Sunday, May 03, 2020

Aerodynamic Stall/Spin: Cessna 182Q Skylane, N96974; accident occurred May 05, 2019 at Marion Municipal Airport (KMZZ), Grant County, Indiana








Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Indianapolis, Indiana

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:


Location: Marion, IN
Accident Number: GAA19CA246
Date & Time: 05/05/2019, 1712 EDT
Registration: N96974
Aircraft: Cessna 182
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Aerodynamic stall/spin
Injuries: 2 Minor, 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis 

The pilot reported that, during landing, the airplane landed hard and bounced. He decided to go around, so he added full power, but the nose pitched up sharply. He added that he attempted to lower the nose, but the airspeed decreased, and the airplane "lost lift on [the] right side." He pushed forward on the control yoke, but the airplane drifted right, the right wing aerodynamically stalled, and the airplane impacted the ground next to a taxiway and spun around. A passenger saw a fire in front of the firewall, and all occupants exited the airplane.

The airplane was destroyed by postaccident fire.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

A Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector reported that the pilot stated he used nose-up trim during the approach. The pilot also stated that, during the go-around, he attempted to use the electric trim to trim nose down. When the airplane nosed up, the pilot attempted to lower the nose but hesitated due to the airplane being near the ground, and he retracted the flaps. The FAA inspector examined the airplane and found that the trim setting was "just short of full nose up trim."

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's improper trim setting and his exceedance of the airplane's critical angle of attack during a go-around, which resulted in an aerodynamic stall.

Findings

Aircraft Angle of attack - Capability exceeded
Aircraft Elevator tab control system - Incorrect use/operation
Personnel issues Aircraft control - Pilot

Factual Information

History of Flight

Approach-VFR go-around Miscellaneous/other
Approach-VFR go-around Aerodynamic stall/spin (Defining event)
Approach-VFR go-around Attempted remediation/recovery
Approach-VFR go-around Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 56, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: BasicMed
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 09/20/2018
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 1880 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1840 hours (Total, this make and model), 1800 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 7 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 4 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N96974
Model/Series: 182 Q
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1979
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18266920
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/29/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3073.2 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Continental
ELT:  Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-470 SERIES
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 230 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KMZZ, 863 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 2115 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 173°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 6000 ft agl
Visibility:  7 Miles
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: Calm /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction:
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.88 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 20°C / 9°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Rochester, IN (RCR)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Marion, IN (MZZ)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 1645 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: MARION MUNI (MZZ)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 858 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 04
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 6011 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Go Around; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: 1 Minor, 2 None
Aircraft Fire: On-Ground
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Minor, 2 None
Latitude, Longitude: 40.486944, -85.683611 (est)

Mooney M20C Ranger, N6863U: Incident occurred April 26, 2020 at Tracy Municipal Airport (KTKC), Lyon County, Minnesota

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Minneapolis, Minnesota

Aircraft landed and gear collapsed and veered off runway.

https://registry.faa.gov/N6863U

Date: 26-APR-20
Time: 22:30:00Z
Regis#: N6863U
Aircraft Make: MOONEY
Aircraft Model: M20C
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: UNKNOWN
Activity: PERSONAL
Flight Phase: LANDING (LDG)
Operation: 91
City: TRACY
State: MINNESOTA

Incident occurred April 26, 2020 in Haskell, Muskogee County, Oklahoma

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Aircraft departed and engine quit, returned to runway and while landing wing struck a port-a-potty.

Date: 26-APR-20
Time: 22:50:00Z
Aircraft Make: PIPER
Aircraft Model: J3C
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: UNKNOWN
Activity: PERSONAL
Flight Phase: LANDING (LDG)
Operation: 91
City: HASKELL
State: OKLAHOMA

Hughes 369D, N9159F: Accidents occurred February 09, 2022 and April 25, 2020

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. 

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident. 

Additional Participating Entities: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Baltimore, Maryland
Rolls Royce; Indianapolis, Indiana 
Haverfield Aviation; Gettysburg, Pennsylvania


Location: Bel Air, Maryland 
Accident Number: ERA22LA117
Date and Time: February 9, 2022, 16:28 Local
Registration: N9159F
Aircraft: Hughes 369D 
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Positioning

On February 9, 2022, about 1628 eastern standard time, N9159F, a McDonald Douglas MD369D helicopter, was substantially damaged when it was involved in an accident near Bel Air, Maryland. The commercial pilot was not injured. The helicopter was operated as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 positioning flight.

