: Fairbanks, Alaska  

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N736AS


Location: Nome, AK
Accident Number: ANC17FA018
Date & Time: 03/05/2017, 2223 AKS
Registration: N736AS
Aircraft: CESSNA R172K
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Fuel exhaustion
Injuries: 1 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On March 5, 2017, about 2223 Alaska standard time, a Cessna R172K airplane, N736AS, impacted sea ice in Norton Sound, about 10 miles east of Nome, Alaska. The private pilot sustained fatal injuries, and the airplane was substantially damaged. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a visual flight rules (VFR) personal flight, and instrument meteorological condition (IMC) prevailed at the time of the accident. No flight plan was filed. The flight departed Wasilla Airport (IYS), Wasilla, Alaska, at 1710 destined for Nome City Field Airport (94Z), Nome, Alaska.

The pilot's fiancée stated that the pilot had not flown his airplane since late summer 2016 and that he had listed the airplane for sale in January 2017 because he flew the airplane infrequently. She said that the pilot had flown to Nome often but usually during the summer. On the day of the accident, the pilot's fiancée observed him fueling the airplane from a self-service commercial fuel tank and filling 5-gallon fuel containers before departure. A fuel receipt indicated that the pilot purchased 35.3 gallons of fuel. 

The distance from IYS to 94Z is about 470 nautical miles (nm). The pilot's fiancée reported that she received a text message from the pilot about 2100 indicating that he was about 45 minutes from 94Z but would not be able to land there due to weather. The pilot also sent a text message to a friend in Nome, asking about the weather. The friend reported that she sent a text message at 2141 to the pilot indicating a visibility of 10 miles and a ceiling of 600 ft overcast. The pilot responded, "Ok I think I can sneak in." He sent text messages to his friend indicating "one more try" and "one more ok" before texting "not happening" at 2214. A review of Garmin GPSmap 296 data showed an airplane track that included four approaches to runway 21 at 94Z, some maneuvering in the area, and a departure from the area to the east.

Witnesses observed the airplane in fog. They stated that the airplane engine sounded normal and that the airplane lights were on. One witness called the Nome flight service station to ensure that the runway lights were on at Nome Airport (PAOM), which was a larger airport located 1 mile west of 94Z. This witness stated that he was surprised that someone would attempt to land at 94Z given the weather conditions (reported by a witness who lived near 94Z to be "very foggy" with a ceiling of about 300 ft) and the unlit snow-covered runway. That witness observed the airplane making multiple approaches in fog and then departing to the east. He also heard, on the common traffic advisory frequency, a transmission that sounded as if someone were stating "no, no, no!" sometime after the airplane departed the area. This witness then listened to another frequency for an emergency locator transmitter signal but did not hear one.

The Garmin GPSmap 296 data showed that the airplane made no en route stops after departure from IYS and that the airplane was at an altitude of about 9,000 ft while in cruise flight. The total GPS distance flown was 518 nm; the total GPS movement time was about 5 hours 15 minutes. The last GPS data point, which was 9 minutes after the last landing attempt, was at 2223 and indicated that the airplane's groundspeed was 36 knots at an altitude of 373 ft. Figure 1 shows the GPS track data in the Nome area. A GPS report is in the public docket for this accident.


Figure 1. Garmin GPSmap 296 flight data and airport and wreckage locations.


The pilot's fiancée reported the airplane overdue about 0530 on March 6. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued an alert notice at 0606, and an area-wide airport and radio search was conducted. About 0959, a Nome search and rescue crew located the airplane wreckage on sea ice about 10 miles east of Nome, in Norton Sound near Hastings Creek. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 28, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 01/22/2013
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 250 hours (Total, all aircraft), 250 hours (Total, this make and model), 200 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

The pilot, age 28, held a private pilot certificate with an airplane single-engine land rating. He held a third-class medical certificate issued on January 22, 2013, with the limitation "not valid for night flying or by color signal control." A review of FAA aeromedical certification documentation revealed that the pilot failed the color vision test during his 2013 and 2006 aeromedical physicals. According to a statement by the pilot's fiancée, the pilot was well rested and had worked until 1300 on the day of the accident.

The pilot's logbook was not located. His most recent FAA medical application, dated January 22, 2013, stated that he had 62 hours total flight experience with no accumulated time in the previous 6 months. The flight time that the pilot accumulated in the 4 years after the examination could not be determined. 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Registration: N736AS
Model/Series: R172K K
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1977
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate:  Normal
Serial Number: R1722378
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 02/05/2015, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2550 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 2102.5 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: CONT MOTOR
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: IO-360-K
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 210 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

The four-seat, high-wing, fixed-gear Cessna R172K Hawk XP airplane, serial number R1722378, was manufactured in 1977. The airplane was equipped with a 210-horsepower Continental Motors IO-360-K engine, serial number 355372, and a constant-speed two-blade McCauley 2A34C203-C propeller. The airplane was configured with wheels.

A review of the airframe and engine logbooks revealed that the airplane's most recent annual inspection was completed on February 5, 2015, with a tachometer time of 1,380.4 hours, an airframe total time of 2,102.5 hours, and an engine time since major overhaul of 131.4 hours. The airplane had not been inspected for more than 2 years before the accident and thus was not in compliance with 14 CFR 91.409(a), which states that airplanes operating under Part 91 are required to undergo annual inspections.

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Instrument Conditions
Condition of Light: Night/Dark
Observation Facility, Elevation: PAOM, 22 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 10 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 0704 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 293°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Thin Overcast / 400 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling:  Overcast / 400 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts:  Calm /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction:
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 30.49 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: -21°C / -22°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: WASILLA, AK (IYS)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: NOME, AK (94Z)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1710 AKS
Type of Airspace: Class E

The closest weather reporting facility was PAOM, which was about 11 miles west of the accident site. At 2204, an automated special weather observation report indicated the following conditions: wind calm, sky overcast 400 ft, visibility 10 miles, temperature -21°C, dew point 22°C, and altimeter 30.49 inches of mercury.

