Thursday, November 22, 2018

Grumman American AA-1B Trainer, N6216L: Accident occurred August 01, 2017 near Deer Valley Airport (KDVT), Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Scottsdale, Arizona
Lycoming Engines; Williamsport, Pennsylvania
Superior Air Parts; Coppell, Texas

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms 
 
http://registry.faa.gov/N6216L




Location: Phoenix, AZ
Accident Number: WPR17LA175
Date & Time: 08/01/2017, 1300 MST
Registration: N6216L
Aircraft: GRUMMAN AA1
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (partial)
Injuries: 2 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On August 1, 2017, about 1300 mountain standard time, an American AA-1B airplane, N6216L, was substantially damaged following a partial loss of engine power and subsequent loss of control during takeoff initial climb at the Deer Valley Airport (DVT), Phoenix, Arizona. The private pilot and pilot rated passenger were seriously injured. The airplane was registered to a private individual and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident and no flight plan was filed. The planned local flight was originating at the time of the accident.

The pilot was not able to recall the events leading up to the accident due to his injuries.

The passenger reported that shortly after takeoff, and while turning crosswind to the north, the engine experienced a total loss of power. The passenger stated that at this time the pilot attempted to restart the engine but was unsuccessful. He then attempted to make a left 180° turn back to the airport, however, was unsuccessful as the airplane stalled and crashed into a fence and a tree. The passenger mentioned that at the time of the accident, the engine was completely off; "there was no power at all to the engine."

A witness to the accident, who was a student pilot at the time, reported that he was observing a small Grumman [airplane] take off from runway 25L at DVT. The witness stated that the airplane climbed to an altitude of about 200 to 300 ft above ground level, when he heard the engine slow to what sounded like half power. He further stated that a few seconds later the airplane leveled off and it veered about 30° to the right, and then began a steep 45° or more bank to the left. The witness opined that it appeared that the pilot was going to try to make it back to runway 7R, or at least land in the field near the end of the runway. However, during the left turn on an approximately southwest heading, the witness stated that the airplane stalled and banked sharply "…like a snap roll to the right and pitched nose down"; he did not witness the last few feet prior to impact.

According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector who responded to the accident site, several witnesses reported that after the airplane had taken off and was in its initial climb to the west, the wings started to rock back and forth. The airplane subsequently began to descend, struck the airport's western perimeter fence, and collided with a tree where it came to rest. Both wings and the engine had separated from the airplane due to impact forces.

An acquaintance of the pilot, a certificated flight instructor (CFI), reported that a few days prior to the accident the pilot contacted him and reported that on a recent flight the airplane's engine had run a bit rough for about 3 to 5 seconds. He asked the pilot what actions he took, and the pilot stated that he switched the electric boost pump on and switched fuel tanks, which resulted in the engine running smoothly. The CFI stated that he thought the pilot mentioned that he then switched the fuel selector back to the rough running side and it again ran smoothly but was not sure. The pilot did not indicate which side or tank had the issue. The CFI did not know if the pilot had a mechanic examine the engine prior to the accident flight, which occurred about 4 to 6 days after the rough running engine was reported to him. The CFI informed the airplane's owner of his conversation with the pilot relative to the engine issue when he met him at the hospital on the day of the accident. The CFI opined that the owner had no knowledge of the rough running engine issue, that he had taken all precautions to ensure that the airplane was safe, and that he had just spent $5,000 on an annual inspection.

During the investigation the passenger reported to the NTSB IIC that a few days prior to the accident the pilot was telling people and the CFI that he was having trouble with the fuel selector. When the IIC queried the CFI about the passenger's statement, the CFI stated that the pilot never mentioned anything about the fuel selector being an issue during any of their conversations.



Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 18, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/23/2015
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:  270 hours (Total, all aircraft), 226 hours (Total, this make and model), 207 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 85 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 33 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

The 18-year-old pilot held a private pilot certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine land. A friend of the pilot reported that the pilot had accumulated about 270 total flight hours, 207 hours as pilot-in-command, and 226 hours which were in the same make and model as the accident airplane. The pilot held an FAA first-class airman medical certificate, which was issued on April 23, 2015, with no limitations reported. 




Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: GRUMMAN
Registration: N6216L
Model/Series: AA1 B
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1972
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: AA1B-0016
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 05/11/2017, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1600 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 125 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 4196 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91  installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O320 A3A
Registered Owner: Robert L Swortzel
Rated Power: 150 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

The two-seat, low-wing airplane, serial number AA1B-0016, was manufactured in 1972. It was powered by a Lycoming model O-320-A3A, 150-horsepower engine, and equipped with a Sensinich two-blade propeller, model M74DM-0-58. A review of the maintenance logbook records revealed that during the 100-hour inspection that was performed on February 9, 2017, the number 3-cylinder was replaced with a new Millennium cylinder, part number SA 32006N-A21P, at a tach time of 432.4 hours. At the time of the inspection when the number 3-cylinder was checked for compression, it registered 36/80, which prompted the cylinder change. The most recent 100-hour inspection was performed on May 11, 2017, about 125 hours prior to the accident. At this time the number 3-cylinder exhaust gasket was replaced. In conjunction with the inspection, a subsequent ground run revealed no anomalies with the engine. A maintenance logbook entry revealed that all cylinders were inspected with a borescope. At the time of the accident the cylinder had accumulated 324.1 hours of operation since installation. (Refer to excerpts of maintenance records, which are appended to the docket for this accident.)

The airframe and powerplant mechanic who performed the installation of the number 3-cylinder during a 100-hour inspection, stated that on July 29, 2017, three days prior to the accident, he and the accident pilot exchanged a series of text messages, in which the pilot stated that on a go-around/missed approach, the engine started shaking and shuttered for about 10 seconds, and then it was fine. When the mechanic replied that he wondered if it could have been carburetor ice, the pilot said he didn't think so. The mechanic also mentioned that he did not perform any work on the airplane after the initial report of the engine running rough.



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: DVT, 1478 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 1 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1253 MST
Direction from Accident Site: 270°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 4 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 180°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.93 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 34°C / 16°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Phoenix, AZ (DVT)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Sedona, AZ (SEZ)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1300 MST
Type of Airspace: Class D

At 1253, the DVT weather reporting facility indicated wind from 180° at 4 knots, visibility 10 miles, sky clear, temperature 34° Celsius (C), dew point 16° C, and an altimeter setting of 29.93 inches of mercury.



Airport Information

Airport: Phoenix Deer Valley (DVT)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1478 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 25L
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 8196 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Forced Landing 

The airport is surrounded on the south, west and north by industrial and commercial buildings. The road which borders the airport on its west perimeter is a main north/south arterial road, as is the road which borders the south side of the airport, both of which have traffic throughout the day. The nearest open field is located about 1,500 ft northeast of the initial upwind departure leg.

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Serious
Latitude, Longitude: 33.686667, -112.099722 (est) 

A FAA aviation safety inspector, who responded to the accident site shortly after the accident, reported that after impacting the ground the airplane skidded into a tree, then broke at mid-fuselage splitting the airplane body into two pieces, with the cockpit and the fuselage on each side of the tree. The inspector stated that the engine appeared to be producing power, based on observable propeller blade signatures. The blades exhibited chordwise striations across the cambered surface, torsional twisting and trailing edge "S" bending. Additionally, the engine had separated from the airplane and came to rest on the road that borders the airport to the west, about 90 ft south of the main wreckage site. Both the left and right wings had also separated from the fuselage, with the left wing having come to rest about 30 ft northwest of the main wreckage, and the right wing about 180 ft south of the main wreckage site.

During a postaccident examination of the fuel selector by the NTSB IIC and a Federal Aviation Administration inspector, the component functioned as designed through all positions. It was observed that a stop pin was sheared off inside of the selector that would have prevented the selector from traveling too far to the left. Photo documentation at the accident site showed that the fuel selector was selected to the left tank position.

The left fuel tank had been breached and showed evidence of fuel dispersion; the quantity of the fuel spill was estimated to be between 3 to 5 gallons. The inspector reported that the right wing did not show any evidence of a fuel spill and that no fuel remained in the wing.

The inspector opined that the Type Certificate Data Sheet for the AA-1B airplane states that there is 2 gallons of unusable fuel in each wing. The inspector's review of the fuel receipts for the accident airplane revealed that 7.8 gallons of fuel was purchased on July 31 at 2107, and that the accident flight was the first flight since the fuel was added.