The pilot stated that while conducting powerline inspection work earlier in the day, line personnel reported that the helicopter was making a strange "whistle" noise. The pilot inspected the helicopter, and no anomalies were noted or observed. The pilot continued with normal operations, but the noise continued and one of the operator’s superintendents took a video, which recorded the “whistle” sound. The pilot landed and ceased all human external cargo operations. He then reviewed the video, re-examined the helicopter, and spoke with company maintenance personnel. Though no obvious mechanical issues were observed, the pilot “parked” the helicopter for the remainder of the workday.

At the end of the workday, the pilot again inspected the helicopter and found no mechanical reason not to reposition the helicopter back to its normal base of operations. He and another company helicopter departed as a flight of two. Several minutes into the flight, the pilot said the ENGINE CHIP light illuminated. He told the other pilot that even though the engine seemed to be operating normally, he would need to land as soon as practicable. Shortly after, the engine began to make a “grinding” noise along with an odor of engine oil, which eventually became smoke in the aft section of the passenger compartment. With the presence of smoke and the potential for an inflight fire, the pilot initiated an emergency decent-to-land to a suitable landing area. During the decent the engine noise and smoke in the aft section of the cabin intensified and began moving to the forward section of the cockpit. Descending through the landing flare, as the pilot leveled the helicopter to land, the engine stopped producing power and smoke filled the cockpit, which reduced his visual reference to the ground. The pilot attempted to slow the rate of descent and impacted the ground in a near level attitude.

During the ground run, the front portion of the skids dug into the ground causing the helicopter to pitch forward. The pilot applied aft cyclic to keep from rolling over and kept the helicopter level. During the landing sequence, the main rotor blades struck the tail boom, which resulted in the horizontal and vertical stabilizers, and tail rotor assembly separating from the helicopter.

The helicopter was recovered and secured for further investigation.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Hughes
Registration: N9159F
Model/Series: 369D 
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Amateur Built:
Operator: 
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Rotorcraft external load (133), Commuter air carrier (135)
Operator Designator Code:

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: VMC 
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: APG,44 ft msl
Observation Time: 16:58 Local
Distance from Accident Site: 9 Nautical Miles
Temperature/Dew Point: 10°C /-2°C
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear 
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 8 knots / , 190°
Lowest Ceiling: 
Visibility: 7 miles
Altimeter Setting: 29.92 inches Hg 
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Departure Point: Bel AIr, MD 
Destination: Hartford CO, MD (0W3)

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries:
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: 
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None 
Latitude, Longitude: 39.5359,76.3483 (est)




BEL AIR, Maryland  — A helicopter made a hard landing Wednesday evening in Harford County, according to the sheriff's office.

Authorities reported the crash around 4:32 p.m. in the 2000 block of Calvary Road in the Bel Air area.

SkyTeam 11 Capt. Roy Taylor reported the helicopter ended up doing what's called an auto rotation and the helicopter's skids touched the ground, chopping off the tail.

There are no reports of injuries.











Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board
   
The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Baltimore, Maryland
Rolls-Royce Corp; Indianapolis, Indiana
MD Helicopters; Mesa, Arizona
Haverfield Aviation; Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:

TVPX Aircraft Solutions Inc 
Owner Trustee for benefit of Haverfield  

Haverfield International Incorporated doing business as Haverfield Aviation 


Location: Pylesville, Maryland 
Accident Number: ERA20LA160
Date and Time: April 25, 2020, 12:40 Local 
Registration: N9159F
Aircraft: Hughes 369
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Fuel starvation
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 133: Rotorcraft ext. load

Analysis

The commercial helicopter pilot was attempting, via a long line, to move a conductor wire while it remained in contact with the ground, which is classified as a Class C rotorcraft-load combination (RLC) operation. According to the pilot, while he maneuvered the helicopter about 150 ft above ground level, he pitched the helicopter nose up about 5° to 10°, with no lateral banking, for about 10 to 15 seconds. The engine then experienced a total loss of engine power. In the autorotation, which the pilot estimated to be about 4 to 5 seconds, the pilot was only able to release one of two mechanisms that secured the long line to the helicopter. As a result, just before touchdown, the long line became taut and caused the helicopter to roll over onto its left side. The tailboom, main rotor, and tail rotor sustained substantial damage, andthe pilot was uninjured. 