The PAOM terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF) that was published at 1422 on the day of the accident, which would have been available to the pilot before the flight, stated the following conditions from 1600 onward: wind 330° at 3 knots, visibility 4 miles in light snow and mist, and ceiling broken at 1,500 ft. The next TAF was published at 2020, which was after the flight departed, and was valid starting at 2100. The TAF forecasted wind from 280° at 4 knots, visibility 1 ½ miles in light snow and mist, and ceiling overcast at 500 ft. No evidence indicated that the pilot obtained a weather brief before or during the flight.

The nearest public airport outside of Nome is White Mountain Airport (PAWM), White Mountain, Alaska, which is 60 miles northeast of Nome. The 2158 and 2258 automated observations at PAWM both reported a visibility of 10 miles and a clear ceiling. 

The US Naval Observatory listed sunset in Nome on March 5, 2017, at 1933 and the end of evening civil twilight at 2022. The FAA defines night at "the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight."

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 64.448056, -165.091389 (est)

The airplane came to rest in an open area of sea ice and snow in a steep nose-low attitude on a 110° heading, as shown in figure 2. All major components were located in the wreckage field. The engine, forward fuselage, and cabin were significantly crushed, and the wing leading edges exhibited fore-to-aft accordion crush damage. The empennage and rear fuselage were intact with a spanwise fracture and torsional displacement of the rear fuselage behind the wing. All flight control surfaces remained attached to the airplane, and continuity to the cockpit controls was established. The flaps were in the up position. 


Figure 2. N736AS wreckage on the Norton Sound sea ice.


The propeller remained attached to the crankshaft, and the propeller blades were bent slightly aft with no chordwise abrasions or torsional deformation. The engine exhibited impact damage, and the crankcase and cylinders remained intact with no evidence of a catastrophic failure. 

The left and right fuel tank caps were secure, and no measurable fuel was observed in either wing fuel tank, which appeared intact. The fuel selector knob indicated "both." Six plastic 5-gallon containers were located in the aft cabin area. Two of the cans were intact and full of fuel, two were ruptured and smelled of fuel, and two were intact and empty. A large cooler with packaged marijuana was discovered in the rear seat.

Airport Information


According to the FAA Alaska Chart Supplement, 94Z is a public airport with one runway, 03/21. Airport comments state no winter maintenance or snow removal, runway condition not monitored, and visual inspection recommended before landing.

PAOM has a part-time flight service station, instrument approaches to the airport's two runways, and approach lighting systems and precision approach path indicator lights for the runways. Snow removal is performed daily from 0600 to 2130.

PAWM has medium-intensity runway lighting. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The Alaska State Medical Examiner, Anchorage, Alaska, performed an autopsy of the pilot. The autopsy report attributed the pilot's cause of death to multiple blunt force injuries.

The FAA Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, performed forensic toxicology on specimens from the pilot with negative results for carbon monoxide, ethanol, and drugs.

Additional Information

Performance


Fuel Planning


The Cessna 172 Hawk XP pilot operating handbook (POH) indicated that the airplane had a total fuel capacity of 52 gallons and a usable fuel quantity of 49 gallons. A range profile chart in section 5, figure 5-8, indicated that, with standard temperature conditions, at an altitude of 9,000 ft, and with no wind, a 545-nm range can be planned at 60% brake horsepower (BHP), and a 505-nm range can be planned at 70% BHP, with a 5-gallon fuel reserve for each range. The engine power settings and the total fuel quantity at the start of the flight are unknown.

Engine Failure

Section 3 of the POH states the following:


After an engine failure in flight, the best glide speed should be established as quickly as possible. While gliding toward a suitable landing area, an effort should be made to identify the cause of the failure. If the engine cannot be restarted, a forced landing without power must be completed.

The POH also stated that the first procedure for an engine failure during flight is to attain 75 knots (indicated airspeed).

Stalls

Section 2, figure 2-2 of the POH indicated that the stall speed at maximum gross weight with the flaps retracted was 54 knots.

The FAA's Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3A), chapter 4, states the following concerning stalls:

A stall is an aerodynamic condition which occurs when smooth airflow over the airplane's wings is disrupted resulting in loss of lift. Specifically, a stall occurs when the AOA [angle-of-attack]—the angle between the chord line of the wing and the relative wind—exceeds the wing's critical AOA. It is possible to exceed the critical AOA at any airspeed, at any attitude, and at any power setting…. A pilot must recognize the flight conditions that are conductive to stalls and know how to apply the necessary corrective action. This level of proficiency requires learning to recognize an impending stall by sight, sound, and feel.

NTSB Identification: ANC17FA018
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Sunday, March 05, 2017 in Nome, AK
Aircraft: CESSNA R172K, registration: N736AS
Injuries: 1 Fatal.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On March 5, 2017, about 2223 Alaska standard time, a wheel-equipped Cessna 172K airplane, N736AS, sustained substantial damage during impact with sea ice in Norton Sound about 10 miles east of Nome, Alaska. The private pilot and sole occupant received fatal injuries. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot as a visual flight rules (VFR) cross-country personal flight under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91, when the accident occurred. Visual meteorological conditions (VMC) prevailed along the route of flight, and instrument meteorological condition (IMC) prevailed at the destination. No flight plan was filed. The flight departed the Wasilla Airport, Wasilla, Alaska at 1710 destined for Nome City Field Airport (94Z), Nome.

During an interview with the National Transportations Safety Board (NTSB) investigator-in-charge (IIC) on March 7, the pilot's fiancé said that the pilot was going to visit friends in Nome and that he was time limited by his work schedule. She said that at about 1700 she witnessed him fueling the airplane and two fuel containers, for a total of 35.3 gallons, per the fuel company records. She said that the pilot flew this route often, maybe 20 times before, but usually in summer.

During an interview with the NTSB IIC on March 8, a friend of the pilot in Nome said that she was expecting him that night by 2130 and he was planning to land at Nome City Field. The airplane arrived in the Nome area at 2141 and she and the pilot texted back and forth for the remainder of the flight. Prior to making any approaches, the friend texted the weather to be "10 miles 600 over." The pilot texted back "Ok I think I can sneak in," then he proceeded to make four visual approaches to City Field runway 21, as well as circling maneuvers in the area. He texted "one more try" and after he couldn't land, he texted "one more ok" before his last attempt. At 2214 he texted "not happening" and departed the area. 