Engine Examination

The engine remained attached to the engine mount and had been liberated from the firewall during the accident/impact sequence. The engine had sustained significant impact energy absorption to the right forward/lower area of the number two cylinder and exhaust system. The attached propeller and flywheel were bent. All engine accessories remained secure at their respective mountings. Visual examination of the engine revealed no external evidence of pre-impact catastrophic mechanical malfunction or fire.

The left and right magnetos remained securely clamped at their respective mounting pads. The ignition harness was secure at each magneto. Magneto to engine timing could not be ascertained, due to the flywheel impingement on the engine crankcase. The magnetos were removed for examination. Each magneto produced spark at the end of the respective spark plug lead, during hand rotation of the drive. The drives of each magneto remained intact and undamaged.

The propeller and flywheel were removed to facilitate the examination. The top spark plugs were removed, examined and photographed. The rocker covers of each cylinder were removed. The vacuum pump was removed, and the crankshaft was rotated by hand through the drive pad utilizing a drive tool. The crankshaft was free and easy to rotate in both directions. "Thumb" compression was observed in proper order on cylinders 1, 2 and 4. It was noted that the number 3-cylinder exhaust valve was not moving and stuck in the OPEN position. The complete valve train was observed to operate in proper order and appeared to be free of any pre-mishap mechanical malfunction. Normal "lift action" was observed at each rocker assembly and pushrod of the number 3 exhaust valve. Clean, uncontaminated oil was observed at all four rockerbox areas. Mechanical continuity was established throughout the rotating group, valve train and accessory section during hand rotation of the crankshaft. The bottom spark plugs were removed, examined and photographed. The spark plug electrodes remained mechanically undamaged, and according to the Champion Spark Plugs "Check-A-Plug" chart AV-27, the spark plug electrodes displayed coloration consistent with normal operation. The combustion chamber of each cylinder was examined through the spark plug holes utilizing a lighted borescope. The combustion chambers remained mechanically undamaged, and there was no evidence of foreign object ingestion or detonation. The valves were intact and undamaged. There was no evidence of valve to piston face contact observed. The gas path and combustion signatures observed at the spark plugs, combustion chambers and exhaust system components displayed coloration consistent with normal operation. There was no oil residue observed in the exhaust system gas path. The exhaust system was found free of obstructions.

The number 3-cylinder was removed to facilitate further examination. The cylinder assembly was properly secured to the crankcase and appeared free of significant impact energy damage. The intake, exhaust rockers and valve train components within the rockerbox area appeared properly lubricated and free of mechanical damage. The intake and exhaust pushrods remained straight and free of damage. The intake pushrod shroud had sustained superficial impact damage. The intake rocker assembly remained undamaged and exhibited no evidence of lubrication depravation. There was no intake rocker pin oil hole. The exhaust rocker assembly remained undamaged and exhibited no evidence of lubrication depravation. The exhaust rocker pin oil hole remained free of obstruction.

The number 3-piston was removed from the connecting rod. The piston pin was undamaged and free of heat distress. The piston pin bushing remained secure and exhibited no unusual wear signatures. The number 3-piston exhibited no evidence of valve to piston face contact. The piston skirt exhibited no unusual wear signatures. The ring assemblies at each piston were intact and free to rotate within their respective ring land. The cylinder barrel bore remained free of damage and was absent of any significant heat distress signatures. There was no evidence of foreign object ingestion or detonation. The valves remained intact and undamaged. There was no further disassembly or examination of the subject cylinder. The valve was not moved from the original position it was found in during this examination.

Tests And Research

An examination of the number 3-cylinder was performed at the facilities of Superior Air Parts, Coppell, Texas. The results of the examination revealed the following:

There were no valve strike marks or impact damage exhibited on the piston. The piston rings were free in the ring lands and there was no damage to the sides of the piston. There was no evidence of scuffing, scoring or overheating. The piston part number could not be observed on the top due to heavy combustion deposits. Piston overall height was measured to be 3.177", which included the build-up of carbon deposits on top. The measurement was consistent with a low compression piston correct for the engine model. The piston pin was removed easily to facilitate inspection of the back side of the piston. The forging number on the underside of the piston was 13020, and manufactured by ECI. With the exception of heavy combustion deposits, the piston exhibited normal operational signatures.

The intake and exhaust valves exhibited combustion deposits on the stems close to the rear of the valve face. The exhaust valve was found stuck in the open position with the valve spring nearly depressed fully. The valve was tapped on the combustion side with a rubber mallet to close the valve to facilitate removal of the valve keepers and removal of the valve for inspection. With the valve keepers removed, the intake valve was removed with little effort. The exhaust valve required tapping with a rubber mallet and brass drift to remove it from the valve guide. The valve was tested using a Rockwell hardness tester and found to be within specifications.