Postaccident examination of the helicopter found 146 lbs of fuel onboard. The pilot later reported that the helicopter had about 200 lbs of fuel (slightly less than half of a full load) when he began the flight about 1.5 hours before the accident. An engine test run found no evidence of mechanical malfunctions that would have precluded normal operation of the engine.

The investigation identified four previous accident investigation reports that extensively documented loss of engine power due to fuel starvation on MD369 series helicopters while they were maneuvered in Class C RLC long line operations. In these past accidents, the remaining fuel on board ranged between 93 to 151 lbs. The investigations of these accidents found varying levels of pitch up and/or lateral banking (common maneuvers during Class C RLC operations) could interrupt normal fuel flow to the engine (that is, unport) at fuel levels well above the standard fuel minimums required for visual flight rules operation.

Based on information provided by the helicopter manufacturer, with 146 lbs of fuel onboard, a 28.5° positive pitch attitude, with no lateral banking, could unport the fuel supply to the engine in static conditions. Therefore, in dynamic conditions, such as maneuvering, unporting could occur at lower pitch attitudes.

The operator’s operating limitations at the time of the accident stated that for any Class C RLC operation, the flight must begin with a full fuel load and last no more than 1 hour and explains the policy by citing the risk of uncovering the fuel port due to lateral banking during these operations. The accident pilot believed that, similar to the operation he had completed earlier in the flight, moving the conductor wire was a Class B operation because it would not require any lateral banking of the helicopter. Because the pilot misconstrued the RLC class of operation he was performing, he erroneously believed that he only needed a minimum of 100 lbs of fuel at landing, which is the fuel minimum he selected on the operator’s job hazard analysis form before beginning the accident flight; the form contained no references to RLC classes. 

As a result of the accident, the operator updated its minimum fuel policies on its job hazard analysis form and in its RLC flight manual. The policies now provide specific references toClass B and C long line operations and detailed examples to help pilots’ understanding of which fuel minimums apply for specific operations.

Thus, without evidence of malfunctions that would preclude the engine from producing or maintaining power and given the occurrence of fuel starvation during other Class C RLC long line operations with similar levels of fuel onboard, it is likely that the accident helicopter's maneuvering and nose-up attitude during the pilot’s attempt to move the conductor wire led to unporting of the remaining fuel, which resulted in fuel starvation and the loss of engine power.

Additionally, it is possible that the pilot could have successfully landed the helicopter following the loss of engine power had the long line been released. The pilot had to pull two separate release mechanisms to detach the long line because the helicopter was previously configured for human external cargo (HEC) long line operations, although the specific operation being performed when the accident occurred did not involve HEC and redundancy to secure the long line was not needed (HEC operations were being performed earlier in the flight). As a result, the pilot did not have sufficient time to activate both release mechanisms, and the helicopter was substantially damaged during the attempted landing.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The loss of engine power due to fuel starvation as a result of unporting of the fuel tank supply pickup while the helicopter was maneuvered to move a conductor wire. Contributing to the accident was the helicopter’s inappropriate configuration for the type of operation being conducted, which impeded the pilot’s ability to release the long line and perform a successful emergency landing.

Findings

Aircraft Fuel - Fluid level
Aircraft (general) - Capability exceeded
Aircraft Configuration - Incorrect use/operation
Organizational issues (general) - Not specified
Personnel issues Knowledge of procedures - Pilot

Factual Information

History of Flight

Maneuvering-hover Fuel starvation (Defining event)
Autorotation External load event (Rotorcraft)
Autorotation Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

On April 25, 2020, at 1240 eastern daylight time, a Hughes 369D helicopter, N9159F, was substantially damaged when it was involved in an accident near Pylesville, Maryland. The pilot was not injured. The helicopter was operated under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 133 as a rotorcraft external load operation.

The pilot reported that while he was performing human external cargo (HEC) long line operations, he heard on the radio that ground personnel were having difficulty moving a conductor power line (wire) nearby. He proceeded to the landing zone, which was about 300 to
400 ft from the area requiring assistance, and dropped off the HEC. Then, while hovering, he picked up a conductor hook via the long line (with assistance from ground personnel) and continued to the area that needed support.

