Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Cessna 182: Incident occurred April 29, 2019 near Lawrence Municipal Airport (KLWM), North Andover, Essex County, Massachusetts



NORTH ANDOVER, Massachusetts  - Authorities are investigating after the pilot of a Cessna C182 reported two blue lasers illuminating the aircraft Monday night.

The pilot was approximately 7 miles from Lawrence Municipal Airport in North Andover when he noticed the lasers, according to the Federal Aviation Administration.

There were no injuries.

The aircraft took off from Portland, Maine and was heading for Bedford, according to the Federal Aviation Administration.

The Massachusetts State Police Department has been notified.

Story and video ➤ https://whdh.com



LAWRENCE, Massachusetts  — The pilot of a Cessna C182 reported Monday night that two blue lasers illuminated the aircraft while it was in flight, according to a spokesperson for the Federal Aviation Administration.

The plane at the time was seven miles from Lawrence Municipal Airport, the spokesperson said. It had taken off from Portland, Maine, and was headed for Bedford, Massachusetts.

No injuries were reported aboard the plane, which has four-seats and a single engine.

Federal Aviation Administration officials notified Massachusetts State Police after receiving the report, the spokesperson said. Both organizations will investigate.

Though it can carry a heavy penalty, many laser incidents are accidental or done without malice, under the assumption that trying to reach an aircraft with a hand-held laser is harmless.

While a hand-held laser or laser pointer projects a bright, focused beam and millimeter-sized dot when used at close range, the beam spreads as it travels. Then when the light hits the curved and imperfect plexiglass of an airplane cockpit or helicopter, the light scatters, producing a bright burst similar to a camera flash going off in a dark room.

Original article can be found here ➤ https://www.eagletribune.com

Zenith STOL CH 701, registered to and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight, N396PH: Accident occurred April 30, 2019 at Mountain Empire Airport (KMKJ), Groseclose, Smyth County, Virginia

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Charleston, West Virginia

Aviation Accident Preliminary Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

https://registry.faa.gov/N396PH

Location: Marion, VA
Accident Number: WPR19TA142
Date & Time: 04/30/2019, 1850 EDT
Registration: N396PH
Aircraft: Zenair Zenith CH 701
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On April 30, 2019, about 1850 eastern daylight time, an experimental amateur built Zenair Zenith CH701 tailwheel equipped airplane, N396PH, was substantially damaged during landing at the Mountain Empire Airport (MYK), Marion, Virginia. The non-certificated pilot was not injured. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the local flight, which originated about 6 minutes prior to the accident.

The pilot reported that while landing on runway 26, the airplane descended rapidly from about 15 ft above ground level (agl), landed hard, and bounced. The pilot said he was able to regain control of the airplane, however, as the airplane climbed through about 20 ft agl, it dropped rapidly a second time and landed hard. Subsequently, the right main landing gear wheel assembly separated and the airplane veered to the right before it came to rest upright on the edge of the runway.

Examination of the airplane by a Federal Aviation Administration inspector revealed that the fuselage and left wing were substantially damaged.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Zenair
Registration: N396PH
Model/Series: Zenith CH 701
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Amateur Built: Yes
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation:  KMKJ, 2559 ft msl
Observation Time: 2253 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Temperature/Dew Point: 26°C / 15°C
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: Calm / ,
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 4900 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Altimeter Setting: 30.26 inches Hg
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Departure Point: Marion, VA (MKJ)
Destination: Marion, VA (MKJ)

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 36.894444, -81.350556 (est)



A small private airplane suffered minor damage Tuesday evening when taking off at Mountain Empire Airport in Groseclose.

According to the Virginia State Police, the agency was called to the airport at 6:39 p.m. for a report of a disabled aircraft. The plane was taxiing down the runway when a wheel came off which caused the plane to slide off into the grass.

The pilot was not injured and the Federal Aviation Administration was notified.

Original article can be found here ➤ https://www.swvatoday.com

Panzl S331E, registered to the pilot operating under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91, N331ST: Fatal accident occurred July 22, 2017 in Apple Valley, San Bernardino County, California

Margo Su Chase 
 Margo was a lifelong learner, an intrepid adventurer and a fierce competitor. These attributes led her to develop a passion for flying and aerobatics, taking to the sky to perform unusual maneuvers, competing nationally with precision and skill. She was quoted in an interview, saying, “I draw in the sky.”

