Sunday, March 24, 2019

American Aviation AA-1A Trainer, N9218L: Accident occurred September 14, 2018 in Warthen, Washington County, Georgia

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity: 

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Atlanta, Georgia

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


https://registry.faa.gov/N9218L




Location: Warthen, GA
Accident Number: ERA18TA250
Date & Time: 09/14/2018, 1020 EDT
Registration: N9218L
Aircraft: American Aviation AA1
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Fuel exhaustion
Injuries: 2 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On September 14, 2018, about 1020 eastern daylight time, an American Aviation AA-1A, N9218L, was substantially damaged after it impacted terrain during a forced landing in Warthen, Georgia. The commercial pilot and passenger sustained minor injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the flight that originated from the Oconee County Regional Airport (CEU), Clemson, South Carolina, and was destined for Summerfield, Florida. The personal flight was conducted under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91.

The pilot reported that earlier during the day of the accident, he purchased the airplane in Morristown, Tennessee. He filled up each of the two fuel tanks with 12.5 gallons of fuel and departed from Moore-Murrell Airport (MOR), Morristown, Tennessee around 0730 destined for Summerfield, Florida. While flying at a cruise altitude of 9,500 ft. mean sea level, about 20 minutes after takeoff, he noticed the fuel level was down to a one-fourth tank of fuel in each fuel tank. The pilot thought the fuel burn was very high and decided to land at the closest airport, which was CEU. He filled up again with 24 gallons of fuel and departed about 0950. About 30 minutes into the flight he noticed that the fuel level was at one-fourth tank in each wing fuel tank again. The pilot further stated that he decided to divert to the nearest airport, which was OKZ. About 15 miles away from the airport, the engine lost all power, he switched fuel tanks to the right fuel tank, activated the electric boost pump and the engine restarted. A few minutes later the engine again lost all power again and he noticed both fuel tanks were empty. The pilot located a field and configured the airplane for landing. During the rollout in the field, the nose landing gear contacted some soft dirt and collapsed. The airplane slid 90° to the left and came to rest upright. Both occupants egressed through the canopy.

Examination of the wreckage revealed that the left-wing tip was crushed, and the main spar was damaged, and the nose landing gear had collapsed. There was no fuel in either the left or right fuel tank. Two gallons of fuel was poured into the right fuel tank, and the electric fuel pump was turned on. Fuel began draining from the carburetor float bowl, and examination of the bowl revealed that its threaded plug was missing.

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records, the pilot held a commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane multi-engine land, and instrument airplane. He held an FAA third-class medical certificate issued August 30, 2018. At the time of the medical examination, the pilot reported 700 total hours of flight experience.

The airplane was issued an airworthiness certificate on June 9, 1971. According to the FAA type certificate data sheet for the American Aviation AA-1A, the airplane was originally equipped with a 108-horsepower Lycoming O-235-C2C engine, driving a two-bladed McCauley 1A105 SCM 7157 propeller. The engine had been replaced with a 150-horsepower Lycoming O-320-E2 engine, driving a two-bladed Sensenich propeller. The airplane was also equipped with two 12-gallon fuel tanks, for a total fuel capacity of 24 gallons, of which 2 gallons were unusable.

The pilot reported that the airplane had recently undergone an annual inspection as well as a pre-purchase inspection; however, he was unable to locate the airplane's maintenance logbooks log books following the accident. The airplane's maintenance history, including any work done to, or inspections of the carburetor could not be determined.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 68, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/30/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 532.1 hours (Total, all aircraft), 2 hours (Total, this make and model), 525.5 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 4.3 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: American Aviation
Registration: N9218L
Model/Series: AA1 A
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1971
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: AA1A-0118
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 09/01/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1560 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 2 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 2093 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320E2
Registered Owner: Bird Mary C
Rated Power: 150 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KMLJ, 384 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 25 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1415 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 279°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 7 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 300°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.98 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 29°C / 22°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Clemson, SC (CEU)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Summerfield, FL
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0950 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Minor
Latitude, Longitude:  33.086389, -82.751111 (est)

Zenith STOL CH-750, operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight, N752VK: Accident occurred September 23, 2018 in DeLeon Springs, Volusia County, Florida


The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Orlando, Florida 

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

https://registry.faa.gov/N752VK




Location: DeLeon Springs, FL
Accident Number: ERA18TA263
Date & Time: 09/23/2018, 1545 EDT
Registration: N752VK
Aircraft: ZENITH CH 750
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (total)
Injuries: 2 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On September 23, 2018, about 1545 eastern daylight time, a Zenith Aircraft Company CH 750, N752VK, was substantially damaged following a forced landing near DeLeon Springs, Florida. The private pilot and one passenger sustained minor injuries. The airplane was operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the local flight that originated from DeLand Municipal Airport (DED), DeLand, Florida, about 1530.