The exhaust valve stem and guide exhibited heavy combustion deposits. The valve guide diameters were measured with the deposits present. The deposits were then removed using a .4995" ream in accordance with Lycoming Service Instruction 1425A, titled "Suggested Maintenance Procedures to Reduce the Possibility of Valve Sticking." The guides were re-measured after reaming and found to have an average of .0017" build-up of combustion deposits. The deposits were collected into a filter and sealed with the cylinder. All material removed during reaming was combustion deposits and no metallic material was found. (For additional information relative to the before and after ream dimensions, refer to the Summary Airframe and Engine Examination report, which is appended to the docket for this accident.)

The NTSB investigator who observed the examination commented in conclusion, that there were no observable preaccident deficiencies found with the cylinder. The stuck valve was consistent with combustion deposit buildup in the exhaust valve guide. 

Additional Information

Maintenance Actions

Lycoming Engines published Service Instruction No.1425A, dated January 19, 1988, which outlines Suggested Maintenance Procedures to Reduce the Possibility of Valve Sticking, and is applicable to all Lycoming direct drive engines. The Service Instruction comments in part, that "Investigations have shown that exhaust valve sticking occurs more frequently during hot ambient conditions. The lead salts that accumulate in the lubricating oil from the use of leaded fuels contribute to the deposit build up in the valve guides. This condition is eliminated each time the oil and filter are changed. Depending on the amount of deposits, sticking between the valve stem and guide can restrict the valve movement, which is often identified by an intermittent engine hesitation or miss." Textron Lycoming recommends 50-hour interval oil change and filter replacement for all engines using full-flow filtration system and 25-hour intervals for oil change and screen cleaning for pressure screen systems. (Refer to Service Instruction 1425A, which is appended to the docket for this report.)

Lycoming Engines published Mandatory Service Bulletin SB-388C, dated November 22, 2004, which outlines Procedure to Determine Exhaust Valve and Guide Condition, applicable to all Lycoming direct drive engines. Time of compliance depends on the engine use as follows:

Helicopter Engines – 300-hour intervals or earlier if valve sticking suspected.

All Other Engines – 400-hour intervals or earlier if valve sticking suspected until exhaust valve guides are replaced with guides made of improved material. At the time of the accident the engine had accumulated a total of 324.1 hours since the last mandatory inspection of the exhaust valve and guide inspection, which was less than the required number of hours as outlined in SB-388C. (Refer to SB-388C, which is appended to the docket for this report.)

Lycoming Engines published Mandatory Service Bulletin SB-480E, dated April 13, 2005, which outlines Oil and Filter Change and Screen Cleaning, applicable to all Lycoming direct drive engines. This MSB requires 25-Hour interval oil change, pressure screen cleaning, and oil sump suction screen check for all engines employing a pressure screen system; the subject engine utilizes a pressure screen, not a full flow oil filter. An examination of the engine and aircraft logbooks revealed that the most recent oil/filter change/inspection was performed on June 21, 2017, at a tach time of 702.1 hours. The tach recording observed at the accident site was 756.5 hours, which computes to 54.4 hours since the airplane's most recent oil/filter change/inspection was completed and therefore was not in compliance with the Mandatory Service Bulletin. (Refer to SB-480E, which is appended to the docket for this report.)

With respect to the Service Information 1425A, and Mandatory Service Bulletins SB-388C and SB-480E as previously discussed, a review of maintenance records revealed that no entries were observed to indicate that any of the three had been complied with. According the FAA Order 8620.2A, National Policy, Applicability and Enforcement of Manufacturer's Data, it states in part, "…unless any method, technique, or practice prescribed by an OEM in any of its documents is specifically mandated by a regulatory document, such as Airworthiness Directive (AD), or specific regulatory language such as that in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 43.15(b), those methods, techniques, or practices are not mandatory. (Refer to FAA Order 8620.2A, which is appended to the docket for this report.)



