Sunday, February 4, 2018

Piper PA-28-161 Warrior III, N284MK, registered to and operated by North Star Aviation Inc: Accident occurred December 20, 2017 at Mankato Regional Airport (KMKT), Minnesota

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Minneapolis, Minnesota

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board:

Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board:

North Star Aviation Inc:

Location: Mankato, MN
Accident Number: GAA18CA092
Date & Time: 12/20/2017, 1000 CST
Registration: N284MK
Aircraft: PIPER PA28
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control in flight
Injuries: 1 Minor
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

The student pilot reported that, during landing, the airplane bounced hard. She added power to go around, and as the airplane became airborne it began to drift to the left. The airplane aerodynamically stalled, impacted terrain, and collided with a golf cart adjacent the runway, which was occupied by the student pilot's flight instructor.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the fuselage and right wing.

The Chief Pilot of the flight school reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

A review of recorded data from the automated weather observation station located on the airport reported that, about 4 minutes before the accident, the wind was from 080° at 6 knots. The airplane landed on runway 33. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The student pilot's improper landing flare, which resulted in a hard, bounced landing and subsequent go-around during which the student exceeded the airplane's critical angle of attack, which resulted in an aerodynamic stall. 


Angle of attack - Capability exceeded (Cause)
Landing flare - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Student pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Tailwind - Effect on operation
Crosswind - Effect on operation
Ground vehicle - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Abnormal runway contact
Loss of control in flight (Defining event)

Landing-aborted after touchdown
Attempted remediation/recovery
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 24, Female
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 07/11/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated) 19 hours (Total, all aircraft), 19 hours (Total, this make and model), 1 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 14 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 10 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: PIPER
Registration: N284MK
Model/Series: PA28 161
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2001
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal; Utility
Serial Number: 2842135
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 11/14/2017, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2440 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 7745.1 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91A installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-320-D3G
Rated Power: 160
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Pilot School (141) 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KMKT, 1021 ft msl
Observation Time: 1556 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 174°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Temperature/Dew Point: -6°C / -11°C
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 8000 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 6 knots, 80°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting:  30.17 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Mankato, MN (MKT)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Mankato, MN (MKT)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0900 CST
Type of Airspace: Class E

Airport Information

Runway Surface Type: Concrete
Airport Elevation: 1020 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 33
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 6600 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Go Around; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries:  1 Minor
Aircraft Damage:  Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion:  None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor
Latitude, Longitude:  44.222500, -93.917778 (est)

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