Sunday, January 09, 2022

Beechcraft 58 Baron, N585CK: Fatal accident occurred January 08, 2022 in Defiance, St. Charles County, Missouri

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. 

The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; St. Louis, Missouri
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas
Airnet II; Columbus, Ohio

Kalitta Charters LLC
AirNet II 

Location: Defiance, Missouri
Accident Number: CEN22FA096
Date and Time: January 8, 2022, 19:19 Local
Registration: N585CK
Aircraft: Beech 58
Injuries: 2 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Positioning

On January 8, 2022, about 1919 central standard time, a Beech B58, N585CK, was destroyed when it was involved in an accident near Defiance, Missouri. The two commercial pilots sustained fatal injuries. The airplane was operated as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 positioning flight.

At 1910, the airplane departed Spirit of St. Louis (SUS), St Louis, Missouri, on an instrument flight plan to Centennial Airport (APA), Denver, Colorado. After climbing to 8,000 ft mean sea level (msl) on a west heading, the airplane made a gradual left turn toward a southeast heading and subsequently descended. 

The controller queried about the airplane’s incorrect altitude and direction of flight. A jumbled radio transmission was made by a pilot and no distress call was received. The final 10 seconds of captured Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) data indicated the airplane descended from 7,500 to 4,700 ft msl.

The airplane subsequently impacted forested terrain on a west heading at a high airspeed.

Broken tree limbs indicated the airplane was in a steep descent at impact and the debris path was about 320 yards long. The airplane was retained for examination.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Beech
Registration: N585CK
Model/Series: 58
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Amateur Built:
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Commuter air carrier (135)
Operator Designator Code: 2NEA

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: IMC
Condition of Light: Night
Observation Facility, Elevation: KSUS, 462 ft msl 
Observation Time: 19:07 Local
Distance from Accident Site: 11 Nautical Miles
Temperature/Dew Point: 7°C /6°C
Lowest Cloud Condition: 
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 7 knots / , 190°
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 1000 ft AGL 
Visibility: 2 miles
Altimeter Setting: 29.96 inches Hg
Type of Flight Plan Filed: IFR
Departure Point: St Louis, MO (SUS)
Destination: Denver, CO (APA)

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: 
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: 
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 38.679489,-90.882436 (est)

Those who may have information that might be relevant to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigation may contact them by email, and any friends and family who want to contact investigators about the accident should email You can also call the NTSB Response Operations Center at 844-373-9922 or 202-314-6290.

Amanda Youngblood

Dayton Aviation Services -

There are no words to describe this loss.

For anyone unaware, Amanda Youngblood was in an airplane crash Saturday evening. She was an FO on a commercial flight in a twin Baron out of the St. Louis airport KSUS when the aircraft began a sharp descent around 7:30 CDT.

Amanda was an amazing person who loved all of her family and friends deeply. She was a beloved fight instructor here and will be incredibly missed. Amanda was a wonderful mom, friend, and pilot who always knew how to light up a room with her adventurous spirit.

Our thoughts are with all of her family and friends as we all mourn the loss of this amazing woman.
 Mike Folkerts, National Transportation Safety Board air safety investigator, left, and Kurt Frisz, St. Charles County Police Chief.

MIAMI VALLEY — Two pilots from Ohio — including one from the Miami Valley — died during a plane crash in St. Charles County, Missouri.

Amanda Youngblood from Huber Heights and George King of Westerville died Saturday, according to the National Transportation Safety Board.

The NTSB said the two were flying to Denver to pick up cargo when the plane crashed about nine minutes after taking off.

Investigators are working to find out what caused the plane to go down after it reached 8,000 feet.

The pilots did not make a distress call before the crash, according to investigators, but they are looking into communications that may have indicated a problem with the flight.

Youngblood was a flight instructor at Dayton Aviation Services, based at the Moraine Airpark.

One of Youngblood’s friends told News Center 7 about the kind of pilot and person she will remember.

Sophia Lucas had been friends with Youngblood for a few years.

“It’s a huge loss for everyone that knew her, she was just an amazing person that cared so deeply,” Lucas said.

The two worked together when Youngblood was a flight instructor at Dayton Aviation Services.