NTSB Identification: WPR17LA175
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Tuesday, August 01, 2017 in Phoenix, AZ
Aircraft: GRUMMAN AA1, registration: N6216L
Injuries: 2 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On August 1, 2017, about 1300 mountain standard time, an Grumman AA-1B, N6216L, was substantially damaged following impact with terrain shortly after takeoff at the Deer Valley Airport (DVT), Phoenix, Arizona. The airplane was registered to a private individual and operated by the pilot as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 instructional flight. Both the flight instructor and student pilot sustained serious injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the local flight. No flight plan was filed. The flight was originating at the time of the accident.

According to an Federal Aviation Administration aviation safety inspector who responded to the accident site, several witnesses reported that after the airplane lifted off and was in its initial climb to the west, the wings started to rock back and forth. The airplane subsequently began to descend, struck the airport's western perimeter fence, and collided with terrain before coming to rest on a road that borders the airport on the west. Both wings and the engine had separated from the airplane due to impact forces. The wreckage was recovered to a secured location for further examination.

Hawker FB60 Sea Fury, N254SF: Accident occurred July 25, 2017 near Stephens County Airport (KBKD), Breckenridge, Texas

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Lubbock, Texas

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms  

http://registry.faa.gov/N254SF

Location: Breckenridge, TX
Accident Number: CEN17LA285
Date & Time: 07/25/2017, 0910 CDT
Registration: N254SF
Aircraft: HILLARD CHARLIE R HAWKER FB60
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (total)
Injuries: 2 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Other Work Use 

On July 25, 2017, about 0910 central daylight time, an experimental Hawker FB60 airplane, N254SF, experienced a loss of engine power and impacted trees and terrain near Stephens County Airport (BKD), Breckenridge, Texas. The private rated pilot and one passenger were seriously injured and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to a private individual and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a maintenance test flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident and no flight plan was filed. The local flight was on final approach to BKD when the accident occurred.

A review of a witness cell phone video revealed that the airplane was near the approach end of runway 17 as it descended and made a left turn, then disappeared into a wooded area.

The responding Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector stated that the engine reportedly experienced a loss of power and the airplane descended into the trees and terrain. The pilot and passenger and were flown to a hospital for treatment.

The witness stated that the airplane was fueled on the morning of the accident and was flown for about 15 to 20 minutes without incident. The accident flight was the second flight of the day and also lasted about 15 to 20 minutes. During the flight she observed the landing gear extend when the airplane turned on final approach but she was unable to hear the engine. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 74, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 02/22/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: HILLARD CHARLIE R
Registration: N254SF
Model/Series: HAWKER FB60 NO SERIES
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1956
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Experimental
Serial Number: 37514
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 07/11/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.:
Time Since Last Inspection: 1.8 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 1294.3 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Curtiss Wright
ELT:
Engine Model/Series: R3350-36WD
Registered Owner: THIBODEAU JOE
Rated Power: 2800 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held:  None 

The airplane had been damaged in a previous ground event in 2016 and repairs were being completed by a repair facility at BKD. The facility had completed the repairs on July 11, 2017, and during a test flight the pilot noticed the flight controls were not rigged correctly for level flight. The flight control rigging was fixed and the pilot was completing another test flight when the accident occurred. The airplane had been flown for several hours during the week before the accident and no engine anomalies were reported.

An employee of the repair facility confirmed that the main fuel tanks were used for these types of short test flights as stated in their procedures. 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KBKD, 1283 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 1 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 0855 CDT
Direction from Accident Site: 184°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 10 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction: 200°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 30.08 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 28°C / 20°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Breckenridge, TX (BKD)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Breckenridge, TX (BKD)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0850 CDT
Type of Airspace: Class E 

Airport Information

Airport: STEPHENS COUNTY (BKD)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1284 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Unknown
Runway Used: 17
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 4997 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Traffic Pattern 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Serious
Latitude, Longitude: 32.727222, -98.891111 (est) 

The airplane collided with a 20 ft tall tree about 1,000 ft north of the approach end of the runway. The airplane impacted the ground and came to rest upright about 150 ft from the initial tree strike. Figure 1 shows the empennage mostly separated from fuselage at the aft bulkhead. The left wing was separated and distorted aft. The right wing was crushed and distorted forward. The forward fuselage, engine cowling, and propeller shaft sustained impact damaged. The four propeller blades remained attached to the hub and did not exhibit leading edge damage or rotational scoring. First responders to the accident site stated that the fuel lines had been severed and fuel was covering the ground under the airplane.