He reported that after the hook was attached to the conductor wire, he began maneuvering for about 10 to 15 seconds to move the wire a short distance laterally, as a crane was supporting the weight of the wire. According to the pilot, while maneuvering, he applied "slight aft and up pressure" to move the conductor wire and there was no lateral banking. He believed the pitch attitude during the maneuvering was about 5° to 10° nose up. After the conductor wire was moved to the desired area, the pilot maneuvered to remove the hook from the wire, but before the hook was free, the helicopter entered a left yaw and the engine began "spooling down."

The pilot reported that he subsequently heard the "engine out alarm" and entered an autorotation by "slamming the collective down." The pilot reported that the loss of engine power occurred about 150 ft above ground level (agl) and that he immediately pulled the belly band release lever—one of two levers needed to release the long line (the belly band was a secondary cable support system the operator used for HEC operations to provide redundancy in the event of an inadvertent release of the cargo hook; see figure). The pilot stated that he did not have sufficient time to pull the second (mechanical release) lever on the cyclic control to release the long line.

As the helicopter entered the flare, the pilot pulled the collective up to complete the autorotative landing, but the long line, which remained attached to the helicopter and conductor wire, became taut and caused the helicopter to roll onto its left side. The main rotorblades impacted the ground. 

Multiple witnesses on the ground reported that they heard the helicopter's engine lose power while the pilot was maneuvering, and they subsequently observed the helicopter begin a rapid descent. One witness stated that when the helicopter was about 3 ft from the ground, “the long line got tight and started to tip the aircraft over.”

The following figure shows the belly band around the fuselage, the main hook, and long line.



Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 34,Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 Without waivers/limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: April 19, 2019
Occupational Pilot: Yes 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: March 8, 2020
Flight Time: 12549 hours (Total, all aircraft), 8736 hours (Total, this make and model), 12500 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 141 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 101 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1.7 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Hughes
Registration: N9159F
Model/Series: 369 D 
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Year of Manufacture: 1979
Amateur Built:
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 1090605D
Landing Gear Type: None; Skid 
Seats: 5
Date/Type of Last Inspection: April 6, 2020 100 hour 
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3000 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Turbo shaft
Airframe Total Time: 17015 Hrs as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Allison Gas Turbine (RollsRoyce)
ELT: C126 installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: 250-C20B
Registered Owner: 
Rated Power: 420 Horsepower
Operator: 
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Rotorcraft external load (133)
Operator Does Business As: Haverfield Aviation 
Operator Designator Code:

The accident helicopter’s fuel system was composed of two interconnected fuel tanks installed beneath the passenger seats. Fuel was delivered to the engine from a fuel pick-up port on the left side of the left tank. The rotorcraft flight manual stated that the total usable fuel was 421.9 lbs.

Manufacturer Guidance

In November 2015, MD Helicopters, the type certificate holder at the time, published Operational Safety Notice OSN2015-002, “Fuel Starvation Due to Unporting of Fuel Supply Pick-Up.”

The notice warned operators that when the helicopters are used to conduct operations with a “long line” attached to pull or tow objects on the ground, a significant side load can be placed on the helicopter. These side loads can create high fuselage pitch and roll angles as well as uncoordinated flight, which in turn can increase the amount of unusable fuel and result in fuel starvation due to unporting of the fuel supply pick-up. 

The notice further stated in part: MDHI Helicopters are not specifically certified for operations with the potential for sustained high fuselage pitch and roll angles in uncoordinated flight, such as powerline stringing operations. To help mitigate the possibility of fuel starvation and the potential safety risk, consider modifying fuel management procedures for such operations. Instead of allowing such operations with minimum fuel safety margins associated with normal flight attitudes during coordinated flight, consider increasing minimum fuel level requirements when operations will involve high deck angles in pitch and roll during uncoordinated flight.

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual (VMC) 
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: THV, 486 ft msl 
Distance from Accident Site: 26 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 12:53 Local 
Direction from Accident Site: 301°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Visibility: 10 miles
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 3600 ft AGL
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 6 knots / 
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 120° 
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.04 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 8°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Pylesville, MD (NONE) 
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Pylesville, MD 
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 12:30 Local
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None 
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries:
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A 
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:39.697223,-76.392776(est)

Photographs provided by a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector who examined the helicopter at the accident site found that the helicopter had rolled over and come to rest on its left side, and the long line remained attached from the main hook on the helicopter to the power line. The tail boom and main/tail rotors sustained substantial damage. There was no evidence of fuel spillage at the accident site.