“She was one of our best flight instructors, a huge, important part of the team,” Lucas said.

Lucas said Youngblood brought so much enthusiasm to everything she did, including being a mom to her three boys.

“I know she’s very proud of them, and she just wanted to be the best she could for them,” Lucas said.

There’s a saying in the aviation community. “They’ve flown west and we’ll see them again someday.”

“It’s something that we just all kind of gather around, they’ve flown west, they’ve gone out of our reach, but they’re still flying wherever they may be,” Lucas said.

As Youngblood’s family and friends mourn her loss, the NTSB is still working on its investigation into the crash to try and figure out how it happened.

May 31, 2019 
Ohio State Highway Patrol 
Please help us congratulate Sergeant George F. King, Aviation Unit, on his retirement from the Ohio State Highway Patrol. Major Joshua M. Swindell and Staff Lieutenant Justin W. Cromer presented him with his credentials.

ST. CHARLES COUNTY, Missouri — Federal investigators say two pilots from Ohio were killed in a deadly plane crash Saturday night in St. Charles County.

During a Tuesday morning briefing, National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration said the aircraft was operated by AirnetII, LLC out of Ohio and was on its way to pick up cargo in Denver. 

The pilots killed in the crash are identified as George F. King, 55, of Westerville, Ohio and Amanda D. Youngblood, 35, of Huber Heights, Ohio.

The Beechcraft 58 Baron was leaving the Spirit of Saint Louis Airport headed to Centennial Airport just outside of Denver, Colorado.  

The small plane crashed in a wooded area near Highway F in the New Melle area around 7 p.m. Saturday.

The airplane had climbed to about 8,000 feet on an instrument flight plan and then began a rapid descent that continued all the way to the crash site.

There was no communication from the flight crew after the descent began.

The NTSB says it appears the aircraft made a high-speed impact with the ground but there was no fire at the time of the crash.

The investigators also said there was no damage to structures on the ground.

Investigators will determine if the weather was a factor in the crash. They will also look into the operational background on the pilots, their flight training, as well as an autopsy and toxicology. 

The investigators will also look at the aircraft’s maintenance records as well as what was happening with the environment the air traffic controllers were working in at the time of the crash.

The NTSB says there was no flight recorded on the aircraft. recorded measurement was at 4,700 feet.

Investigators also said the plane’s previous flight was from Denver to St. Louis the Sunday before the crash. They also said Kennedy had more than 6,000 hours of flying time and Youngblood had 1,000 hours.

The NTSB said there is doorbell video of the accident site. They will be doing a sound spectrum analysis of the video.

Investigators are also asking anyone with information of evidence to contact them.


  1. Flight track:

    Note that the time tag of the weather overlay shown on the Flightaware plot is about two hours after the crash.

    1. Flightradar24's track:

    2. The Flightradar24 track plot ends between Hwy F and rugged Acres Lane, which is where the wreckage was found.

      Google mapped:,+Defiance,+MO+63341/@38.6767359,-90.8637769,13z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x87decae6db930d2d:0x268b39a48dd2fbfe!8m2!3d38.6737473!4d-90.8748581!5m1!1e4

      Adsbexchange track:

  2. Weather radar, 7:18 PM CST (19:18) +6 = 01:18Z UTC Day 9 September:

    1. METAR:
      KSUS 090107Z 19007KT 2SM BR OVC010 07/06 A2996

    2. That RADAR image presentation is (intentionally) not showing the lighter precip that the NEXRADs were picking up that evening ... those kinds of displays are suitable for ground personnel interested in if they are going to get wet, but don't display all the imagery available from the fine network of NWS NEXRAD RADARs.

    3. Posted those to see if active severe wx was in the area.

      Not long ago, NEXRAD archive was available at:
      Redirects now, doesn't work.

      NEXRAD archive at only will show the most recent six days, so that soon becomes a broken link a few days after posting. Do you have an archive link that doesn't expire?

      This ucar NEXRAD link of accident period soon will expire:

    4. re: "Do you have an archive link that doesn't expire?"

      Try one of the links (save in a text file or as bookmark) a day or so later; maybe the drop-down date-select box on the website only goes back six days, but the server files go back further than that?