Figure 1
Damaged Airplane

A postaccident examination of the engine was completed on October 16-17, 2017, under the auspices of an FAA inspector. Due to impact damage the engine could not be manually rotated through to confirm internal continuity. The engine was removed from the airframe and there were no obvious anomalies observed. The propeller, mixture, and throttle controls remained connected and moved normally when manually manipulated. Examination of the carburetor did not reveal any anomalies and the fuel screen was clean and free of contaminants. A few ounces of fuel remained in the fuel lines; the fuel appeared clean. The accessory drive shaft was removed and the blower was manually rotated; the accessory gears rotated with no anomalies noted. The two front distributors were removed and the gears remained connected to the front cam drive. The outlet oil screen was removed and disassembled and there was no metal or debris observed. The front and rear oil sump plugs and screens were also free of metal and debris. The engine examination did not reveal any preimpact mechanical malfunctions or anomalies that would have precluded normal operation.

The fuel valve was impact separated from the airplane and damaged. During the postaccident examination, air was blown through the fuel valve and determined it was positioned to an auxiliary fuel tank line. 

Tests And Research

On November 9, 2017, postaccident testing of the distributors, fuel pump, and injection carburetor was completed at an FAA authorized repair station under the auspices of an FAA inspector. The two distributors and the fuel pump were run on their respective test stands and all successfully passed the testing requirements. The injection carburetor was tested on a Stromberg Aircraft Carburetor Flow Bench. The initial flow test failed and bypassed significant amounts of fuel from the vapor vent port. To troubleshoot the issue, the carburetor's cover was removed which revealed the right float switch pin was dislodged from its cylinder. The right float pin was reinstalled into its cylinder and subsequent testing of the injection carburetor was out of tolerance, including flow tests, automatic mixture control, bleed checks, and air circuit tests.

NTSB Identification: CEN17LA285 
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Tuesday, July 25, 2017 in Breckenridge, TX
Aircraft: HILLARD CHARLIE R HAWKER FB60, registration: N254SF
Injuries: 2 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On July 25, 2017, about 0900 central daylight time, an experimental Hawker FB60 airplane, N254SF, experienced a loss of engine power and impacted trees and terrain near Stephens County Airport (BKD), Breckenridge, Texas. The private pilot and one passenger were seriously injured and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to a private individual and operated by the pilot under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident and no flight plan had been filed. 

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector reported that the airplane was on short final for runway 17 when the engine experienced a loss of power and the airplane descended into the trees and terrain. The pilot and passenger and were flown to a hospital for treatment. 

A cell phone video of the accident flight was obtained. A review of the video revealed the airplane was near the approach end of runway 17 as it descended and made a left turn, then disappeared into the tree line. 

The airplane has been retained for further examination.

Cessna 177 Cardinal, N3225T: Accident occurred July 05, 2017 near Fulton County Airport (KUSE), Wauseon, Ohio

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Cleveland, Ohio

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

  
http://registry.faa.gov/N3225T 


Location: Wauseon, OH
Accident Number: CEN17LA261
Date & Time: 07/05/2017, 1730 EDT
Registration: N3225T
Aircraft: CESSNA 177
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Fuel exhaustion
Injuries: 1 Minor, 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

On July 5, 2017, at 1730 eastern daylight time, a Cessna 177, N3225T, collided with the terrain during a forced landing in Wauseon, Ohio. The certified flight instructor (CFI) and student pilot were not injured; the passenger received minor injuries. The airplane was substantially damaged. The airplane was registered to and operated by a private individual as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 instructional flight. Visual flight rules conditions existed near the accident site at the time of the accident, and a flight plan had not been filed. The flight departed Bolton Field Airport (TZR), Columbus, Ohio, at 1615 en route to the Fulton County Airport (USE), Wauseon, Ohio.

The CFI reported they were landing at USE when the accident occurred. He stated they overflew the airport and entered a left downwind for runway 9. During the base leg to final approach turn, the engine lost power. The CFI took control of the airplane and with insufficient altitude to reach the runway, he landed the airplane in a corn field just short of the runway where it contacted a ditch.

The CFI reported to a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Inspector the airplane was filled with fuel, 42 gallons, at the beginning of the day. They practiced touch and go landings for 1 hour 15 minutes in the morning. They then landed, picked up a passenger and flew to TZR where they had lunch prior to returning to USE. The round-trip flight between TZR and USE was about 2 hours 30 minutes resulting in a total flight time of about 3 hours 45 minutes.