Additional examination of the helicopter supervised by the NTSB investigator-in-charge found that the cyclic, collective, and throttle each had continuity through the full range of motion. The main hook release lever opened the hook normally when activated.

There were no obstructions observed in the turbine air inlet. The oil filter and fuel filters were clear of any remarkable debris. Pressure and leak tests were performed on the engine’s pneumatic and fuel system; no leaks were observed on either system. The electrical fuel pump (start pump) would not activate when electrical power was supplied to the helicopter. Areplacement electrical fuel pump was installed on the helicopter and functioned normally. With the new electrical fuel pump installed, a total of 146 lbs (21.5 gallons) of fuel was pumped from the helicopter. This volume was consistent with the fuel gauge, which displayed about 150 lbs.

The engine was subsequently removed and test run under the supervision of the NTSB investigator-in-charge. The engine produced idle through takeoff power, with no anomalies observed, and all engine parameters remained within tolerances throughout the test run.
For a portion of the test run, the positive pressure fuel supply was eliminated to simulate conditions similar to an electrical fuel pump failure. The engine continued to produce takeoff thrust consistent with the previous data when positive fuel pressure was available.

Additional Information

FAA Regulations and Guidance

Advisory Circular (AC) 133-1B, Rotorcraft External-Load Operations, provided the following two definitions for Class B and C Rotorcraft-load combinations (RLC):

Class B RLC. The external load is jettisonable, carried above or below the skids, and lifted free of land or water during the rotorcraft operation. An air conditioner unit being lifted onto the roof of a tall building is an example of a Class B load (§ 1.1).

Class C RLC. The external load is jettisonable and remains in contact with land or water during the rotorcraft operation. Wire stringing, dragging a long pole, and boat towing are some examples of Class C loads (§ 1.1).

AC 133-1B does not contain minimum fuel standards based on the specific type of RLC class to be flown.

Part 133 requires no additional fuel minimums beyond that required in 14 CFR 91.151, Fuel Requirements for Flight in VFR Conditions.

Tests and Research

As part of this investigation, MD Helicopter provided the NTSB a computer model that outlined a combination of static pitch and roll angles and corresponding fuel levels at which the fuel pick-up point may become unported. According to this information, with about 21.5 gallons of fuel onboard, at 0° lateral banking, the pitch up attitude required to unport the fuel pick up was 28.5°. The computer model could not account for dynamic flight operations that may affect the movement of fuel in the tanks (for example, maneuvering, turbulence, or uncoordinated flight, which would allow for fuel to move freely within the fuel tank).

A search of the NTSB’s aviation accident database for 14 CFR Part 133 fuel starvation events involving any rotorcraft type performing Class C RLC operations found three reports relevant to this investigation.

In 1990, the NTSB investigated a helicopter accident involving a MD369D that was conducting external long line operations (LAX91LA054). The report stated that by duplicating the helicopter's pitch attitude and fuel load of 115 lbs postaccident, the fuel pick-up point became unported at fuel quantity levels at or below 115 lbs. The exact pitch attitude was not specified in the report.

In 2012, the NTSB investigated a helicopter accident involving an MD369E that was conducting external long line operations (WPR12LA328). The report stated that 117 lbs of fuel remained on board and previous investigations of similar accidents determined that the fuel tank supply pickup can become unported with a fuel load of less than 151 lbs when pitch-androll attitudes approach 20ยบ.
In 2017, the NTSB investigated a helicopter accident involving an MD369E that was conducting external long line operations (ERA17LA209). The report stated that 14 gallons (93 lbs) of fuel remained on board and that the low fuel level light illuminated when pitch up attitudes similar to those during the accident were duplicated.

Additionally, in 2008, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau investigated a helicopter accident involving a MD369ER (Aviation Occurrence Investigation AO-2008-025) that was conducting power line stringing operations. The investigation found through testing that it was possible to introduce air into the fuel system through the fuel tank pick-up point when fuel quantity was less than 85L (151 lbs) and subjected to a 20° nose up and 20° right roll attitude.

Organizational and Management Information

The accident helicopter operator’s FAA-approved RLC flight manual (RLCFM) and corporate policy manual required that for all flight operations, the MD 500D helicopter land with no less than 100 lbs of fuel. For Class C RLC operations, the RLCFM specifically required the following:

Always start any Class C external load with a full tank of fuel. As the aircraft leans over in a steep bank to the right, this may easily uncover the fuel sump. There should be a maximum of one hour of flight time while performing any Class C external load.