    5. BTW, this is the URL you need that ends at 0200 UTC, encompassing the point in time (01:19 UTC) when the Beech 58 went down:

    6. To understand how a ucar archive-saved NEXRAD link doesn't function after the six day expiration, the example below from the N880Z comment thread will illustrate what you get:

      It is unfortunate that the old noaa NEXRAD archive like stopped working. Need to find an updated link for what used to be at:

  3. LiveAtc KSUS, aircraft operating as call sign USC247:

    Listen around the 8 minute mark for wx brief & clear for takeoff.

  4. An active flight log, with frequent flights between SUS St Louis, MO and APA Denver, CO.

    1. Airnet "Star Check" aircraft haul small freight on regularly scheduled routes, got their beginnings in the 1970's hauling bank checks until electronic banking overcame that segment. Claimed to have been number one in check hauling back in the day.

      Kalitta owns the brand now, still is "Star Check" on voice comms.

    2. Off topic fun fact: being from back in the day 1970s and a large country in Old Europe, I had to write and cash my first checks ever when I came to the US in 2001. Electronic banking for the average Joe 20 years later is still a joke here.

    3. "Off topic fun fact: being from back in the day 1970s and a large country in Old Europe, I had to write and cash my first checks ever when I came to the US in 2001. Electronic banking for the average Joe 20 years later is still a joke here."

      I have no idea what you are talking about. We've had millions of ATMs since the 1980s and they are in many if not most grocery stores and shopping malls as well as on every city and town block.

    4. Sending money directly to any other bank account around the globe easily and without having to sign up for it and waiting for "permission" by the bank and without extra "wire" fees. Instead I only can do Zelle with s $500 daily limit or pay wire fees.
      No checks needed. Direct "deposit". 40 years ago.

      Anyway condolences to family and friends.

  5. Severe icing conditions??? Lost control??? Would make sense with engines screaming trying to stay airborn...

    1. I agree, In the video where something was seen falling and the homeowner can't find anything is because the ice melted.

    2. Icing not likely a factor.

    3. re: "Lost control??? Would make sense with engines screaming trying to stay airborn..."

      Do a search for a NASA video titled: "NASA Tailplane Icing Video Glenn Research Center". It explains the effects of an iced-up tail/elevator assembly quite nicely, along with some wind tunnel testing/demonstrations.

    4. Engines don't scream "trying to stay airborne". Constant speed props are governor-managed while pulling. Screaming is heard when diving and subsequent overspeeding has kicked in.

      Iced tail not applicable - NTSB evaluation for KSUS area conditions at the time put ice altitude at 12,000', which was well above flown altitude.

    5. re: "NTSB evaluation for KSUS area conditions at the time put ice altitude at 12,000', which was well above flown altitude."

      Clear air at that altitude (looking at skew-t diagram, cloud tops inferred by LW infrared well below 12k); easy call for NTSB.

    6. I have pictures of the plane the day before
      The heater didn't work and had to be worked on in a "Rush" to get the next flight load out
      This was the last thing that was touched by an A & P
      Could both pilots have been "Asphyxiated" ?
      Wish I could show pictures of the plane the day before
      It was a total Iceball

  6. Iced up / loss of control or perhaps structural failure in heavy turbulence???

    Night freight in piston airplanes - even a twin - can be a dicey thing when the weather gets bad. Rubber booties buy you a FEW minutes to get out of icing conditions, but they are useless for remaining in protracted icing conditions with any accumulation greater than "very light", and there's no guarantee that the airplane was FIKI certified or that the boots - if installed - were operational. A lot of the airplanes I flew Part 135 freight in decades ago had boots - almost none of them had boots that worked well enough to actually shed ice.

  7. News article has a debris photo and the two pilots lost are named.

    "Police Chief Kurt Frisz said Amanda Youngblood, 35, and George King, 55, were piloting the plane when it crashed Saturday evening."

  8. NTSB briefer talks weather analysis around 16:10 in the briefing video, stating that icing was not believed to be a factor.

    KSDK's Recorded briefing link:

  9. Off topic fun fact...Great story Bro.

  10. CO poisoning? The heater system in these is somewhat fool-proof but CO poisoning would explain the erratic flight behavior, non-responsiveness of two experienced pilots.