The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Riverside, California
Lycoming Engines; Williamsport, Pennsylvania 
 
Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N331ST


Margo Su Chase


Location: Apple Valley, CA
Accident Number: WPR17FA161
Date & Time: 07/22/2017, 1500 PDT
Registration: N331ST
Aircraft: APPLEGATE PANZL S331E
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Flight control sys malf/fail
Injuries: 1 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On July 22, 2017, about 1500 Pacific daylight time, an Applegate Panzl S331E airplane, N331ST, impacted terrain while conducting aerobatic maneuvers near Apple Valley, California. The private pilot was fatally injured and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to the pilot who was operating the airplane under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the local personal flight, which originated from Apple Valley Airport (APV), Apple Valley, California, about 1445.

The pilot was practicing her aerobatics routine and was performing the sixth figure of a nine-figure routine when the accident occurred. A witness, who was familiar with the pilot's routine, reported that, as planned, the airplane entered a 45° descent and executed a right snap roll before entering a left roll. The airplane continued its descent, rolling at a slower rate, until it impacted the ground. The witness stated that, when she entered the maneuver, the pilot had adequate altitude to complete it.

An in-cockpit video from a camera mounted over the pilot's right shoulder captured the entirety of the accident flight. During the before takeoff engine run-up, the pilot confirmed flight control continuity; the video showed that the aileron surfaces moved accordingly. The pilot departed and began the aerobatic routine about 3 minutes into the flight. About 4 minutes into the routine, the pilot entered a 45° inverted downline and the airplane performed 1.5 snap rolls to the right. The pilot momentarily stopped the roll at 4,100 ft and started a roll to the left. The right aileron surface was observed trailing edge down, and the left aileron surface could not be seen in the video. The pilot moved her body toward the right of the cockpit, consistent with making a right control stick input; however, the airplane continued to roll left and the roll rate increased; the pilot continued to lean toward the right. About this time, the right aileron could be seen in the video with an upward deflection. The deflection of the left aileron could not be determined. The airplane continued to roll to the left until it impacted the ground. The pilot did not transmit any distress calls before the accident.


Margo Su Chase

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 59, Female
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land; Single-engine Sea
Seat Occupied: Single
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 11/15/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 06/14/2017
Flight Time:  982 hours (Total, all aircraft), 189 hours (Total, this make and model) 

The pilot's most recent third-class Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) medical certificate was issued November 15, 2016. On the application for that certificate, she reported 982 total hours of flight experience, 39 hours of which were in the previous six months. The pilot had been flying aerobatics since 2006. The pilot purchased the airplane in 2015 and accrued about 189 flight hours in the airplane since that time, 45 hours of which were in the previous 12 months. 



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: APPLEGATE
Registration: N331ST
Model/Series: PANZL S331E
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2005
Amateur Built: Yes
Airworthiness Certificate: Experimental
Serial Number: 001
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 1
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 12/08/2016, Condition
Certified Max Gross Wt.:
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines:  1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 318 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: IO-540 EXP
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 290 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

The airplane's most recent annual inspection was completed on December 8, 2016. The maintenance log entry for the inspection indicated that the airplane was disassembled and reassembled. A new control stick was installed, and the ailerons and aileron hinges and attach points were inspected and all were recorded as satisfactory at this time.



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KVCV, 2885 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 12 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1455 PDT
Direction from Accident Site: 265°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 11000 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 6 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 150°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting:
Temperature/Dew Point: 38°C / 6°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Apple Valley, CA (APV)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Apple Valley, CA (APV)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1445 PDT
Type of Airspace:



Airport Information

Airport: Apple Valley (APV)
Runway Surface Type: N/A
Airport Elevation: 3062 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Unknown
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: None 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 34.603611, -117.132778 

The airplane impacted sandy desert terrain in an approximate 45° nose down, upright attitude. The engine was mostly embedded in a 2-ft-deep crater; the wood propeller blades were fractured near the propeller hub and fragments were found at the bottom of the crater. The engine cowling, cabin, and both wing skins were heavily fragmented and completely separated from the underlying structure. Impact marks consistent with the leading edges of both wings were visible in the sand. The cabin area was heavily damaged. The skin was still attached to the aft fuselage but exhibited crush damage. The empennage was mostly intact and undamaged.