During an interview with the NTSB IIC on March 7, a witness who lives near City Airport saw the airplane making multiple approaches and depart to the east. He also heard a transmission on the common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) of 123.6 MHz that sounded like "no, no, no" sometime after the airplane departed the area. The concerned witness then listened on 121.5 MHz for an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) signal, but did not hear one.

The pilot's fiancé reported the airplane overdue at about 0530 on March 6. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued an ALNOT (alert notice) at 0606 and an area wide airport and radio search was conducted. At about 0959 a Nome Search and Rescue crew located the airplane wreckage about 10 miles east of Nome, on sea ice, near Hastings Creek. The wreckage consisted of the entire airplane in a vertical nose down attitude. The Garmin GPSMAP 296 device was recovered and downloaded by the NTSB IIC. 

The Garmin GPS data indicates that the airplane took off from Wasilla at 1710 and made no enroute stops. The data shows an airplane track that included four approaches to Nome City Airport runway 21, some maneuvering in the area, then a departure to the east. The total GPS distance flown was 596 statute miles and total GPS time 5.3 hours. The last data point was at time 2223 and indicated the airplane at a groundspeed of 42 mph and 373 feet GPS altitude near the wreckage location.

According to the FAA Alaska Chart Supplement, the Nome City Field Airport has no lighting and is not plowed in winter. About one mile to the west is Nome Airport, which does have runway and approach lighting and is fully maintained.

The pilot held a current FAA Third Class Medical Certificate that stated the restriction "not valid for night flying or by color signal control." 

The Cessna 172K Pilot Operating Handbook indicates a maximum fuel capacity of 52 U.S. gallons and usable fuel of 49 U.S. gallons. The actual fuel quantity for this flight is unknown.

The closest weather reporting facility is Nome Airport, Nome, Alaska, about 11 miles west of the accident site. At 2204, an aviation special weather report (SPECI) from the Nome Airport was reporting in part: Wind calm; sky condition, overcast 400 feet; visibility, 10 statute miles; temperature -21 degrees C; dewpoint -22 degrees C; altimeter, 30.49 inHg. Official sunset was 1933.

Cessna 182P Skylane, N52388: Fatal accident occurred December 29, 2016 in Dabob, Washington

9-year-old Logan and 5-year-old Mackenzie Echevarria of Bellingham, Washington.

Pilot Jon R. Bernhoft (age 63), his fiancee Carla Parke (age 61), her grandson Logan Echevarria (age 9) and granddaughter Mackenzie Echevarria (age 5) died in a plane crash on December 29th, 2016.


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident. 

Additional Participating Entities: 

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Renton, Washington 
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas
Continental Motors Group; Mobile, Alabama 

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

  
http://registry.faa.gov/N52388 



Location: Dabob, WA
Accident Number: WPR17FA044
Date & Time: 12/29/2016, 1844 PST
Registration: N52388
Aircraft: CESSNA 182
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control in flight
Injuries: 4 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On December 29, 2016, about 1844 Pacific standard time, a Cessna 182P, N52388, collided with terrain near Dabob, Washington. The non-instrument-rated private pilot and three passengers were fatally injured. The airplane was substantially damaged. The airplane was registered to the pilot who was operating it under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. Night meteorological conditions prevailed in the vicinity of the accident site, and no flight plan was filed for the personal cross-country flight. The visual flight rules (VFR) flight departed at 1816 from Boeing Field International Airport (BFI), Seattle, Washington, and was enroute to William R. Fairchild International Airport (CLM), Port Angeles, Washington.

According to a family member, the pilot, his wife, and two grandchildren flew from CLM to BFI in the morning, spent the day in the Seattle area, and were returning to CLM when the accident occurred. According to air traffic control communications, at 1833, the pilot was transferred from the BFI tower controller to the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island Approach Control West (APW) controller.

A review of the airplane's radar track (see Figure 1) showed that the airplane departed the BFI area on a northwest heading climbing to about 2,800 ft mean sea level (msl) before descending with altitudes varying between 2,500 ft msl and 2,000 ft msl.

At 1833:30, the airplane traveled west into the northern side of restricted airspace P-51. At 1834:04, the APW controller asked the pilot if he was reversing course, and the pilot replied that he was just trying to stay out of the restricted airspace. At this point, the airplane started a 270° left turn at 1,850 ft msl. Halfway through the turn, the airplane descended to 1,025 ft msl or about 600 ft above ground level (agl). The airplane exited P-51 traveling northwest about 1834:44.

At 1837:26, the APW controller asked the pilot for his intentions, and the pilot replied that he was trying to stay out of the clouds. The airplane completed a 270° turn at 1,400 ft msl and headed northeast. At 1837:58, the pilot asked for vectors to Port Townsend. The APW controller recommended a 050° heading to get the airplane east of an area where the minimum vectoring altitude was 8,800 ft msl before turning the airplane north toward Port Townsend.

At 1839:15, the APW controller instructed the pilot to maintain VFR flight and indicated that Port Townsend was at a heading of 340°; the pilot confirmed that he was turning to 340°. Over the next 5 minutes, the airplane performed two left 360° turns, while its altitude varied between 1,100 ft msl and 2,475 ft msl. At 1840:41, the controller told the pilot he would be unable to fly on that 340° heading to maintain VFR and recommended that he head east. The pilot replied and stated he was heading east. About a minute later, the airplane turned north and the controller asked the pilot his intentions. The pilot stated he was going to turn west to CLM, and the controller informed the pilot he would not be able to maintain radar contact with him. The controller again offered assistance and the pilot responded by stating he was heading towards CLM and thought he may have been out of the clouds. At 1843:30, as the airplane completed the last 360° turn and headed northwest, the controller asked if he was heading towards CLM now, and the pilot responded with "affirmative."

At 1844:43, APW lost radar contact with N52388 about 14 miles south of Jefferson County International Airport, Port Townsend, Washington, and about a half mile northwest of the accident site.