    1. From the POH: The presence of carbon monoxide results in hypoxia which will affect night vision in the same manner and extent ashypoxia from high altitudes. Even small levels of carbon monoxide have the same effect as an altitude increase of 8,000 to 10,000 feet.

    2. Elapsed time was mighty short for heater-crack CO leak to be the cause. First turn away from their usual departure track and low ground speeds was two minutes after takeoff, crash was nine.

    3. I've been thinking about crew incapacitation and CO poisoning as a possible contributor since hearing the audio that included at least one pirep regarding iceing towards the end of the recording. How much time did they spend in the Baron on the ramp, taxiing, run up, and before departure, and did they have the heater on?

  11. Anonymous comment saying ice was likely not a factor... yep... read this blog on some initial weather analysis for this accident.

    1. Good looking presentation there. NTSB briefer said that ice altitude was 12,000' by their initial review evaluation. Also said Pireps had cloud tops at 9000', so Doc Dennstaedt's statement holds up well:

      "The pilot likely climbed from the surface to cruise altitude in IMC, but that climb was at a temperature well above temperatures conducive to airframe ice."

    2. Super detailed examination of weather data from a station 100 miles away. Maybe the next time a plane takes off into freezing drizzle, the geniuses at avwxtraining can put together another in depth analysis of why that plane should not have encountered icing...maybe they can make a presentation at the funeral. I'm not trying to be rude, or discount the data, but I just don't see how anyone can say it's too early to speculate a cause, and in the same breath rule out icing....when all the evidence (ring camera video, crash site, special weather report) all indicate icing.

    3. Lapse rate calculations are not difficult. NTSB briefer said that ice altitude was 12,000' by their initial review evaluation.

      If you listen to the LiveAtc recording, KSUS tower asks an arriving pilot if they had encountered ice - the answer was no. Don't be mad when your favorite youtube info-tainer guesses wrong in their predictable rush to get monetized views from a tragedy.

    4. The aircraft did not take off into freezing rain. Temp 7C/Dwpt 6C isn't even CLOSE to freezing rain potential. The meteorologist clearly showed that the standard lapse rate assumption did not apply in this case with a temperature inversion and even warmer air aloft. At no point in time did this aircraft fly through an environment conducive to icing. This is no longer debateable.

    5. regarding: "At no point in time did this aircraft fly through an environment conducive to icing. This is no longer debateable."

      If one looks at the skew-t diagram from ILX, one finds a temperature very close to freezing, couple that with Bernoulli cooling (low pressure above the wing) and a saturated atmosphere (DP = temp) the potential for icing can be seen ...

    6. Conditions at time/location of the ILX radiosonde, 84 miles north of the accident, go hand in hand with the associated METAR there:
      KSPI 082314Z 18014KT 2SM -FZRA BR OVC005 01/01 A2997

      But look at the temperature difference between that Lincoln. IL radiosonde location METAR and the accident location's METAR:
      KSUS 090107Z 19007KT 2SM BR OVC010 07/06 A2996

      Incorrect to make an assertion that ILX radiosonde data taken from a balloon launched two hours prior to the accident at a location 84 miles away "cancels" the NTSB's initial evaluation using data from the accident area & time.

      N585CK did not launch from Lincoln.

    7. I'll say again, look at skew-t log-p diagram for ILX, temp at 8k ft about +2.5 deg C, couple that with Bernoulli cooling (low pressure above wing) and a saturated atmosphere (DP = temp) means potential for frost/icing ... Look for paper titled "Investigation of relative humidity and induced-vortex effects on aircraft icing" to get a better idea on how high RH, low pressure above a wing via the Bernoulli effect works AND how laminar flow on wing is disrupted by frost/ice accretion.

      Quick excerpt: "Depending on the actual flight and local atmospheric conditions, a drop in pressure may lead to supersaturation ... the suction or low pressure regions may be exposed to condensation/deposition or may cause droplet growth due to supersaturation. If the condensation and/or deposition occur onto a surface, the result will be droplets or a frost formation. However, in the case of a shed or entrapped vortex, the low pressure at the core can produce a supersaturated region, which produces favorable conditions for the growth of an entrained droplet that can be deposited as it becomes larger. This result agrees with the idea that the roughness itself can play a key role in its own growth through the interaction with the surrounding flow."