The engine specifications show fuel consumption at 75% power is about 11.7 gallons per hour (gph) resulting in an endurance of about 3 hours 30 minutes. The fuel consumption at 65% power is 10.14 gph resulting in an endurance of about 4 hours 10 minutes. The airplane had been equipped with a 115-horsepower engine which was changed to a 180-horsepower engine about 30 flight hours prior to the accident. The pilot stated to the FAA Inspector that they departed TZR with about 15 gallons of fuel onboard and hat he intentionally wanted a lower fuel level in the airplane because a mechanic needed to look at the fuel gauges.

A FAA inspector reported that he drained 12 ounces of fuel from the airplane after the accident. He stated there was no evidence of fuel leakage around the airplane. The inspector applied battery power to the airplane and the left fuel gauge indicated full and the right fuel gauge indicated empty. The fuel gascolator had a hole in the bottom of the bowl which was consistent with impact damage.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 22, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 07/26/2013
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 04/14/2017
Flight Time:  389 hours (Total, all aircraft), 11.2 hours (Total, this make and model), 283 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 83.8 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 48.1 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 4.1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 46, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 03/31/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:


Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Registration: N3225T
Model/Series: 177
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1967
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 17700525
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 09/01/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2350 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-360-A1A
Registered Owner: MARKEY ALLEN H
Rated Power: 180 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: TOL, 683 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 17 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1752 EDT
Direction from Accident Site: 82°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 5 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction: 20°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 30.09 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 27°C / 12°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Columbus, OH (TZR)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Wauseon, OH (USE)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1615 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class E

Airport Information

Airport: Fulton County (USE)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 780 ft
Runway Surface Condition:
Runway Used: 09
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3862 ft / 75 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Forced Landing

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor, 2 None
Latitude, Longitude:  41.612222, -84.138889 (est)

NTSB Identification: CEN17LA261
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Wednesday, July 05, 2017 in Wauseon, OH
Aircraft: CESSNA 177, registration: N3225T
Injuries: 1 Minor, 2 Uninjured.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On July 5, 2017, at 1730 eastern daylight time, a Cessna 177, N3225T, collided with the terrain during a forced landing in Wauseon, Ohio. The certified flight instructor (CFI) and student pilot were not injured; the passenger received minor injuries. The airplane was substantially damaged. The airplane was registered to and operated by a private individual as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 instructional flight. Visual flight rules conditions existed near the accident site at the time of the accident, and a flight plan had not been filed. The flight departed Bolton Field Airport (TZR), Columbus, Ohio, at 1615.

The CFI reported they were landing at the Fulton County Airport (USE) when the accident occurred. He stated they overflew the airport and entered a left downwind for runway 9. During the base leg to final approach turn, the engine lost power. With insufficient altitude to reach the runway, the CFI landed the airplane in a corn field where it contacted a ditch.

Piper PA-22-150, N3659Z: Accident occurred January 28, 2017 at Delaware Coastal Airport (KGED), Georgetown, Sussex County, Delaware

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


http://registry.faa.gov/N3659Z 




Location: Georgetown, DE
Accident Number: ERA17LA097
Date & Time: 01/28/2017, 1400 EST
Registration: N3659Z
Aircraft: PIPER PA22
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Fire/smoke (non-impact)
Injuries: 1 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

On January 28, 2017, about 1400 eastern standard time, a Piper PA-22-150, N3659Z, was destroyed after it experienced an in-flight fire following takeoff from Delaware Coastal Airport (GED), Georgetown, Delaware. The private pilot sustained minor injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the personal flight that was operated under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91.

According to the pilot, prior to departing GED, he checked the engine oil level, performed a visual inspection of the engine compartment and an engine run-up with no anomalies noted. After departing runway 28, the airplane reached 1,400 feet, and the pilot noticed "thick" smoke coming from behind the instrument panel and then the glareshield. The pilot attempted to return to GED and opened the vent on the left door to evacuate smoke and allow him to search for a runway to land. He then noted flames by his feet and legs, and while "sideslipping" the airplane, burning portions of the roof lining began to fall on him. The airplane continued to descend, and during the subsequent landing roll, the pilot reduced the throttle and mixture to shut down the engine. He pulled on the brake handle; however, the airplane did not slow. The pilot proceeded to egress while the airplane was in motion. The airplane came to rest in a grass area off the right side of runway 4.