Control continuity was established throughout the airframe with two breaks, one in the left aileron control assembly and one in the elevator control assembly. The fracture surfaces of the left aileron control rod end and the elevator control were examined by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Materials laboratory. Both fracture surfaces of the left aileron control rod end exhibited relatively flat areas emanating from the inner diameter of the outer ring, which transitioned to angular planes adjacent to the outer diameter. One of the fracture surfaces exhibited smearing damage on much of its flat area that obscured most of the finer features. The other fracture surface exhibited feathery features in the flat area, consistent with fatigue cracking. The elevator control fracture exhibited features consistent with shear overstress.

The engine sustained significant crush damage to the oil sump, exhaust system, and induction system. The magnetos were heavily damaged and could not be tested; the ignition harness was destroyed. The top spark plugs were removed; their coloring varied but was consistent with normal operation when compared to the Champion check-a-plug chart. The fuel nozzles were clear of debris and blockages. Borescope examination of the cylinders revealed no mechanical damage or evidence of detonation or foreign object ingestion. The engine was rotated by hand and continuity was established throughout, thumb compression was obtained on all cylinders and the valves moved appropriately. Examination revealed no anomalies that would have precluded normal operation. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The San Bernardino County Coroner, San Bernardino, California, performed an autopsy of the pilot. The cause of death was listed as multiple blunt force injuries.

The FAA Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory performed forensic toxicology on specimens from the pilot with negative results for carbon monoxide, and drugs. 85 mg/dL ethanol was detected in blood, which was likely the result of postmortem production.

Beech G35 Bonanza, personal flight conducted under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91, N4216D: Accident occurred July 23, 2017 at Wichita Valley Airport (F14), Iowa Park, Wichita County, Texas


The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Lubbock, Texas

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N4216D



Location: Wichita Falls, TX
Accident Number: CEN17LA282
Date & Time: 07/23/2017, 2230 CDT
Registration: N4216D
Aircraft: BEECH G35
Aircraft Damage:  Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On July 23, 2017, about 2230 central daylight time, a Beech G35, N4216D, was substantially damaged when it struck an irrigation canal off the end of runway 13 at Wichita Valley Airport (F14), Wichita Falls, Texas. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident. The personal flight was being conducted under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 without a flight plan. The pilot, the sole occupant aboard, was seriously injured. The local flight originated from Grand Prairie (GPM), Texas, about 2130.

According to the pilot's accident report, he departed GPM about 2130, and received flight following and a clearance into Class B airspace. The flight proceeded normally until he entered the downwind leg for runway 13 at F14. He noted scattered thunderstorms ahead. On final approach, he thought the airplane was too high and he considered making a go-around. He felt strong downdraft and encountered heavy rain and turbulence. He also observed several lightning strikes ahead.

The pilot made the decision to land and risk running off the end of the runway rather than possibly entering the thunderstorm. The pilot said he did not realize there were 6-foot tall berms on either side of a drainage ditch 50 to 60 feet from the end of the runway because of the tall weeds obscured them. There was also standing water on the second half of the runway. The airplane went off the end of the runway and struck the first berm. The impact rendered the pilot unconscious. When he regained consciousness minutes later, the airplane was in a drainage ditch and water had filled the cockpit. He remained in the airplane until daylight, extricated himself, and walked to a nearby house where he called 9-1-1.

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspectors examined the airplane and reported finding substantial damage to the forward fuselage and firewall.

Weather observations recorded at Sheppard Air Force Base/Wichita Falls Municipal Airport (SPS), located 7 miles to the east of F14, reported winds varying from 060° to 360° at 16 to 20 knots, and gusting from 21 to 29 knots, with a peak wind at 35 knots. There was a thunderstorm in the vicinity, with lightning observed in all quadrants. 



Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Instructor
Age: 65, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Multi-engine; Airplane Single-engine; Instrument Airplane
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Waiver Time Limited Special
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/20/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 06/16/2016
Flight Time:   (Estimated) 5000 hours (Total, all aircraft), 500 hours (Total, this make and model), 3500 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 25 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 8 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: BEECH
Registration: N4216D
Model/Series: G35 NO SERIES
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1956
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal; Utility
Serial Number: D-4414
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/03/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2550 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3888 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Continental
ELT: C91  installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: E-225-8
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 225 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Night/Dark
Observation Facility, Elevation: KSPS, 1019 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 7 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 2231 CDT
Direction from Accident Site: 20°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 8000 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 12 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: / Convective
Wind Direction: 30°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: / Moderate
Altimeter Setting: 30 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 24°C / 22°C
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point: Grand Prairie, TX (GPM)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Wichita Falls, TX (F14)
Type of Clearance: VFR Flight Following
Departure Time: 2130 CDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: Wichita Valley (F14)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1004 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Wet
Runway Used: 13
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3320 ft / 40 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Serious
Latitude, Longitude:  33.944167, -98.613056 (est)