The operator required that its Job Hazard Analysis form be completed before each flight. The “Fuel Check Off and Limitations” section of the form contained two options for the MD 500:

100 lbs Landing Minimum” and Wire/ Rope Pull and Wreck Out Operations: Maximum 1 hr (45 min F/FF_ flight time with max fuel load. The form completed before the accident flight indicated that the option for 100 lbs landing fuel minimum had been selected.

The form contained no references to RLC classes.

During postaccident interviews, the pilot reported the following concerning his understanding of when the more restrictive fuel minimums (maximum 1 hour of flight time with a maximum fuel load) would be required:

…when we are doing Side Pull Operations. This is for when the hook is relocated from the bottom of the aircraft and installed on the side. This would be for pulling of rope or a small steel cable for powerline construction. There is a lot of right lateral banking when pulling the rope and steel cable during this flight profile.

This operation that we were conducting on the accident day was more in line with Class B operations. I understand when you have a load attached to a fixed object it becomes a C Load, but this situation did not fit that flight profile (hook on side and a high right lateral bank). The flight profile was more along the lines of a slight nose up attitude, no lateral or banking took place.

After this accident, the operator updated the Job Hazard Analysis form and the RLCFM to specifically associate fuel minimums with RLC classes (for example, Class B or C). In addition, specific examples of long line operation (for example, water bucket, lifting/moving wire, rope pull) are provided in the fuel minimum policies.

The operator also reported that safety briefings were held with relevant operational staff to ensure their understanding with the revised fuel minimum policies.

========

Location: Pylesville, MD
Accident Number: ERA20LA160
Date & Time: 04/25/2020, 1240 EDT
Registration: N9159F
Aircraft: Hughes 369
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 133: Rotorcraft Ext. Load

On April 25, 2020, at 1240 eastern daylight time, a Hughes 369D helicopter, N9159F, was substantially damaged when it was involved in an accident near Pylesville, Maryland. The pilot was not injured. The helicopter was operated by Haverfield Aviation as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 133 rotorcraft external load operation.

The pilot reported that while he was performing human external cargo (HEC) long line operations, he was requested by ground personnel to support the movement of a conductor powerline nearby. He proceeded to the landing zone which was about 300-400 ft from the area requiring assistance, dropped off the HEC, and via the long line, he picked up a conductor hook, all from a hover, and continued to the area that needed support. He reported that after the hook was attached to the wire, he began maneuvering for about 10-15 seconds to move the wire a short distance laterally, as a crane was supporting the weight of the wire. During the maneuvering, the pilot applied "slight aft and up pressure" to move the conductor, there was no lateral banking, and the pitch attitude was about 5°-10° nose up. After the conductor was moved to the area needed, the pilot maneuvered to remove the hook, but prior to the hook becoming free from the conductor, the helicopter entered a left yaw and the engine began "spooling down."

The pilot reported that he subsequently heard the "engine out alarm" and entered an autorotation by "slamming the collective down" and immediately pulling the belly band release levers, which was the first of two release levers that needed to be pulled to release the long line. As the helicopter entered the flare, he pulled the collective up to complete the autorotation landing, however the long line remained attached to the conductor wire and became taught, which rolled the helicopter onto its left side, where the main rotor blades impacted the ground.

Multiple witnesses on the ground reported that they heard the helicopter's engine go "quiet" shortly before the autorotation.

The pilot reported that the loss of engine power occurred about 150 ft above ground level and the helicopter impacted the ground about 4-5 seconds later. The pilot reported that he did not have sufficient time to pull the main hook emergency release lever (the second release lever) located on the cyclic control, which was why the line remained attached to the helicopter. He added that the cyclic was also equipped with a red push button that could release the main hook, however, the circuit breaker for this electrically activated release was pulled due to HEC operations being performed just prior to the accident. Figure 1 shows the location of the belly band release lever located next to the collective circled in red (on an exemplar helicopter), and the second photo on the right shows the red push button electric main hook release and the main hook release lever located on the cyclic control (on the accident helicopter).

Figure 1: View of the belly band release lever (red circle) and the main hook release lever and pushbutton

The pilot reported that the belly band was a secondary cable support system required for when HEC operations were being performed, which they had been conducting just prior to the accident. Figure 2 shows the belly band, which is the blue band wrapped around the fuselage, and the main hook and long line circled in red.

