Thursday, July 14, 2022

Fuel Exhaustion: Paradise P1, N101YY; accident occurred March 19, 2022 near Glendale Municipal Airport (KGEU), Maricopa County, Arizona

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident. 

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Scottsdale, Arizona 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: 

Executive Aviation LLC

Location: Glendale, Arizona 
Accident Number: WPR22LA130
Date and Time: March 19, 2022, 08:36 Local 
Registration: N101YY
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Fuel exhaustion 
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Instructional


The flight instructor reported that he had observed the student pilot use a dipstick to determine the fuel quantity. They then departed for a training flight with the belief that they had 10 gallons of fuel. They performed flight maneuvers for about 20 minutes then returned to the airport for pattern work. On the third takeoff, about 300 ft above ground level (agl), the engine experienced a total loss of power. The flight instructor initiated a forced landing to a road where the airplane struck a curb, which resulted in substantial damage to the right wing. After a debrief with the student, it was discovered by the flight instructor that the student may have inserted the fuel dipstick into the tank at an angle instead of vertically and got a higher level indication of fuel quantity.

A postaccident examination of the wing tanks by the recovery agency, revealed less than a half-gallon of fuel remaining in the tanks.

The pilot reported there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
A total loss of engine power due to fuel exhaustion. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's inadequate preflight fuel inspection.


Aircraft Fuel - Inadequate inspection
Aircraft Fuel - Fluid level
Personnel issues Preflight inspection - Instructor/check pilot
Environmental issues (general) - Effect on operation

Factual Information

History of Flight

Prior to flight Aircraft inspection event
Takeoff Loss of engine power (partial)
Takeoff Fuel exhaustion (Defining event)
Landing Collision during takeoff/land

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial; Flight instructor; Private
Age: 29, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land; Multi-engine land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane 
Second Pilot Present: Yes 
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane multi-engine; Airplane single-engine; Instrument airplane
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 1 With waivers/limitations 
Last FAA Medical Exam: January 14, 2020
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: October 15, 2020
Flight Time: (Estimated) 556.5 hours (Total, all aircraft), 11.4 hours (Total, this make and model), 383.7 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 56 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 14.9 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 32,Male
Airplane Rating(s): None 
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: None Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot: No 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 43 hours (Total, all aircraft), 8.7 hours (Total, this make and model), 5.6 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 1.3 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Registration: N101YY
Model/Series: P1 
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2015
Amateur Built:
Airworthiness Certificate: Special light-sport (Special)
Serial Number: 178
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: February 28, 2022 Annual 
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1320 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 422.3 Hrs at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Rotax
ELT: C91 installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: 912ULS
Registered Owner:
Rated Power: 100
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Pilot school (141)

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual (VMC)
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KGEU, 1066 ft msl 
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 08:56 Local 
Direction from Accident Site: 205°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility: 10 miles
Lowest Ceiling: None 
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: / 
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.05 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 17°C / -5°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Glendale, AZ (GEU)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Glendale, AZ
Type of Clearance: Unknown
Departure Time: 07:30 Local
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information

Airport: Glendale Municipal GEU 
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1071 ft msl 
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 01
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 7150 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Forced landing; Touch and go;Traffic pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries:
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries:
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None 
Latitude, Longitude: 33.528968,-112.2939

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