Figure 1-Radar Track


A witness located at his residence, about 800 ft to the southwest of the accident site, reported that he heard an airplane flying southeast then east and that the engine was loud.

After radio and radar contact were lost, the FAA issued an alert notice. A search was conducted by the US Navy and a Washington State search and rescue team. The airplane was located on the morning of December 30, 2016, about 1.5 miles south of Dabob, in steep, heavily wooded terrain. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 63, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/03/2015
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 700 hours (Total, all aircraft)

The pilot, age 63, held a private pilot certificate with an airplane single-engine land rating. His most recent third-class FAA medical certificate was issued on April 3, 2015, with limitations that he must wear corrective lenses. The pilot reported on the medical certificate application that he had accumulated 700 total hours of flight experience of which 54 hours were in the last 6 months. The pilot's logbook was examined during the investigation, and the entries did not appear to have been updated recently. The last entry in the logbook was dated September 18, 2015.



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Registration: N52388
Model/Series: 182 P
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1973
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18262571
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/11/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2348 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 2554 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Continental
ELT: C91  installed, activated, aided in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-470-R-25A
Registered Owner: Gerald E. Lematta and Jon R. Bernhoft
Rated Power: 235 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

A review of the airplane's logbooks revealed that the airplane, serial number 18262571, had a total airframe time of 2,554 hours at the last annual inspection dated August 11, 2016. The engine was a Continental Motors O-470-R-25A, serial number 451850. Total time recorded on the engine at the last annual inspection was 2,554 hours, and time since major overhaul was 517.2 hours.

Refueling records provided by Diamond Service at BFI, revealed that the pilot purchased 10.2 gallons of 100 low lead aviation grade gasoline on the day of the accident.



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Night/Dark
Observation Facility, Elevation: KPWT, 444 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 20 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 0235 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 177°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 600 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: Calm /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction:
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.15 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 5°C / 4°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: SEATTLE, WA (BFI)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: PORT ANGELES, WA (CLM)
Type of Clearance: VFR Flight Following
Departure Time: 1816 PST
Type of Airspace: Class G

At 1753, the reported weather at BFI included variable wind at 6 knots, visibility 10 miles, light rain, broken ceiling at 1,800 ft agl, overcast skies at 3,000 ft agl, temperature 8°C, dew point 6°C, and altimeter setting 30.13 inches of mercury.

At 1835, Bremerton National Airport (PWT), Bremerton, Washington, located about 20 miles south of the accident site, reported, in part, wind calm, visibility 10 miles, overcast ceiling at 600 ft agl, temperature 5°C, dew point 4°C, and altimeter setting 30.15 inches of mercury.

Review of infrared satellite imagery from 1845 and 1900 indicated abundant clouds over the accident site at the accident time. The clouds were moving from west to east, and there was a band of clouds oriented west to east over the accident site around the accident time. Based on the brightness temperatures above the accident site and the vertical temperature profile provided by upper air data, the cloud-top heights over the accident site were about 20,000 ft at 1845. Based on the upper air data, infrared satellite imagery, and surface observation data, the flight likely encountered precipitation, lowering ceilings, and instrument meteorological conditions shortly after passing northwestward across Puget Sound.

Astronomical data obtained from the United States Naval Observatory for the accident site on the day of the accident indicated that sunset was at 1627, the end of civil twilight was at 1703, and moonset was at 1721.

A search of official weather briefing sources, such as Lockheed Martin Flight Service and Direct User Access Terminal Service, indicated that the pilot did not receive an official weather briefing from those sources. A search of ForeFlight weather information revealed that the pilot did not request a weather briefing using ForeFlight Mobile before the flight. It is unknown if the pilot checked or received any other weather information before or during the accident flight.

For more information see the Weather Study in the public docket for this accident. 


Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 3 Fatal
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 4 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 47.823611, -122.790000 (est) 

The on-site examination of the wreckage revealed that the airplane came to rest at the base of a draw between two hills that gradually sloped down in a northeast to southwest direction. The debris field from the initial impact to the last piece of wreckage was about 160 ft long and on a magnetic heading of 225°. The first identified point of contact (FIPC) was with three trees at about 30 ft above the ground. The left aileron outboard wing section was found near the base of the trees.

The main wreckage consisting of the fuselage, engine, propeller, empennage, and sections from the left and right wings, was located near the end of the debris path. The fuselage was orientated on about a 100° magnetic heading. The forward fuselage and cabin were fragmented and mostly separated.

The engine had separated from the airframe and was located near the main wreckage.

The propeller had separated from the engine and was found buried in the dirt near the main wreckage. The propeller hub assembly was heavily fragmented and both blades had separated from the hub. Rotational scoring was observed on one of the propeller shanks. Both blades displayed S-bending and about 2 inches of the tip had separated from one blade.

The aft fuselage and empennage separated from the main wreckage near the aft cabin area. The separated rudder and vertical stabilizer fragments were located 160 ft northeast of the main wreckage and displayed circular tree strike indentions.

The attitude indicator had separated from the instrument panel and was located near the main wreckage. The outer case of the instrument was fragmented. Its gyro was extracted, and rotational scoring was noted. 



Medical And Pathological Information

Pacific Northwest Forensic Pathologists, Tacoma, Washington, conducted an autopsy on the pilot. The forensic pathologist determined that the cause of death was severe multiple blunt force injuries to the body.

The FAA's Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, performed toxicology testing on available tissue specimens from the pilot and identified 7-amino-clonazepam, bupropion, and trazodone in muscle. Bupropion and trazodone were also identified in lung.

The drug 7-amino-clonazepam is an inactive metabolite of clonazepam, which is a sedating benzodiazepine prescription medication used to treat anxiety and often marketed with the name Klonopin. Clonazepam carries this warning, "Since clonazepam produces [central nervous system] CNS depression, patients receiving this drug should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. They should also be warned about the concomitant use of alcohol or other CNS-depressant drugs during clonazepam therapy."

Bupropion is an antidepressant. Trazodone is a sedating antidepressant that may be used to treat insomnia. Trazodone carries this warning, "Antidepressants may impair the mental and/or physical ability required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as operating an automobile or machinery; the patient should be cautioned accordingly. Trazodone hydrochloride may enhance the response to alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants."