Figure 2: View of the helicopter at the accident site with a belly band and long line

According to photographs provided by a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector and the operator who examined the helicopter at the accident site, the tail boom and main/ tail rotors sustained substantial damage. Postaccident examination found 146 lbs (21.5 gallons) of fuel in the main tank, which could hold up to 421.9 lbs of usable fuel. There were no obvious signs of a catastrophic mechanical engine failure.

According to FAA airman records, the pilot held a commercial pilot certificate with a helicopter rating. His most recent FAA second-class medical certificate was issued in April 2019. The pilot reported a total flight time of 12,408 hours, 8,500 hours in the make and model helicopter, and 101 hours in the past 30 days.

The helicopter was retained for further investigation.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Hughes
Registration: N9159F
Model/Series: 369 D
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Amateur Built: No
Operator: Haverfield Aviation
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Rotorcraft External Load (133) 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: THV, 486 ft msl
Observation Time: 1253 EDT
Distance from Accident Site: 26 Nautical Miles
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 8°C
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 6 knots / , 120°
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 3600 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Altimeter Setting: 30.04 inches Hg
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Departure Point: Pylesville, MD
Destination: Pylesville, MD

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 39.697222, -76.392778 (est)

HARFORD COUNTY — Maryland State Police are investigating a helicopter crash in Pylesville.

The pilot is identified as Andrew Rannigan, 34, of Chesapeake, Virginia. He did not require medical treatment for a minor injury he sustained.

At about 1 p.m. on April 25th, police were called to the 4400 block of Graceton Road, Pylesville.

A Hughes 369D helicopter that crashed in a field was found.

It went down while the pilot, who was the only occupant, was inspecting power lines.

Officials say the helicopter was from Haverfield Aviation and had been contracted for power line work by a utility company.

There is no word on the cause of the crash. The helicopter did not strike any structures or vehicles on the ground. No one on the ground was injured.

The Federal Aviation Administration is investigating.

https://www.wmar2news.com

Loss of Control on Ground: Piper PA-18-150 Super Cub, N707VB; accident occurred April 25, 2020 at Skypark Airport (KBTF), Bountiful, Utah







Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board 

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Salt Lake City, Utah

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:


Location: Bountiful, UT

Accident Number: WPR20CA134
Date & Time: 04/25/2020, 1200 MDT
Registration: N707VB
Aircraft: Piper PA18
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis

The pilot reported that she aborted the first landing due to the wind changing direction and slight gusts. During the rollout after the second landing, the pilot applied brakes as the wind simultaneously shifted and lifted the tail upward, which resulted in the propeller striking the runway and the airplane coming to rest in a nose-low attitude. Shortly after, another wind gust lifted the tail, which caused the airplane to flip over. The right-wing lift strut, rudder, and vertical stabilizer were substantially damaged. The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to maintain directional control during the landing roll in gusting wind conditions, which resulted in a roll-over.

Findings

Aircraft Directional control - Not attained/maintained
Personnel issues Aircraft control - Pilot
Environmental issues Gusts - Effect on operation

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll Other weather encounter
Landing-landing roll Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Landing-landing roll Nose over/nose down

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 65, Female
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/10/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 07/12/2019
Flight Time:  1274 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1193 hours (Total, this make and model), 7 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 6 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 4 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Piper
Registration: N707VB
Model/Series: PA18 150
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1956
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18-4595
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 04/20/2019, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1750 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 25 Hours
Engines:1 Reciprocating 
Airframe Total Time: 4004.3 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-320-B2B
Registered Owner: Wild Thing Aviation LLC
Rated Power: 160 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KSLC, 4225 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 5 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1754 UTC
Direction from Accident Site:200° 
Lowest Cloud Condition: Few / 9000 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 24000 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 9 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:
Wind Direction: 180°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:
Altimeter Setting: 30.22 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 19°C / -1°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Brigham City, UT (BMC)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Bountiful, UT (BTF)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1122 MDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: SKYPARK (BTF)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 4237 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 35
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 4634 ft / 70 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor
Latitude, Longitude: 40.863889, -111.927500 (est)

Piper PA-28R-200, N7KL: Incident occurred April 26, 2020 at Bunkie Municipal Airport (2R6), Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Aircraft was just started and nose gear collapsed.

https://registry.faa.gov/N7KL

Date: 26-APR-20
Time: 21:00:00Z
Regis#: N7KL
Aircraft Make: PIPER
Aircraft Model: PA28R
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: UNKNOWN
Activity: PERSONAL
Flight Phase: STANDING (STD)
Operation: 91
City: BUNKIE
State: LOUISIANA

Cessna 320D Executive Skynight, N4189T: Incident occurred April 26, 2020 at Gwinnett County Airport (KLZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Atlanta, Georgia

Aircraft landed and gear collapsed.