Robinson R44, registered to KHGK LLC operated by Helicopter Solutions Inc dba Helicopter Adventures under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a commercial air tour flight, N828RD: Accident occurred July 24, 2017 in Myrtle Beach, Horry County, South Carolina

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; West Columbia, South Carolina
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Greensboro, North Carolina
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Van Nuys, California

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


http://registry.faa.gov/N828RD

Location: Myrtle Beach, SC
Accident Number: ERA17LA257
Date & Time: 07/24/2017, 1316 EDT
Registration: N828RD
Aircraft: ROBINSON HELICOPTER R44
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (partial)
Injuries: 3 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Other Work Use - Sightseeing 

On July 24, 2017, about 1316 eastern daylight time, a Robinson R44, N828RD, registered to KHGK LLC, operated by Helicopter Solutions, Inc., dba Helicopter Adventures, was substantially damaged during a hard landing near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The commercial pilot and 2 passengers were not injured. The helicopter was operated under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a commercial air tour flight, on a company visual flight rules flight plan. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the local flight, which originated about 1310 from the operator's facility.

The pilot stated that after departure while on the Boardwalk Adventure tour flight when near the Sky Wheel, the helicopter started shaking like a "minor kick" which he initially thought was a stuck valve. Near that location he made a radio call to advise company personnel that a mechanic would be needed to meet the flight. He elected to continue the tour, and attempted to maintain about 70 knots with the engine operating at 25 inches manifold pressure (he did not report engine rpm), which resulted in a descent rate of 300 feet-per-minute. When he was near the departure helipad location, company personnel reported seeing white smoke trailing the helicopter, and the pilot noticed the alternator light was on. He started pulling power to slow the descent, but the low rotor rpm horn came on and the engine rpm spiked. Realizing he was unable to reach the intended helipad, he turned the helicopter with the slope of an adjacent field, and pulled full collective to cushion the landing, but landed hard.

The helicopter's drive train consisted of a V-belt sheave bolted directly to the Lycoming reciprocating engine's crankshaft. Four double V-belts transmit power to the upper sheave, which has an overrunning clutch in its hub. The clutch shaft transmits power forward into the main rotor gearbox and mast assembly.

According to the operator, the planned route was 7-8 miles, flown at 100 knots and about 900 feet. GPS tracking data indicated that the highest altitude attained was 898 feet mean sea level (msl), which occurred about 2 minutes 30 seconds after takeoff. After that time, the pilot continued on the tour route but began descending with corresponding groundspeed increase. The helicopter was not equipped with an engine monitor.

Postaccident examination of the engine compartment revealed the V-belts were coated with oil. The oil sump was drained and found to contain about 4.5 quarts of oil (minimum oil capacity for takeoff is 7 quarts). Further examination of the engine revealed the No. 5 cylinder pushrod (Lycoming part number 15F19957-35) and shroud was fractured in 2 pieces. The engine was removed and sent to a repair station where it was disassembled under the oversight of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness inspector. Examination of the helicopter revealed damage to the skin of the tailboom.

During engine disassembly, valve train components from the No. 5 cylinder and some of the valve train components from the No. 4 cylinder (for comparison) were retained and submitted to the NTSB Materials Laboratory for examination. The governor was also retained for operational testing at the manufacturer's facility with FAA oversight, which revealed the unit passed all required service limits tests.

According to the NTSB Materials Laboratory Factual Report, examination of the No. 5 cylinder exhaust valve revealed no evidence of galling on the stem, and no change in surface roughness. Curved impact marks were observed on the face of the valve tip; the shapes of the impact marks were consistent with multiple impacts with the edge of the displaced rotator cap. The valve contact pad on the number 5 exhaust rocker arm exhibited an area of pitting consistent with fretting contact damage.

Examination of the No. 5 cylinder exhaust pushrod which was bent and fractured revealed the pushrod pieces were obliterated by post-fracture contact between the mating fractures. Gouges consistent with contact damage with the edge of the rocker arm seat and with the edge of the cylinder flange were observed on the side of the pushrod at the rocker arm end. The contact damage closest to the end of the pushrod was located in line with the inner radius of the bend. The wear pattern at the socket end of the pushrod was angled relative to the longitudinal axis of the pushrod, and was consistent with the pushrod axis angled relative to the socket axis, and the orientation of the angle was consistent with the orientation of the bend in the pushrod.