Additional Information

Spatial Disorientation


According to the FAA Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3), "night flying is very different from day flying and demands more attention of the pilot. The most noticeable difference is the limited availability of outside visual references. Therefore, flight instruments should be used to a greater degree.… Generally, at night it is difficult to see clouds and restrictions to visibility, particularly on dark nights or under overcast. The pilot flying under [visual flight rules] VFR must exercise caution to avoid flying into clouds or a layer of fog." The handbook described some hazards associated with flying in airplanes under VFR when visual references, such as the ground or horizon, are obscured. The handbook states that, "the vestibular sense (motion sensing by the inner ear) in particular tends to confuse the pilot. Because of inertia, the sensory areas of the inner ear cannot detect slight changes in the attitude of the airplane, nor can they accurately sense attitude changes that occur at a uniform rate over a period of time. On the other hand, false sensations are often generated; leading the pilot to believe the attitude of the airplane has changed when in fact, it has not. These false sensations result in the pilot experiencing spatial disorientation."

NTSB Identification: WPR17FA044
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Thursday, December 29, 2016 in Dabob, WA
Aircraft: CESSNA 182, registration: N52388
Injuries: 4 Fatal.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On December 29, 2016, about 1844 Pacific standard time, a Cessna 182P, N52388, collided with terrain near Dabob, Washington. The private pilot and three passengers were fatally injured. The airplane was substantially damaged. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot as a personal flight under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. Visual and instrument meteorological conditions prevailed in the vicinity of the accident site during dark nighttime. A flight plan was not filed for the cross-country flight. The flight originated from Boeing Field International Airport (BFI), Seattle, Washington at 1816 with a planned destination of William R. Fairchild International Airport (CLM), Port Angeles, Washington.

After losing radio and radar contact with Whidbey Island Naval Air Station Approach Control the accident airplane became the subject of an Alert Notice (ALNOT) issued by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). A search was conducted by the U.S Navy and a Washington State search and rescue team. The airplane was subsequently located the morning of December 30, 2016. The wreckage was located about 1.5 miles south of Dabob, WA in steep, heavily wooded terrain. 

A witness located at his residence, about 800 feet to the southwest of the accident site, reported that he heard the airplane flying southeast then east and that the engine was loud.

Review of radar data provided by the FAA revealed a primary target, consistent with the accident airplane, was traveling on a northwest heading climbing to about 2,800 feet mean sea level (msl) before descending and oscillating between 2,500 feet msl and 2,000 feet msl. The radar target then depicted three left 360-degree turns to a northerly heading, while continuing to oscillate between 1,700 feet msl and 1,100 feet msl before descending to its last radar target. The last radar target was about a half mile northwest of the accident site at an altitude of 1,675 feet msl.

The on-site examination of the wreckage revealed that the airplane collided with trees in steep rising terrain and came to rest at the base of a draw between two hills. The left outboard wing section separated during the initial impact sequence and semicircular impact damage was noted to the leading edge of the wing. 

The closest weather reporting station was located at Bremerton National Airport (PWT), Bremerton, Washington, located about 20 miles to the south of the accident site. A review of the weather revealed that conditions deteriorated after 1615 with an overcast ceiling of 800 feet above the ground level (agl). A further review revealed that at 1835, 9 minutes prior to the accident, the station disseminated an automated observation, that reported, in part, wind calm, 10 miles visibility, overcast ceiling at 600 feet, temperature 5° C, dew point 4° C, altimeter 30.15 inches of mercury. 

According to the Astronomical Applications Department at the United States Naval Observatory, the official sunset was at 1626, the official end of civil twilight was at 1702, and the official moonrise was 1404. 

The wreckage was recovered and transported to a secure facility for further examination.

Mooney M20K 231, registered to MC AIR Inc and operated by the pilot, N97119: Fatal accident occurred April 21, 2016 at Woodland State Airport (W27), Woodland, Washington

Marc Sebastian Messina 
 1960 - 2016


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities: 

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Portland, Oregon
Continental Motors, Inc.; Mobile, Alabama 
Mooney International Corporation; Kerrville, Texas

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


http://registry.faa.gov/N97119



Marc Messina 

Location: Woodland, WA
Accident Number: WPR16FA095
Date & Time: 04/21/2016, 1445 PDT
Registration: N97119
Aircraft: MOONEY AIRCRAFT CORP. M20K
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Miscellaneous/other
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 2 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On April 21, 2016, about 1445 Pacific daylight time, a Mooney M20K, N97119, was substantially damaged when it impacted terrain during an aborted takeoff from Woodland State Airport (W27), Woodland, Washington. The rear seat passenger was fatally injured, and the commercial pilot and the front seat passenger received serious injuries. The airplane was registered to MC AIR, Inc., and was being operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and an instrument flight rules flight plan was filed for the cross-country flight, which was destined for Renton Municipal Airport (RNT), Renton, Washington. The flight was originating at the time of the accident.


The pilot flew from RNT to W27 with the front seat passenger the day before the accident to meet the rear seat passenger and other friends for a fishing trip. The fishing trip concluded about 1400 on the day of the accident, and the pilot and his passengers were dropped off at W27 by a friend.


The pilot reported that he occupied the left front seat; the passengers occupied the right front seat and the left rear seat. Before departing from the 1,953-ft-long runway, the pilot computed a takeoff ground roll of about 1,250 ft and a distance to clear a 50-ft-obstacle of about 2,200 ft. He gave a preflight briefing to the passengers that included instructions on operation of the seat belts; the engine start and run-up were "normal". Before takeoff, the pilot set the flaps to 10°, called out "seat belts," and advanced the throttle to 2,700 rpm and a manifold pressure of 39 inches while holding the brakes. He released the brakes and started the takeoff roll. The airplane lifted off after a ground roll of about 1,250 ft and climbed to about 35 ft above ground level but "then no longer seemed to accelerate as expected." The pilot lowered the nose and found that the airplane was "just above the ground." He retarded the throttle and flared the airplane into a nose-high attitude to avoid a "head on" impact with a berm, which was located about 415 ft beyond the departure end of the runway.