      There is MUCH about marginal icing condx we simply DO NOT KNOW.

    8. With ILX being 84 miles away and much cooler than the departure airport, it's certainly true that you don't know about KSUS departure icing conditions from that.

      The arriving pilot queried by the KSUS controller heard on the LiveAtc recording after landing knew first hand what he came thru arriving into KSUS. That arriving pilot said there was no icing. Presumably he had a lifting airfoil, with low pressure cooling effect, but no ice. Not complicated to understand and not speculative.

    9. re: "The arriving pilot queried by ..."

      Two different aircraft, two different pilots, and a difference in time. Did you by chance look at the Level II data from the LSX NEXRAD? Do you know the full effects a disrupted laminar airflow over an airfoil can cause - or do you just 'assume' its a 'binary' effect, either on or off?

      Look at the discussion here on substack, do a search on this: "Can a sandpaper-thick layer of ice reduce lift by 30 percent and increase drag up to 40 percent?"

    10. LOL - As if nobody but you has any knowledge about icing.

      That KSUS controller sure was wrong to get pireps from arriving aircraft without consulting your opinion on distant conditions at ILX from two hours before the crash. You should use the FAA hotline and report him, right away...

    11. re: "As if nobody but you has any knowledge about icing. "

      You probably don't believe in CRM either. Are you an 'old school' flyer?

    12. A sandpaper thick layer of ice or frost is NOT going to bring a Baron down. They can take A LOT even when they’re heavy.

  12. KR had 2 posts that were in violation: Cessna 172H, N8056L and Beechcraft 58 Baron, N585CK.

  13. Whoever is reporting these needs to leave. This is not the blog for that person. Or KR needs to look at moving off google.


  15. Another possibility: left engine failed at 3500 ft. Airplane rapidly slowed down below Vmc and they almost lost control. But somehow they regained control. Shaken up from the experience, they decided to climb to 8000 before making a 180 turn back. But they lost control again during the turn. May be they forgot to feather the prop? I hope the prop or engine pieces can shed some light. But the photos don't look promising.

    1. And in such a scenario, minimal help available from the autopilot, hand flying in IMC below the reported 9000' tops while raising the wing on the dead side and counteracting yaw.

    2. If that were the case, you would think with two pilots onboard they would have notified ATC of the situation.

    3. Yes, very unusual to not have any ATC transmissions during the troubling event...Of course that seems to be the norm on all the recent private aircraft crashes.

  16. Just looking at the flight log it appears the aircraft was climbing right above stall for quite some time, at one point 54 knots.

    1. Once again, let me educate you that the speed shown in ADS-B is ground speed while stall speeds (and other V speeds) are referenced by indicated airspeed. You need to correct for both winds aloft AND density altitude to go from one to another. People are so clueless about this, there needs to be a FAQ.

    2. Add "Check other comments before posting" to your FAQ wish.

      Two days before you showed up to educate, Another commenter had clarified ground speed vs airspeed without snark AND provided some insight into reported STL winds aloft at the time.

  17. I believe that the flight logs report ground speed. There were reports from both ATC in STL and aircraft flying into STL that the winds aloft were between 30-60kts from the SW. I don't know if this could have been a factor in the accident but I think it could account for the airspeed variations.

  18. I am GUESSING.......ICE!
    Remember to do something, turn around, change altitude, do something, Ice is no joke...

    1. Compare your guess to what NTSB said in the briefing video:

    2. Just as good as NTSB's guess!

  19. Is it normal to have a crew of two on a cargo flight like this one?

    1. Reportedly a repositioning flight, seems like it would also be a good way to deliver another pilot who was filling in at Denver or sent for repositioning of another aircraft from there.

    2. The SIC did not have enough flight time for 135 mins and was likely in training. Typically Airnet always hired pilots a few hundred hours short of 135 mins and had them train on the job as an SIC to build flight time and experience before sending them on their own. At least that’s the way it was done at the original Airnet, it looks like Airnet 2 was doing the same. The SIC was not a required crew member. Company policy used to be the PIC flew the first leg of the day and then alternated legs with the SIC so the PIC was likely at the controls.