The No. 5 cylinder pushrod housing was fractured near the middle of its length; the fracture surfaces were rough consistent with fracture due to overstress loads. Rub marks consistent with contact with the pushrod were observed on the interior of the pushrod housing. The inboard end of the pushrod housing where it was inserted in the crankcase exhibited areas of impact damage with missing material consistent with contact with the edge of the tappet socket. Corresponding contact marks and material transfer were observed on the edge of the socket.

Examination of the valve train components from the No. 4 cylinder, and the springs, spring seats, tappet sockets, tappet bodies, and tappet plunger assemblies associated with both cylinders revealed no evidence of abnormal signatures.

A review of the engine logbook revealed the engine was last overhauled on June 21, 2016, and installed in the accident helicopter on January 15, 2017. The engine had accrued 358.2 hours since major overhaul at the time of the accident. The maintenance records reflect that the oil and oil filter were consistently changed every 50 hours or less in accordance with Lycoming Service Bulletin (SB) 480F (multiple logbook entries referenced SB 480E). Lycoming SB No. 388C, which is a repetitive procedure every 300 hours or earlier to determine exhaust valve and guide condition, was last accomplished at 298.3 hours since overhaul.

The company Director of Maintenance reported that prior to the accident, they were experiencing 3 to 4 stuck exhaust valves a year among their fleet, adding that none of them resulted in a fractured exhaust valve pushrod or pushrod housing. As a result of the accident, the operator decreased the repetitive inspection interval dictated by SB No. 388C from 300 to 200 hours, and increased the minimum exhaust valve clearance from 0.015 to 0.017 inch. Since incorporating the changes they have operated 60,711 flights, totaling 7,833 flight hours, flying 140,775 passengers, and have not experienced any stuck exhaust valves. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 26, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Helicopter; Instrument Helicopter
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/02/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 04/28/2017
Flight Time:   1108 hours (Total, all aircraft), 530 hours (Total, this make and model), 1046 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 280 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 115 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 3 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: ROBINSON HELICOPTER
Registration: N828RD
Model/Series: R44 UNDESIGNATED
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Year of Manufacture: 2002
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 1254
Landing Gear Type: Skid;
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 07/06/2017, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2400 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 60 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 2498.3 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: O-540-F1B5
Registered Owner: KHGK LLC
Rated Power: 205 hp
Operator: Helicopter Solutions, Inc.
Operating Certificate(s) Held: On-demand Air Taxi (135)
Operator Does Business As: Helicopter Adventures
Operator Designator Code:

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: MYR, 25 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 3 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1250 EDT
Direction from Accident Site: 215°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 2000 ft agl
Visibility:  
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 4900 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 14 knots / 20 knots
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 270°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.97 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 30°C / 24°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Myrtle Beach, SC
Type of Flight Plan Filed: Company VFR
Destination: Myrtle Beach, SC
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1310 EDT
Type of Airspace:

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 3 None
Latitude, Longitude: 33.720556, -78.894444 (est)

External Load Event (Rotorcraft): Hughes 369D, N58424, accident occurred August 10, 2017 in Villa Grove, Saguache County, Colorado

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional participating entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Denver, Colorado

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms 
 
http://registry.faa.gov/N58424


Location: Villa Grove, CO
Accident Number: CEN17LA314
Date & Time: 08/10/2017, 1400 MDT
Registration: N58424
Aircraft: HUGHES 369D
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: External load event (Rotorcraft)
Injuries: 1 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 133: Rotorcraft Ext. Load 

On August 10, 2017, about 1400 mountain daylight time, a Hughes 369D helicopter, N58424, had its tail rotor impact a powerline near Villa Grove, Colorado. The pilot received serious injuries. The helicopter sustained substantial tailboom and fuselage damage. The helicopter was registered to Quicksilver Air Inc. and operated by Patrol Helicopters Inc. as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 133 rotorcraft external load flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed in the area about the time of the accident, and the flight was not operated on a flight plan. The local flight originated from a field near the accident site.