The pilot/owner reported that while over the DeLeon Springs area, the engine started "skipping." The engine then lost all power and the propeller stopped. He set up for a forced landing to an open area. During the descent, he observed power lines and maneuvered to clear them. The airplane touched down at a steep descent angle. After touchdown, the airplane nosed over and came to rest inverted.

An inspector with the Federal Aviation Administration responded to the accident site and examined the wreckage. He reported that the engine firewall, wings, and vertical stabilizer had structural damage. Further examination of the wreckage revealed that the airplane was equipped with two 12v motorcycle batteries, and both were discharged. One battery indicated 0.75 volts and the other indicated 7 volts. Both batteries were then charged by the inspector and a mechanic, who were then able to start the airplane's Viking 110 engine normally. The alternator was found to be charging normally with the engine running and the bus voltage was greater than 13.5 volts.

The key-actuated rotary (ignition) switch on the cockpit instrument panel controlled the airplane's alternator and started the airplane's engine was unlabeled. When the switch switch was placed in the unlabeled on position, the alternator field wire received power and the alternator charged normally. When placed to the unlabeled off position, power was removed from the alternator field wire, and the engine continued to run as long as one of the unlabeled battery toggle switches was turned on. The Viking 110 engine manual recommended an alternator warning light installation; however, the inspector noted that there was no light installed.

The pilot reported to the FAA inspector that he may have left the alternator switch in the unlabeled off position by mistake. The pilot also reported that he did not utilize a checklist when operating the airplane.

The Viking 110 engine manual reminds operators that the engine is controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU) versus mechanically operated magnetos and at least one battery must maintain its charge for the engine to operate.



Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 79, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Sport Pilot None
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/14/2011
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:  237 hours (Total, all aircraft), 195 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 7 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: ZENITH
Registration: N752VK
Model/Series: CH 750
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2012
Amateur Built: Yes
Airworthiness Certificate: Experimental
Serial Number: 75-8435
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 10/21/2017, Condition
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1325 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 55 Hours
Engines: Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 701 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Viking
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: 110
Registered Owner: Aluminum Eagle LLC
Rated Power: 110 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KDED, 79 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 6 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1915 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 145°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 7 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 90°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.98 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 31°C / 21°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: DeLand, FL (DED)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: DeLand, FL (DED)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1530 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Minor
Latitude, Longitude: 29.139722, -81.343056 (est)

Maule M-7-260C Orion, N760AC: Accident occurred September 15, 2018 in Grass Valley, Oregon

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Portland, Oregon

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

https://registry.faa.gov/N760AC

Location: Grass Valley, OR
Accident Number: GAA18CA569
Date & Time: 09/15/2018, 1800 PDT
Registration: N760AC
Aircraft: Maule M7
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis 

The pilot of the tailwheel-equipped airplane reported that, during the second approach to the unimproved canyon airstrip in moderate turbulence, he felt that the groundspeed was faster than normal and that he there was a tailwind, but he reduced power to idle and landed the airplane. About 300 ft into the ground roll, at 35 mph, the airplane veered left. He applied right rudder and moderate braking, but the airplane exited the airstrip to the left, and its left main landing gear struck a pile of rocks that were painted white and used to mark the edge of the runway. The left main landing gear separated from the airplane.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the fuselage, left wing, and left aileron.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

An automated weather observation system about 16 nautical miles from the accident site reported that, about the time of the accident, the wind was from 290° at 13 knots, gusting to 16 knots. The pilot was landing to the south.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to maintain directional control during the landing roll.