Keystone Aerial Surveys Inc


https://registry.faa.gov/N4189T


Date: 26-APR-20

Time: 01:25:00Z
Regis#: N4189T
Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Aircraft Model: 320
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: UNKNOWN
Activity: PERSONAL
Flight Phase: LANDING (LDG)
Operation: 91
City: LAWRENCEVILLE
State: GEORGIA 



GWINNETT County, Georgia (CBS46) -- A plane managed to land safely and without injuries after displaying problems with its landing gear.

Gwinnett County Briscoe Field Control Tower notified Gwinnett County Fire and Police around 8:42 p.m.  that an inbound plane was having gear issues. First Responders arrived on the scene and immediately began preparing for a potential crash situation

The plane was reported as being a Cessna 320D Executive Skynight with only the pilot on board.

The Control Tower had the plan perform multiple low approaches so they could visualize the landing gear prior to attempting a landing. When all landing gear appeared to be properly lowered, the plane was instructed to proceed with landing.

All agencies reported that the plane landed safely on the runway; however, as the plane continued down the runway, the front landing gear did collapse and the plane came to a stop on the runway.

Reports say that the pilot was able to secure the power at that point and safely evacuate the plane, fortunately with no injuries, fires, or additional hazards.

The Federal Aviation Administration and Airport Authority are investigating the incident prior to releasing the plane. Once released, the plane will be removed from the runway.

Gwinnett County Briscoe Field's single runway will remain closed until the plane is removed, though the airport is open to other traffic such as helicopters.

https://www.cbs46.com

Loss of Control on Ground: Piper PA-20 Pacer, N1598A; accident occurred April 26, 2020 at Meadow Lake Airport (KFLY), Colorado Springs, El Paso County, Colorado








Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board 

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Denver, Colorado

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:


Location: Colorado Springs, CO
Accident Number: CEN20CA161
Date & Time: 04/26/2020, 0845 MDT
Registration: N1598A
Aircraft: Piper PA 20
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

Analysis

The flight instructor reported that, while demonstrating a three-point, full-stall landing with a 4-knot right-quartering crosswind, the airplane bounced slightly but that it "seemed minor and controllable." The airplane touched down again, and he pulled the yoke further aft, which resulted in another small bounce. Once the airplane was on the runway, he pulled the yoke full aft, and the airplane immediately veered right off the runway. The instructor attempted to correct by applying full left rudder to no avail. The left wingtip and nose struck the ground, and the airplane came to rest upright. The airplane sustained substantial damage to the left wing and aileron. A Federal Aviation Administer inspector and the pilot examined the airplane and found no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The flight instructor's improper landing flare, which resulted in a bounced landing, and his subsequent loss of directional control.

Findings

Personnel issues Aircraft control - Instructor/check pilot
Aircraft Directional control - Not attained/maintained
Aircraft Landing flare - Not attained/maintained

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing Other weather encounter
Landing Abnormal runway contact
Landing Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Landing Runway excursion
Landing Attempted remediation/recovery

Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 48, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine; Instrument Airplane
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/15/2019
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 05/22/2019
Flight Time:  3658 hours (Total, all aircraft), 0.5 hours (Total, this make and model), 3297 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 109 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 0.5 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Piper
Registration: N1598A
Model/Series: PA 20 Undesignated
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1952
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 20-836
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 10/06/2019, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1799 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 2381.4 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-290
Registered Owner: Dodd Wesley D
Rated Power: 125 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: FLY, 6877 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 0845 MDT
Direction from Accident Site: 0°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 4 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:
Wind Direction: 270°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:
Altimeter Setting: 30.06 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Precipitation
Departure Point: Colorado Springs, CO (FLY)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Colorado Springs, CO (FLY)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0820 MDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: Meadow Lake (FLY)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 6877 ft
Runway Surface Condition:  Dry
Runway Used: 15
IFR Approach:None 
Runway Length/Width: 6000 ft / 60 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Touch and Go

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude: 38.864444, -104.768611 (est)