During an interview, the front seat passenger stated that the pilot watched him fasten his seat belt but did not provide a safety briefing to the passengers. He reported that the rear seat occupant was on his cellphone during the takeoff, but could not recall if the pilot announced "seat belts" before the takeoff roll. When the airplane was about 350 ft from the berm, the pilot announced that they were not going to make it. The airplane's nose rose before the airplane impacted the berm.


The pilot's friend, who witnessed and recorded a video of the accident, was located at the north end of the airport near the berm that the airplane impacted. The video showed that as the airplane approached the departure end of runway 32, it entered a slight nose-high attitude, and the left main landing gear lifted from the runway surface when the airplane was about 20 ft from the end of the runway. The video showed that the airplane reached an estimated maximum altitude of about 4 ft above the ground during the takeoff. In the video, after the airplane departed the asphalt runway, it maintained a nose-high attitude and then touched down in grass about 75 ft before it reached the airport perimeter fence, which was located about 375 ft beyond the runway end. During the time that the airplane was airborne, its estimated average groundspeed was about 65 knots. Sound spectrum analysis of the video indicated that the engine speed was constant about 2,430 rpm until the airplane impacted the fence and subsequently collided with the rising face of the berm.





PERSONNEL INFORMATION


The pilot, age 52, held a commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane single-engine sea, airplane multi-engine land, and instrument airplane. He also held a flight instructor certificate with a single-engine airplane rating. The pilot's most recent Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) second-class medical certificate was issued on June 22, 2015 and included the restriction "must wear corrective lenses." According to the pilot's logbook, he had accumulated 2,915 hours of flight experience at the time of the accident, of which 46 hours were flown in the preceding 6 months. The pilot reported that he had accumulated about 100 hours of flight experience in the accident airplane make and model.


AIRCRAFT INFORMATION


According to FAA records, the airplane was manufactured in 1981 and registered to MC AIR on May 10, 2007. The airplane was powered by a turbocharged, direct-drive, air-cooled, 210-horsepower Continental TSIO-360-LB7 engine. A review of maintenance records revealed that the most recent 100 hour inspection was completed on September 30, 2015, at a hobbs time of 1,916 flight hours. At the time of the inspection, the engine had accrued 671 flight hours since major overhaul. The airplane had amassed 1,926 total flight hours at the time of the accident.


Takeoff Performance Information


The excerpts below from the airplane flight manual (AFM) show the procedures for a normal takeoff and an obstacle takeoff.


TAKEOFF (NORMAL)


Fuel boost pump – OFF

Alternate air – Push Closed
Parking brake – Push OFF
Engine oil temperature - 100° F minimum
Power – 40" MP and 2,700 rpm
Engine instruments – Check proper indications
Aircraft attitude – Lift nose wheel at 67 KIAS
Landing gear – Retract prior to 107 KIAS
Flaps – Retract in climb

TAKEOFF (OBSTACLE)


Fuel boost pumps – OFF

Alternate air – Push Closed
Parking brake – Push OFF
Engine oil temperature - 100° F minimum
Power – 40" MP and 2,700 rpm
Engine instruments – Check proper indications
Aircraft attitude – Lift nose wheel at 67 KIAS
Climb speed – 74 KIAS until clear of obstacle, then accelerate to 95 KIAS.
Landing gear – Retract in climb after clearing obstacle
Flaps – Retract after clearing obstacle

The AFM takeoff performance section includes charts for both ground roll and takeoff distance over a 50-ft obstacle. Both charts assume conditions that include 10° flaps, 40 inches manifold pressure, mixture full rich, and a paved level runway surface. These performance charts do not account for weights above the airplane's maximum gross weight of 2,900 pounds (lbs). Using the charts, the airplane's ground roll and takeoff distance over a 50-ft obstacle were calculated assuming an outside air temperature of 23°C and a gross weight of 2,900 lbs. As shown in Table 1, the airplane's zero-wind ground roll and takeoff distance over a 50-ft obstacle were about 1,350 ft and 2,300 ft, respectively. With a 4-knot headwind, the airplane's ground roll and takeoff distance over a 50-ft obstacle were about 1,200 ft and 2,200 ft, respectively. With a 6-knot tailwind, the airplane's ground roll and takeoff distance over a 50-ft obstacle were about 1,550 ft and 2,600 ft, respectively.


Table 1: Ground Roll and Takeoff Distance Chart


Weight and Balance


The AFM recovered from the airplane contained a weight and balance record dated May 23, 1994, that was marked as superseded on March 26, 2008, when avionics components were replaced. No weight and balance records with a more recent date than May 23, 1994, were found in the AFM. The airplane empty weight (EW) recorded on the May 23, 1994, weight and balance record was 1,945 lbs. Using the EW of 1,945 lbs, the pilot's weight of 206 lbs, the front seat passenger's weight of 284 lbs, the rear seat passenger's weight of 251 lbs, a fuel weight of 210 lbs, and a baggage weight of 83 lbs, the computed total weight was 2,978 lbs, which exceeded the maximum gross weight by 78 lbs. The occupant weights were derived from a combination of hospital reports and personal statements; the fuel weight was derived from the approximate fuel quantity drained from the airplane's wing tanks; and the baggage was weighed.


The pilot provided a weight and balance estimate for the flight, which he computed using a loading application on a portable electronic device. The pilot's inputs included an EW of 1,804 lbs, a combined weight of 530 lbs for the pilot and front seat passenger, a rear seat passenger weight of 200 lbs, a fuel weight of 210 lbs, and a baggage weight of 120 lbs. The pilot's computed total weight was 2,864 lbs. When asked where he obtained the EW of 1,804 lbs, the pilot replied that he retrieved this EW from the internet.




METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION


The 1440 recorded weather at Paradise Point State Park, Ridgefield, Washington, located about 2.5 nautical miles (nm) southeast of W27, included wind from 290° at 2 to 4 knots, temperature 23°C, dewpoint 7°C, and an altimeter setting of 29.67 inches of mercury.