Initial examination of the airplane revealed that the fuselage, empennage, and right wing were consumed by fire. The left wing was partially consumed by fire. The engine remained attached to the fuselage and the propeller remained attached to the engine.

According to Federal Aviation Administration records, the airplane was manufactured in 1960 and registered to the pilot on June 13, 1990. It was equipped with a Lycoming O-320-A2B, a 150-horepower engine. According to the maintenance logbooks, the airplane's most recent annual inspection was performed on January 1, 2017, at a total time of 3,740.5 hours, about 2 operational hours prior to the accident.

According to the Piper PA-22 Owner's Manual, the airplane was equipped with two 18-gallon fuel tanks located in the wings, which drained individually according to the position of the fuel selector valve on the left forward cabin wall. "The main fuel strainer, through which all fuel going to the carburetor flows, is located on the lower left engine side of the firewall…The engine primer pump on the right side of the instrument panel takes fuel from the main gascolator and pumps it directly to all four cylinders of the engine."

According to an NTSB fire protection engineer who examined the wreckage, the pilot's description of the fire in the accident sequence was consistent with a liquid fuel-fed fire. Several sections of the airplane fuel system were consumed by fire. The fuel selector valve was thermally damaged and its function could not be verified. The output fuel line from the fuel selector to the firewall was consumed by fire. The input fuel line from the right-side wing tank was also consumed by fire. The engine primer pump was not located with the wreckage. The primer pump fuel lines were consumed by fire inside the cockpit. Several small sections of copper primer pump fuel lines were located on the firewall with melted ends. The fuel primer lines in the engine compartment remained intact and did not appear to leak. The main fuel line from the fuel strainer to the carburetor, which was located on the left side of the engine compartment, was found loose on the carburetor side. The lower left portion of the engine cowling exhibited more thermal damage than the right side. 



Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 59, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/26/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 09/06/2015
Flight Time:  1082 hours (Total, all aircraft), 870 hours (Total, this make and model), 1037 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 6 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: PIPER
Registration: N3659Z
Model/Series: PA22 150
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1960
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 22-7556
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 01/01/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2000 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 2 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3742.4 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: C91  installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-A2B
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 150 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: SBY, 52 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 22 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1354 EST
Direction from Accident Site: 180°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Thin Overcast / 5500 ft agl
Visibility: 10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 5500 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 14 knots / 21 knots
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction: 240°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 29.77 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 7°C / -6°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: GEORGETOWN, DE (GED)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: LUSBY, MD (MD50)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1400 EDT
Type of Airspace:



Airport Information

Airport: DELAWARE COASTAL (GED)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 53 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 28
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3109 ft / 75 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Forced Landing 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: In-Flight and On-Ground
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor
Latitude, Longitude:  38.687500, -75.359167 (est)



NTSB Identification: ERA17LA097
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Saturday, January 28, 2017 in Georgetown, DE
Aircraft: PIPER PA22, registration: N3659Z
Injuries: 1 Minor.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On January 28, 2017, about 1400 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-22-150, N3659Z, was destroyed after it experienced an inflight fire after takeoff from Delaware Coastal Airport (GED), Georgetown, Delaware. The private pilot incurred minor injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan had been filed for the personal flight that was operated under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. The flight was originating at the time of the accident.

According to the pilot, prior to departing the airport, he checked the engine oil level, performed a visual inspection of the engine compartment, and an engine run-up with no anomalies noted. After departing runway 28, the airplane reached 1,400 feet, and the pilot noticed "thick" smoke coming from behind the instrument panel and then the glareshield. The pilot opened the vent on the left door to evacuate smoke and allow him to search for a runway to land the airplane. He then noted flames by his feet and legs, and while "sideslipping" the airplane to a runway at the departure airport, the roof lining began to fall on him. The airplane continued to descend, and during the subsequent landing roll, the pilot reduced the throttle and mixture to shut down the engine. He pulled on the brake handle; however, the airplane did not slow. The pilot proceeded to egress while the airplane was in motion, and incurred minor injuries. The airplane came to rest in a grass area to the right side of runway 4.

An examination of the airplane revealed that the fuselage, empennage, and right wing were consumed by fire. The left wing was partially consumed by fire. The engine remained attached to the fuselage and the propeller remained attached to the engine.

The airplane was retained for further examination.