According to the pilot's accident report, the purpose of the flight was to assist power line construction. After pulling a sock line through several structures, the helicopter was flown inside an angle tower. As the pilot was flying the helicopter away from the angle tower, he flew the helicopter to his right while planning on backing up at the same time. The next tower came into view and the helicopter's speed to the right was faster than planned. The helicopter's main rotors contacted a tower and the helicopter subsequently "crashed." The pilot indicated that the helicopter did not have any mechanical malfunctions. The pilot was not wearing a helmet.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 69, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 Unknown
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/28/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 12/08/2016
Flight Time:  19500 hours (Total, all aircraft), 16000 hours (Total, this make and model), 18500 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 67.3 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 50.5 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 6 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: HUGHES
Registration: N58424
Model/Series: 369D
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Year of Manufacture: 1979
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 1090593D
Landing Gear Type: Skid 
Seats: 5
Date/Type of Last Inspection: Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3000 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Turbo Shaft
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: Rolls Royce
ELT: C91  installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: 250 C20B
Registered Owner: QUICKSILVER AIR INC
Rated Power: 420 hp
Operator: Patrol Helicopters Inc.
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Rotorcraft External Load (133)
Operator Does Business As:
Operator Designator Code: Y3OL

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KALS, 7541 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 49 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1352 MDT
Direction from Accident Site: 175°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: Calm /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction:
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 30.33 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 26°C / 7°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Villa Grove, CO
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination:
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time:  MDT
Type of Airspace: 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Serious
Latitude, Longitude: 38.254444, -105.947778 (est)

Loss of Engine Power (Total): Cessna 180J Skywagon, N180LP; accident occurred August 28, 2017 in Gaylord, Otsego County, Michigan


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Grand Rapids, Michigan
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas
Continental Motors; Mobile, Alabama

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N180LP



Location: Gaylord, MI
Accident Number: CEN17FA332
Date & Time: 08/28/2017, 1312 EDT
Registration: N180LP
Aircraft: CESSNA 180J
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Fuel related
Injuries: 2 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis 

The private pilot was flying the airplane at a low altitude when the engine lost total power. The pilot reported that the engine did not sputter, bang, or run roughly before the loss of engine power; however, several witnesses heard the airplane's engine running roughly immediately before the crash. One witness reported that the airplane's engine fluctuated between "sputtering" and "revving" before it lost total power. The airplane collided with trees and terrain during the subsequent forced landing and came to rest inverted.

Postaccident examination of the airplane and engine did not reveal any evidence of preimpact mechanical malfunctions or failures that would have precluded normal operation. Additionally, the airplane had ample fuel available that did not contain any water or debris. The engine also demonstrated the ability to produce rated horsepower during a postaccident operational test run. The carburetor heat control was in the "OFF" position.

The weather conditions at the time of the accident were conducive to moderate carburetor icing at cruise power and serious carburetor icing at descent power. The pilot reported that he did not use carburetor heat during the flight because he was operating the engine at a cruise power setting. The airplane flight manual states that carburetor heat should be used upon a loss of engine power or an unexplained decrease of manifold pressure, a roughly running engine, or before the throttle is moved to idle for landing. Additionally, the use of carburetor heat might be required to avoid carburetor ice accumulation during a descent at a reduced engine power setting. According to a Federal Aviation Administration Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin, pilots should use carburetor heat while in weather conditions where carburetor icing is probable. Based on the available information, the total loss of engine power was likely due to carburetor ice accumulation. Additionally, the low altitude at which the loss of engine power occurred precluded the pilot from reestablishing normal engine operation before the airplane descended into trees.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to use carburetor heat while operating in weather conditions that were conducive to carburetor ice formation, which resulted in a total loss of engine power due to carburetor ice accumulation. 

Findings

Aircraft
Intake anti-ice, deice - Not used/operated (Cause)

Personnel issues
Decision making/judgment - Pilot (Cause)
Lack of action - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Conducive to carburetor icing - Effect on equipment (Cause)
Tree(s) - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Maneuvering
Other weather encounter
Loss of engine power (total) (Defining event)

Landing
Off-field or emergency landing
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)
Nose over/nose down 

On August 28, 2017, about 1312 eastern daylight time, a float-equipped Cessna 180J airplane, N180LP, impacted trees and terrain during a forced landing near Gaylord, Michigan. The private pilot and his passenger were seriously injured, and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to the pilot and was operated under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91 without a flight plan. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the local flight that departed Otsego Lake, Michigan, about 1250.