The 1459 recorded weather at St. Helens, Oregon, located about 4 nm southwest of W27 included wind from 131° at 1 to 6 knots, temperature 24°C, dewpoint 12°C, and an altimeter setting of 29.65 inches of mercury.


The 1453 recorded weather observation at Scappoose Industrial Airpark (SPB), Scappoose, Oregon, located about 9 nm southwest of W27, included wind from 070° at 4 knots, visibility 10 statute miles, clear skies, temperature 22°C, dew point 08°C, and an altimeter setting of 29.71 inches of mercury.


The resolution of the video frames from the recording made by the friend was sufficiently high for making wind-related observations. A windsock was located about 330 ft left of and before the end of the paved runway; it was about 730 ft from the camera. In addition to the windsock, the video also recorded trees and bushes on both sides of the runway. The video showed that the shape of the windsock corresponded to low wind speed, and did not show any visible motion of branches and leaves consistent with calm wind at the time of takeoff.


AIRPORT INFORMATION


W27 was located at an elevation of 29 ft above mean sea level and had one asphalt runway in a 14/32 configuration. The north end of the airport was bordered by a perimeter fence that was situated about 375 ft beyond the departure end of runway 32. A 9-ft-tall berm adjacent to a wastewater treatment facility was perpendicular to and about 415 ft beyond the departure end of runway 32.


WRECKAGE AND IMPACT INFORMATION


The airplane came to rest upright and relatively intact on the rising face of the berm on a magnetic heading of 320°. The initial impact point was indicated by a crater on the berm that measured about 8 ft long and contained both main landing gear. The airplane was located about 5 ft beyond the crater. Several plexiglass window fragments were scattered about 20 ft beyond the airplane. Both propeller blades displayed chordwise striations that originated at the leading edges. One propeller blade exhibited a slight aft bend and was tangled in a portion of the airport perimeter fence. The other propeller blade did not display any bending.


All major structures of the airplane were accounted for at the accident site. The nose landing gear was located in the debris path about 8 ft beyond the main wreckage. Both wings remained attached to the fuselage and displayed depressions in the leadings edges about midspan along with wingtip damage.


The wing tanks were not breached. More than 20 total gallons of fuel were drained from the wing tanks and a fuel line. The fuel selector moved normally between each detent, and no obstructions were noted in the valve. Some residual fuel was found in the lines of the gascolator. A SAR-GEL water finding paste test confirmed that the fuel was not contaminated by water. The gascolator screen displayed some debris, but it was not obstructed. The electric fuel boost pump functioned normally when tested using an external 12-volt battery.


The rudder, elevator, and aileron control tubes and links were continuous from their respective control surfaces to the cockpit. The stabilizer jackscrew displayed 6 threads, consistent with a takeoff position. The flap jackscrew remained attached and measured 1.75 inches, consistent with a 10° normal takeoff flap setting. The flap indicator in the cockpit showed the flaps were in a takeoff position.




MEDICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL INFORMATION


The Cowlitz County Coroner's Office, Longview, Washington, performed an autopsy on the rear seat passenger. The cause of death was listed as "blunt head and neck injuries." The rear seat passenger's injuries included a laceration to the left posterior scalp with multiple intersecting linear lacerations associated with a hemorrhage into the scalp. He sustained further injuries including fractures of cervical vertebrae C1, C2, C4, and C5, hemorrhage of the cervical paraspinal muscles, and facial contusions of the left cheek and right medial eyebrow.


According to the pilot's medical records, his injuries included a burst fracture of lumbar vertebra L3 with 50% loss of height, a displaced fracture of the right radial styloid, a laceration of his right hand, and abrasions to his left shoulder and right chest. His injuries were classified as serious due to the lumbar fracture. According to the front seat passenger's medical records, his injuries included a compression fracture of lumbar vertebra L1 with 20% loss of height, a puncture laceration of his right forearm, and abrasions to both knees. His injuries were also classified as serious due to the lumbar fracture.


TESTS AND RESEARCH


Engine Examination


The engine was shipped to the manufacturer's facility in Mobile, Alabama, for an examination and test run under the supervision of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigator-in-charge (IIC). The engine was mounted in a test cell; various thermocouples, pressure lines, and test pads were installed on the engine; and a test club propeller for the engine model was fitted to the propeller flange. According to the manufacturer, the design maximum-rated-power parameters included 2,700 rpm, 40 inches manifold pressure, and unmetered fuel pressure between 34 and 38 pounds per square inch (psi).


During initial tests, the engine was sluggish to start and ran slightly rough at idle. The engine subsequently reached 2,640 rpm, 39 inches manifold pressure, and an unmetered fuel pressure of 27 psi when tested without any adjustments. The magnetos were then re-timed from 12.5° before top dead center (BTDC) and 11.5° BTDC for the left and right magnetos, respectively, to 20° BTDC, in accordance with the engine manufacturer's specification. After this adjustment, the engine reached 2,765 rpm, 40 inches manifold pressure, and an unmetered fuel pressure of 26 psi. Further tests were completed by enrichening the fuel/air mixture through a manual adjustment of the aneroid at the fuel pump until the unmetered fuel flow reached 34 psi, consistent with the manufacturer's prescribed range. The engine ran more smoothly as the fuel/air mixture was adjusted, and the roughness ceased after the final adjustment was made.


Propeller Examination


A propeller examination was performed at the propeller manufacturer's facility with oversight from the NTSB IIC. The propeller exhibited damage consistent with sudden stoppage associated with impact forces. Both propeller blades displayed leading edge impact damage, leading edge polishing, and chordwise gouges and paint scratches. Continuity of the pitch change system was confirmed from the piston to both blade shanks. The assembly contained two actuating links that are loaded in compression during normal operation and connect the hydraulic piston and yoke assembly to the pin on the base of each propeller blade. A single actuating link had failed in tensile overload related to gross deflection of the blade and pitch change mechanism during the accident sequence.