    3. Being a repositioning flight, the accident leg may not have been their first time together that duty day, so the SIC may have had the controls.

      If SIC was logging some needed IFR time with yoke in hand, any shortfall in SIC's ability to stay focused and avoid illusion and/or disorientation could be compounded if the Baron was throwover yoke-equipped.

  20. The fact that the NTSB said that the freezing level was 12,000 feet is irrelevant. Icing is localized and this accident has icing written all over it. I owned a Baron and it's boots were useless and if you climbed too slowly, the ice would form on the underside of the wing and the top of the horizontal stabilizer which when you levelled off could quit flying. Icing will form well below or above the freezing level and vertical movement of the air can contribute to localized icing when none is either predicted or experienced by other aircraft.
    So absent an engine failure, a trim runaway or an in flight breakup, icing is a good place to start. Once that is ruled in or out, the propeller signatures are a next good place and after that some evaluation of the maintenance history and reports to maintenance before this flight. Lastly I'd want to see the load manifest to see where that puts the weight and balance of this airplane. Aircraft accident investigation is a learned process requiring a careful piecing together of factual information before judgments can be made.

    1. NTSB provided more than just the 12,000' level comment. The briefer followed up with "At this point we do not expect icing to have been a factor in the accident"

      ADS-B shows that the first indication of trouble occurred at 3800' MSL and just 2 minutes after takeoff. Way too low to be attributable to ice for the conditions present at the time.

      Implying that the NTSB hasn't developed a learned process suggests tuber fandom. Let's hope the tuber doesn't trot out a repeat of the false N3RB co-pilot demise scenario this time if his icing claim falls flat.

  21. This accident seems familiar. I’d like to share a few comments:
    = SFC temp a SUS was reported at 7-deg. C. with mist. 85CK reportedly had climbed to 8,000-ft. MSL before the event leading to its destruction began. The WX rpt. with ‘mist’ caught my eye.
    = Using the wet adiabatic lapse rate of about 4-deg. C. per 1,000-ft. of altitude gained suggests 85CK had entered an area within the clouds that could have had super-cooled (S-C) water droplets in them beginning about 3,000-ft. MSL.
    = As many IMC pilots know, the S-C water droplets turn to clear ice when they strike an airframe and flow aft before freezing. The result is an uneven layer of clear ice—sometime on top and bottom of the wing depending upon the airplane’s climb pitch attitude. Seen it happen, looked at the results on scene.
    The amount and rate of accretion depends level of moisture in the clouds and time spent flying through them. Prolonged flight in this environment could result in ram’s horn ice on the wing’s L.E. and even ridge ice aft of the deicing boots that were being exercised. Both instances have grave results.
    = I’m wondering if 85CK was equipped with vortex generators. On the wing, aft of the boot, these accumulate ice quickly and form a lift-killing ridge much like a spoiler. Ditto on the horizontal stab; in the case of the BE58 the vortex generators are only on the bottom of the horizontal stab. Even so, I’ve looked at wreckage that had golf-ball sized forms of clear ice on these. Doesn’t ensure sufficient airflow to have adequate pitch control.
    The above was tossed out to add to the discussion. I hope the NTSB will look into the airplane’s set up and possibilities of super-cooled water droplets having a role in this tragic accident. Who knows, maybe this had no relevance with this event.
    Lastly, it’d be horrible if the autopsy report on the gentleman came back showing a massive heart attack. A real problem for an F/O.

    1. No vortex generators. Pretty sure it had a single throw over yoke though from my memory. I’m not sure that the last radio transmission works with the PIC being slumped on the controls theory, but possibly a transfer of the controls that went wrong?

    2. Interesting points, but where did you get the 'wet adiabatic lapse rate' of 4 degrees/1,000ft from? Moist/saturated air has a much lower adiabatic lapse rate due to latent heat. That is, the specific heat capacity of water means it cools slower (and of course heats slower) hence the wet/saturated lapse-rate is closer to 1.5 degrees C/1,000ft.