The pilot reported that after departing Otsego Lake he flew north toward the Gaylord Regional Airport (GLR) to conduct a practice instrument landing system approach to runway 9. After the practice approach, he flew toward his private airstrip located about 5 miles southeast of GLR. He reported that the airplane experienced a total loss of engine power and the propeller stopped rotating as he was conducting a series of turns near his airstrip. The pilot stated that before the loss of engine power the airplane was at least 500 ft above ground level (agl) and the engine was operating at 2,300 rpm and 23 inches of manifold pressure. Additionally, he stated that the engine did not sputter, bang, or run rough before the loss of engine power. The pilot reported that the airplane collided with trees during the forced landing. When asked how much fuel was onboard before the flight, the pilot estimated that the main fuel tanks contained about 45 gallons total, and that both 17-gallon auxiliary fuel tanks were completely full. Additionally, the pilot stated that he does not operate the engine with carburetor heat engaged above 17 inches of manifold pressure.

The passenger reported that they circled the pilot's private airstrip a couple of times to view the property. While circling over the airstrip, the pilot and passenger observed and discussed how the fuel gauges fluctuated while the airplane was in a sustained turn with partially full fuel tanks. The passenger reported that the engine quit while the airplane was in a turn, and that the airplane collided with trees as the pilot attempted to land at the airstrip. The passenger stated that the airplane came to rest inverted, and that a first responder assisted him in getting out of the airplane.

There were no eyewitness to the accident; however, there were numerous individuals who had heard the airplane's engine running rough immediately before the crash. One witness reported the airplane's engine fluctuated between "sputtering" and "revving" before it lost total power.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 77, Male
Airplane Rating(s):  Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land; Single-engine Sea
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 03/10/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 10/10/2015
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 5500 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1000 hours (Total, this make and model), 100 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 50 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records, the 77-year-old pilot held a private pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land and sea, airplane multiengine land, instrument airplane, and rotorcraft-helicopter. His last aviation medical examination was on March 10, 2017, when he was issued a third-class medical certificate with no limitations.

A pilot logbook was not reviewed during the investigation. The pilot reported that he had accumulated about 5,500 total hours of flight experience, of which 3,000 hours were flown in single-engine land airplanes, 1,000 hours in single-engine seaplanes, 1,000 hours in multi-engine land airplanes, and 500 hours in rotorcraft. The pilot had flown about 1,000 hours in instrument conditions and about 800 hours at night.

The pilot reported having flown about 100 hours and 50 hours during the 90 days and 30 days before the accident, respectively. The accident flight was about 22 minutes and was the only flight completed within 24 hours of the accident. The pilot reported that his most recent flight review, as required by Title 14 CFR 61.56, was completed on October 10, 2015.



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Registration: N180LP
Model/Series: 180J J
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1973
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18052344
Landing Gear Type: Float;
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/30/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: P. Ponk Aviation
ELT: C91A installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-470-50
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 235 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

The 1973-model-year airplane, serial number 18052344, was a high-wing monoplane of aluminum semi-monocoque construction. The airplane was powered by a 235-horsepower, 6-cylinder, reciprocating engine. The engine was originally manufactured as a Continental IO-520-D23A, serial number 552352; however, the engine was subsequently converted to an P. Ponk Aviation O-470-50, serial number 2518, after being modified by Supplemental Type Certificate No. SE4988NM. The engine provided thrust through a constant-speed, two-blade, McCauley D2A34C58-NO propeller, serial number 760467. The airplane was equipped with landing floats, wing flaps, and had a maximum gross weight of 3,100 pounds. The FAA issued the airplane a standard airworthiness certificate on May 29, 1973.

The airplane's recording tachometer indicated 3,951.42 hours at the accident site. The pilot provided excerpts of the maintenance logbooks, which indicated that the last annual inspection of the airplane was completed on June 30, 2016, at 3,954 total airframe hours. At the last annual inspection, the engine had accumulated 109.44 hours since its most recent overhaul. There were no maintenance entries after the June 2016 annual inspection.

The airplane flight manual states that carburetor heat should be used upon a loss of engine power or an unexplained decrease of manifold pressure, a rough running engine, or before the throttle is moved to idle for landing. Additionally, the use of carburetor heat might be required to avoid carburetor ice accumulation during a descent at a reduced engine power setting. The airplane's instrument panel was equipped with a carburetor air temperature gauge that was wired to a thermocouple installed at the carburetor inlet.