Findings

Aircraft
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Tailwind - Effect on operation
Gusts - Effect on operation

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing
Other weather encounter
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Attempted remediation/recovery
Runway excursion
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)
Part(s) separation from AC

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 45, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 09/30/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 10/10/2016
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 1315 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1120 hours (Total, this make and model), 1315 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 59 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 12 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information


Aircraft Make: Maule
Registration: N760AC
Model/Series: M7 260C
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2012
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 30052C
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 08/27/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2500 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 969 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: IO-540
Registered Owner: Atlas Casters Llc
Rated Power: 260 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan


Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KDLS, 210 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 16 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 0053 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 309°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 13 knots / 16 knots
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / Unknown
Wind Direction: 290°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / Light
Altimeter Setting: 29.82 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 19°C / 6°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Hood River, OR (4S2)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Grass Valley, OR
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1730 PDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 45.450000, -120.863611 (est)

Cessna R182 Skylane RG, N7304T: Accident occurred September 15, 2018 at South Jersey Regional Airport (KVAY), Mount Holly, Burlington County, New Jersey

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 
 
https://registry.faa.gov/N7304T 


Location: Mount Holly, NJ
Accident Number: GAA18CA556
Date & Time: 09/15/2018, 1230 EDT
Registration: N7304T
Aircraft: Cessna R182
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control in flight
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

Analysis 

The pilot reported that, during landing, while over the runway, he believed the "right wing lifted a bit," and the airplane drifted left. The airplane touched down, veered left, and he applied right rudder. Subsequently, the airplane exited the left side of the runway and impacted trees.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to both wings and the fuselage.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

The automated weather observation system at the accident airport reported that, about the time of the accident, the wind was variable at 5 knots. The pilot landed on runway 8. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to maintain lateral control of the airplane during landing, which resulted in a loss of directional control and subsequent runway excursion.

Findings

Aircraft
Lateral/bank control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Tree(s) - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing
Loss of control in flight (Defining event)
Loss of control on ground
Attempted remediation/recovery
Runway excursion
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 83, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/03/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 12/10/2016
Flight Time:   (Estimated) 3385 hours (Total, all aircraft), 2500 hours (Total, this make and model), 3385 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 23 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 8 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N7304T
Model/Series: R182 No Series
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1977
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: R18200027
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 05/16/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 4818 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-540-J3C5D
Registered Owner: Levin Air Inc
Rated Power: 235 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KVAY, 53 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1654 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 19°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 2300 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 5 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: Variable
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.2 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 24°C / 20°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Caldwell, NJ (CDW)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Mount Holly, NJ (VAY)
Type of Clearance: VFR Flight Following
Departure Time: 1130 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: SOUTH JERSEY RGNL (VAY)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 52 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 08
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3881 ft / 50 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude: 39.943056, -74.844722 (est)

Piper PA-18-150, N7184B: Accident occurred September 13, 2018 and accident occurred August 27, 2016 in Kenai, Alaska

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Kenai, Alaska

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

https://registry.faa.gov/N7184B

Location: Kenai, AK
Accident Number: GAA18CA558
Date & Time: 09/13/2018, 1110 AKD
Registration: N7184B
Aircraft: Piper PA18
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis 

The pilot reported that, during approach, he made a relatively steep descent with full flaps. During touchdown on the unimproved airstrip, the tailwheel-equipped airplane landed hard and bounced. The airplane touched down again angled to the left and veered off the runway to the left during the roll on the uneven, dirt surface. Subsequently, the left wing impacted a tree, and the airplane pivoted into an adjacent tree.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the left wing and fuselage.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's improper landing flare, which resulted in a hard, bounced landing and subsequent loss of directional control on an unimproved airstrip.

Findings

Aircraft
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Sloped/uneven terrain - Effect on operation
Tree(s) - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing
Hard landing
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Runway excursion
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 70, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 09/28/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 08/31/2018
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 1045 hours (Total, all aircraft), 773 hours (Total, this make and model), 1025 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 38 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 15 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information


Aircraft Make: Piper
Registration: N7184B
Model/Series: PA18 150
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1956
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18-5224
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 09/28/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1750 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3754 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-A2A
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: PALV, 60 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 12 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1953 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 232°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 7 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 40°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.08 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 9°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Kenai, AK (ENA)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Kenai, AK
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1040 AKD
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:  60.940833, -151.960556 (est)

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Location: Kenai, AK
Accident Number: GAA16CA456
Date & Time: 08/27/2016, 1155 AKD
Registration: N7184B
Aircraft: PIPER PA18
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Nose over/nose down
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

Analysis 

The pilot of the tailwheel and tundra tire equipped airplane reported that during landing on a soft grass airstrip he conducted a wheel landing instead of a three-point landing. The pilot further reported that during the landing roll, the main landing gear dug into the ground, which resulted in a nose over and substantial damage to both wing struts and empennage.