Propeller Governor Examination


The propeller governor was examined at the governor manufacturer's facility with oversight from an FAA inspector. The unit did not display any abnormalities or visual damage when it was removed from the shipping container, and manual rotation of the drive gear was smooth with no binding. Internal examination of the unit, by removing the top cover and head assembly, did not reveal any indications of noticeable wear. A functional test of the unit recorded the following parameters: pressure relief, pump capacity, internal leakage, maximum rpm, control arm setting, minimum rpm, and control arm travel. The unit met the required test value for each parameter, except for maximum rpm. According to the manufacturer, the propeller governor's maximum governed speed should be 2,700 rpm. When the unit was placed on a test bench, it governed to a maximum speed of 2,590 rpm.


SURVIVAL FACTORS


The airplane had four seating positions: two front seats and an aft seat cushion (placed directly on the airplane structure) with two seat positions. The head rests had been removed from all seats. A representative of Mooney Corporation reported that the accident airplane would have been produced with head rests. All four seat positions were equipped with three-point restraint systems consisting of a lift latch buckle lap belt and a single fixed length (adjustable) shoulder harness affixed to the airplane's sidewall outboard of each seat position. The shoulder harness terminated with a metal fitting that was to be hooked to a standoff button on the insert tab portion of the lap belt during use. The pilot and the front seat passenger reported that they were wearing their lap belts and shoulder harnesses. The witness who recorded the accident reported that when he responded to the airplane immediately after the impact, the rear seat occupant's lap belt was fastened, but not his shoulder harness. An investigator from the Cowlitz County Coroner's Office responded to the scene about 1 hour after the accident and reported seeing the rear passenger in the same orientation as shown in the photograph; the passenger's upper torso was bent at the waist with his head contacting the pilot's seatback. The investigator noted that the "decedent was unrestrained at the time of… initial observation" and that he was "advised by first responders, that the decedent's seatbelt had been unsecured by medics for emergency medical assessment."


Postaccident photographs showed that the rear left seat shoulder harness was attached to the airframe, undamaged, and not attached to the lap belt insert tab standoff button. A postaccident photograph showed that the outboard insert tab portion of the left rear seat's lap belt was affixed to its floor attachment point and was undamaged. None of the webbings showed any noticeable damage, fraying or warping in the photographs.


Seat belt testing was performed by representatives of the FAA. Both rear lap belt buckles were affixed to a central floor attachment fitting and functioned normally when insert tabs were fastened. Both buckles released the insert tabs when the lift latches were lifted.




ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


The "Rejected Takeoff" section of the FAA Airplane Flying Handbook states:


Prior to takeoff, the pilot should have in mind a point along the runway at which the airplane should be airborne. If that point is reached and the airplane is not airborne, immediate action should be taken to discontinue the takeoff. Properly planned and executed, chances are excellent the airplane can be stopped on the remaining runway without using extraordinary measures, such as excessive braking that may result in loss of directional control, airplane damage, and/or personal injury. In the event a takeoff is rejected, the power should be reduced to idle and maximum braking applied while maintaining directional control.


Pilot Information


Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial

Age: 52, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land; Single-engine Sea
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/22/2015
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:   2915 hours (Total, all aircraft), 100 hours (Total, this make and model), 23 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 5 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information


Aircraft Make: MOONEY AIRCRAFT CORP.

Registration: N97119
Model/Series: M20K NO SERIES
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1981
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 25-0503
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 09/30/2016, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2900 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 11 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 1926 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Continental Motors, Inc.
ELT: C91  installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: TSIO-360-LB
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 210 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan


Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions

Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: , 200 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 3 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1440 PDT
Direction from Accident Site: 160°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: Calm /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction:
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 29.67 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 23°C / 7°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: WOODLAND, WA (W27)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: IFR
Destination: RENTON, WA (RNT)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1445 PDT
Type of Airspace:

Airport Information


Airport: WOODLAND STATE (W27)

Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 29 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 32
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 1953 ft / 25 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: None

Wreckage and Impact Information


Crew Injuries: 1 Serious

Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal, 2 Serious
Latitude, Longitude:  45.901667, -122.737222



















NTSB Identification: WPR16FA095
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Thursday, April 21, 2016 in Woodland, WA
Aircraft: MOONEY AIRCRAFT CORP. M20K, registration: N97119
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 2 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On April 21, 2016, about 1445 Pacific daylight time, a Mooney M20K, N97119, was substantially damaged during its departure from Woodland State Airport (W27), Woodland, Washington. The rear seat passenger was fatally injured; the commercial pilot and front seat passenger received serious injuries. The airplane was registered to MC AIR Inc., and was operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 flight. Although visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident, an instrument flight plan was filed for the cross country flight, which was destined for Renton Municipal Airport (RNT), Renton, Washington. The personal flight was originating at the time of the accident. 

According to a video of the accident flight, the airplane began a takeoff roll from runway 32. The airplane approached the departure end of the runway and entered a nose high attitude as the left main landing gear lifted from the runway surface. After the airplane departed the asphalt runway, it maintained a steep angle of attack and then settled into grass about 75 feet from the airport perimeter fence. At this time the engine harmonics changed, consistent with a decrease in engine power. The airplane subsequently collided with the fence and then impacted the rising face of a berm. According to a witness, the airplane reached an altitude of approximately 4 feet during the attempted departure.

The airplane came to rest on top of a berm about 500 feet from the departure end of runway 32 at W27. An initial impact point (IIP) was identified by a crater that measured about 8 feet long. Both main landing gear, were located on the rising face of the berm about 37 feet beyond the airport perimeter fence. The main wreckage, comprised of all four corners of the airplane, was about 5 feet beyond the IIP and remained intact and was oriented on a heading of 320 degrees magnetic. Both propeller blades displayed chordwise striations along their respective leading edges. Propeller Blade A exhibited a slight aft bend and was tangled in a portion of the airport perimeter fence. Propeller Blade B did not display any bending. 

The rudder, elevator and aileron control tubes were traced from their respective control surfaces to the cockpit. The elevator jackscrew displayed 6 threads, consistent with a takeoff position. 

The 1453 recorded weather observation at Scappoose Industrial Airpark (SPB), Scappoose, Oregon included wind 070 degrees true at 4 knots, visibility 10 statute miles, clear skies, temperature 22 degrees C, dew point 08 degrees C, and an altimeter setting of 29.71 inches of mercury.