    3. Didn't consider 85CK may have been equipped with a throw over yoke. 14CFR Part 135.99(c)(2)says a 135 ME airplane must have "...n independent set of controls for a second pilot.... which may not include a throw over control wheel." However, 14CFR Part 135.147 states, "No person may operate and aircraft REQUIRING two pilots unless it is equipped with functioning dual control."

      Since 85CK didn't require two pilots, it could have a throw over control yoke. Dumb, but legal. Wasn't this accident flight positioning flight to pick up so,e sort of special cargo? 14CFR Part then.

      More my be known from the PIC's autopsy on the heart. If no MI, my bet would be airframe icing and subsequent loss of control. Those super-cooled water droplets can be very nasty; especially unwary or unknowing pilot.

    4. A standard temperature lapse rate is when the temperature decreases at the rate of approximately 3.5 °F or 2 °C per thousand feet up to 36,000 feet, which is approximately –65 °F or –55 °C. Above this point, the temperature is considered constant up to 80,000 feet.

      The difference between normal lapse rate and adiabatic lapse rate
      differs with change in temperature observed while moving upward through the Earth's atmosphere. Adiabatic lapse rate involves temperature changes due to the rising or sinking of an air parcel. Adiabatic lapse rates are usually differentiated as dry or moist.

      Source: FAA.Gov

    5. Standard calculations are useful to explain the related concepts, but if a warm front was creating a temperature inversion, the NTSB's early assessment that ice was not expected to be a factor will likely turn out to be correct.

  22. Interesting and appropriate observations. As to the possibility of a MI, it had occurred to me as well… very difficult to fly and keep a large person from slumping over the flight controls, inputting a strong nose down force, especially in a small (relatively) cockpit.

  23. From the preliminary report:

    "After climbing to 8,000 ft mean sea level (msl) on a west heading, the airplane made a gradual left turn toward a southeast heading and subsequently descended. The controller queried about the airplane’s incorrect altitude and direction of flight. A jumbled radio transmission was made by a pilot and no distress call was received."

    Turn at the end did not include pilot calling advising intent to return to SUS or reporting trouble. Speculation needs to include the simplest possibility of disoriented pilot in night IMC. No heart attack, engine failure or ice is required for disorientation to be a cause.

    The earlier turn/low ground speed event two minutes after takeoff is unexplained. No storm cells at the time to deviate around, could have been from an autopilot/FD setup error or buttonology mistake that created a distraction leading to disorientation and loss of control.

    1. This is very possible. The pic did have 6k hours but it looks like he had been working as a traffic watch pilot for much of that time which is probably all VFR. He may not have had much actual imc time. The SIC had 1k hours likely mostly dual given in VFR and also may not have had much actual imc time.

    2. Where are getting this information on which pilot was PIC and which was SIC and how many hours they had? I don't see that anywhere on this site or on the NTSB report. Shouldn't assume George was PIC just because he was older and a man. Amanda was an extremely capable pilot.

    3. Even though this was an empty leg it was part of a scheduled route. The return flight from Denver would have had work on board. Amanda couldn’t have been PIC on that because she didn’t have Part 135 mins. It’s also a male voice on the radio. They wouldn’t have been operating as a crew, it’s training for single pilot ops. One pilot doing everything with the other observing. It is possible they were operating some other way though but it seems most likely George was PIC and was the one at the controls.

  24. This aircraft was formerly N1859K. Acquired by AirNet Systems on 09/08/1997.
    Purchased by Kalitta Charters on 04/17/2015.
    Requested N# change to N585CK on 06/17/2015

    Enter 1859k or, 585ck in N# search field to see results on either. Do not enter the "N" in the search field. (photo) (photo)

  25. The NTSB report said the flight was being operated as a positioning flight under Part 91. Everyone has assumed the higher time pilot was the PIC. If this was a repo they may well have put the lower time pilot in the left seat (with the single yolk) to gain experience.

  26. NTSB Final Report: Nothing wrong with pilots or plane; PIC was Youngblood because flight operated as Part 91; throwover yoke precluded King as SIC to assist; spatial disorientation from night, IFR conditions leading to stall/spin into terrain.