The pilot reported that there were no preimpact mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airframe or engine that would have precluded normal operation.

According to the FAA Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-3A;

SOFT-FIELD LANDING

The tailwheel should touch down simultaneously with or just before the main wheels, and should then be held down by maintaining firm back-elevator pressure throughout the landing roll. This will minimize any tendency for the airplane to nose over and will provide aerodynamic braking. The use of brakes on a soft field is not needed because the soft or rough surface itself will provide sufficient reduction in the airplane's forward speed. Often it will be found that upon landing on a very soft field, the pilot will need to increase power to keep the airplane moving and from becoming stuck in the soft surface.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's improper soft field landing technique on a soft grass airstrip, which resulted in a nose over.

Findings

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)
Use of policy/procedure - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Soft surface - Effect on operation (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll
Nose over/nose down (Defining event) 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 68, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 09/17/2015
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 07/29/2016
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 994 hours (Total, all aircraft), 721 hours (Total, this make and model), 973 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 12 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 5 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: PIPER
Registration: N7184B
Model/Series: PA18 150
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1956
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18-5224
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/24/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1750 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3690.8 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-A2A
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 150 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: PAEN, 92 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 23 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1953 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 121°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility: 10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 18 knots / 24 knots
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: / None
Wind Direction: 360°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 21°C / 8°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: KENAI, AK (ENA)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Off Airport, AK
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1130 AKD 
Type of Airspace: Class G 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 60.774167, -151.898611 (est)

Piper PA-28-140 Cherokee, N7223J: Accident occurred September 13, 2018 at Spanish Fork Airport (KSPK) Utah County, Utah


Additional Participating Entity: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Salt Lake City, Utah

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 
 
https://registry.faa.gov/N7223J




Location: Spanish Fork, UT
Accident Number: GAA18CA553
Date & Time: 09/13/2018, 0830 MDT
Registration: N7223J
Aircraft: Piper PA28
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 2 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

Analysis 

The flight instructor reported that, during takeoff, as the airplane reached rotation speed, the student took his feet off the rudder pedals. The airplane drifted left of the runway centerline, and the student then quickly placed his feet back on the pedals and pushed the right brake, which caused the airplane to veer right. The instructor, who did not have brakes on his side, applied left rudder, but the airplane departed the right side of the runway. He added that, during the runway excursion, he heard the tail dragging along the ground or striking bushes. Subsequently, the airplane aligned with the runway, but fearing damage to the tail, the instructor aborted the takeoff and landed the airplane on the side of the runway, and it struck large mounds of dirt and a ditch.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to both wings and the fuselage.

The flight instructor reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The student pilot's failure to maintain the runway heading during takeoff and the flight instructor's decision to conduct primary flight instruction in an airplane without dual controls.

Findings

Aircraft
Heading/course - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Student pilot (Cause)
Decision making/judgment - Instructor/check pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Sloped/uneven terrain - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Takeoff
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Attempted remediation/recovery
Runway excursion
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)



Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 28, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 02/21/2018
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 04/19/2017
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 888 hours (Total, all aircraft), 198 hours (Total, this make and model), 856 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 47 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 10 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)



Student Pilot Information

Certificate: None
Age: 35, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/30/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated)



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information


Aircraft Make: Piper
Registration: N7223J
Model/Series: PA28 140
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1968
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 28-24559
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection:  Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2150 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-E3D
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 150 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan


Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Dawn
Observation Facility, Elevation: KPVU, 4497 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 5 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1456 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 330°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: Light and Variable /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: Variable
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.95 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 22°C / -2°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Spanish Fork, UT (SPK)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Spanish Fork, UT (SPK)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0830 MDT
Type of Airspace: Class G



Airport Information


Airport: SPANISH FORK ARPT SPRINGVILLE- (SPK)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 4529 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 30
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 6500 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: None

Wreckage and Impact Information


Crew Injuries: 2 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Minor
Latitude, Longitude:  40.145000, -111.666667 (est)