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: GLR, 1328 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 5 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1253 EDT
Direction from Accident Site: 318°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 1700 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 4 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: Variable
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.13 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 18°C / 14°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Otsego Lake, MI
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Otsego Lake, MI
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1250 EST
Type of Airspace: Class G 

A postaccident review of available meteorological data established that day visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the accident site. The nearest aviation weather reporting station was located at GLR about 5 miles northwest of the accident site. At 1253, about 19 minutes before the accident, the GLR automated surface observing system reported a variable wind direction at 4 knots, 10 miles surface visibility, a broken ceiling at 1,700 ft agl, an overcast ceiling at 9,000 ft agl, temperature 18°C, dew point 14°C, and an altimeter setting of 30.13 inches of mercury.

According to a carburetor icing probability chart contained in FAA Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin CE-09-35, entitled "Carburetor Icing Prevention", the recorded temperature and dew point were in the range of susceptibility for the formation of carburetor icing. The bulletin notes that if ice forms in the carburetor of a constant-speed propeller aircraft, the restriction to the induction airflow will result in a drop of manifold pressure, a reduction in engine horsepower, and often roughness in engine operation. Additionally, according to the bulletin, a pilot should use carburetor heat when operating the engine at low power settings, or while in weather conditions where carburetor icing is probable.

According to a carburetor icing-probability chart published by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, the weather conditions at the time of the accident were conducive to serious icing at descent power and moderate icing at cruise power. 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Serious
Latitude, Longitude: 44.950000, -84.621389 

An on-scene investigation revealed that the airplane initially collided with a 50 ft tall white pine tree, followed by a 30 ft tall birch tree, and came to rest inverted about 155 ft from the initial tree impact. The wreckage debris path was on a northeast heading. There were at least two branches that exhibited flat cuts and black paint transfer that were consistent with a propeller strike. Flight control cable continuity was confirmed from the cockpit controls to the individual flight control surfaces. The wing flaps were found fully retracted. The engine throttle control was out about 1.5 inches, the propeller control was out about 1/2 inch, and the mixture control was in the full rich position. The carburetor heat control was in the "OFF" position. The water rudders were in the stowed position.

With the airplane still inverted, about 3/4 cup of fuel was drained from the supply line between the fuel flow transducer and the carburetor. The recovered fuel was blue in color and free of any contamination. Additionally, the fuel strainer assembly leaked fuel as it was opened. The fuel strainer screen was clear of debris. The inverted carburetor was removed from the engine and its accelerator pump discharged fuel when actuated. The carburetor fuel bowl contained several ounces of fuel. No anomalies were observed with the carburetor floats, needle valve, venturi, or inlet fuel screen. When the airplane was recovered to an upright position, fuel was observed to drain from the fractured fuel lines located in the aft door posts. Recovered fuel samples were blue in color and free of any contamination. The fuel selector was found in the "BOTH" position, and a functional test revealed no anomalies. The airplane was equipped with an electronic fuel flow indicator, which displayed 69.2 gallons remaining and that 24.8 gallons had been used since the device was last reset. The electronic fuel flow indicator was configured to use 60 gallons for the combined capacity of the main fuel tanks and 34 gallons for the auxiliary tanks, for a total fuel capacity of 94 gallons.

The engine remained partially attached to the firewall by control cables, electrical wires, and oil lines. Mechanical continuity was confirmed from the engine components to their respective cockpit engine controls. Internal engine and valve train continuity was confirmed as the engine crankshaft was rotated. Compression and suction were noted on all cylinders in conjunction with crankshaft rotation. A boroscope inspection did not reveal any anomalies with the cylinders, pistons, valves, or valve seats. The spark plugs were removed and exhibited features consistent with normal engine operation. Both magnetos provided spark on all leads when rotated. There were no obstructions between the air filter housing and the carburetor. The two-blade constant speed propeller remained attached to the crankshaft flange. The propeller exhibited minor burnishing on the cambered-side of both blades. One blade appeared straight. The other propeller blade exhibited a slight twist toward low pitch near the blade tip, and the blade tip was bent slightly forward. The postaccident examination revealed no evidence of a mechanical malfunction or failure that would have precluded normal engine operation. 

Tests And Research


The engine was sent to the manufacturer for an operational test run. The engine was installed in a test cell and outfitted with a test club propeller. The engine started on the first attempt and operated normally at idle without excessive fluctuations in engine rpm. The engine speed was then increased incrementally to full throttle (2,660 rpm and 26.67 inches of manifold pressure) over a period of 25 minutes. After achieving maximum power, the throttle was cycled several times between idle and maximum power in quick succession with no interruption or hesitation in power production. There was no hesitation, stumbling, or interruption in engine operation observed during the test run. The engine demonstrated the ability to produce rated horsepower during the operational test run.