Saturday, February 9, 2019

Aerotek Pitts S-2A, N67PN: Fatal accident May 26, 2017 near Sheboygan County Memorial Airport (KSBM), Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin

Retired military officer Denny Hall 

Denny Hall graduated with honors from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in 1975 with a B.S. Degree in Aeronautics.

Denny was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Navy, where he served from 1975 to 1988. He attained the rank of Navy Lieutenant, and was Flight Deck Officer on the USS Midway aircraft carrier and an attack pilot flying the A7-E Corsair II on the USS Coral Sea and the USS Enterprise aircraft carrier(s). Performing diverse missions on his tours in the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans, Denny logged over 200 carrier landings. As a Naval Jet Carrier Aviator, Denny was part of a very small and elite group demanding the highest level of aviation skill and ability to master landing a jet aboard a moving ship in all-weather conditions, day and night, while the landing area is constantly moving.

From 1988 to 1997, Major Hall was a member of the U.S. Air National Guard (ANG) in Toledo, Ohio. Serving in the 180th Fighter Group, he was involved in planning, leading and executing air-to-air and air-to-ground missions in the F-16-C fighter jet, including combat missions over Panama during Operation Just Cause ousting dictator Noriega. Denny was extremely proud to wear both the gold and silver wings of the Navy and the Air Force and he felt very privileged to fly the F-16, which he considered "the most elegant and sexy aircraft ever built". 

Filip J. “Philip” Smecko
Philip's passion in life was flying. His dream was to become a commercial pilot and fly the Airbus for the airlines one day to Poland where he was born and around the world. 


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Aviat Aircraft, Inc.; Afton, Wyoming
Lycoming Engines; Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms 
 
http://registry.faa.gov/N67PN



Denny Hall

In 1985, Denny joined American Airlines, where he served as an international Captain. During his 30 years he piloted the B-757/767 and B-777 aircraft. He logged over 16,000 hours, with 13,000 as Pilot In Command, over routes to Europe, South America, the Caribbean, Asia, Hawaii, and Alaska. Denny treasured his professional career with American Airlines and retired (mandatory age) in 2015, with his last flight being to Hong Kong on the B-777 with his beloved wife Lisa.

In 2015, he joined Super Mix USA as Corporate Chief Pilot and Director of Flight Operations. Denny felt blessed to work with the Jack Pease family, flying their King Air turbo prop to various business and adventure vacation destinations. Jack describes their collaboration as "two old guys working hard, having fun and checking off items on their bucket list(s)".

Denny was a competitive aerobatic pilot and dedicated long hours to training and perfecting his craft. He was a member of the International Aerobatic Club (IAC), competing in the Sportsman division. He loved his beautiful red Pitts Special tail-dragger bi-plane, which he felt was second only to the F-16 in pure flight. 

Filip J. “Philip” Smecko
At his young age of 19, Philip had already received his instrument rating and was halfway through obtaining his Commercial rating when this accident happened. His passion for flying was so strong he turned down a football scholarship to a Division 2 university. 

Location: Sheboygan Falls, WI
Accident Number: CEN17FA197
Date & Time: 05/26/2017, 1230 CDT
Registration: N67PN
Aircraft: AEROTEK PITTS S 2A
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control in flight
Injuries: 2 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On May 26, 2017, about 1230 central daylight time, an Aerotek Pitts S 2A biplane, N67PN, impacted terrain during a descent near Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin. The pilot and pilot rated passenger were fatally injured. The airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed in the area about the time of the accident, and no flight plan was filed for the local flight, which originated from the Sheboygan County Memorial Airport (SBM), near Sheboygan, Wisconsin, about 1210.

The purpose of the flight was to perform a fly-by over a nearby racetrack. The pilot rated passenger in the front seat reportedly sent a text about 1220 during the fly-by.

According to a flight instructor at SBM, about 1210, he and some students were listening to the common traffic advisory frequency and heard the pilot report that the Bonanza was on a straight in final for runway 13. The flight instructor observed a red biplane (the accident airplane) depart runway 13 and make a "sharp" left turn to the north. The instructor reported that the turn was low to the ground and that the airplane cleared the trees by 50 to 100 ft. The airplane then departed to the west/southwest at a "lower than normal" altitude.

A witness near the racetrack reported that she heard the sound of an airplane about 1230 and that, seconds later, the sound "abruptly ceased." She observed the airplane traveling eastbound in a level attitude for several seconds before it entered a nose-down, vertical attitude and spiraled clockwise to the ground.

Another witness reported they heard the airplane flying in the area and his friend pointed the airplane out when it came into sight. The witness observed the airplane climb rapidly and then enter a "90° angle". As it reached the apex of it's climb, "it sounded like the plane's engine stalled." The airplane then entered a nose-down, "corkscrewing" descent toward the ground. He reported that it sounded like the pilots were trying to start the engine but were unable. He said they did not see the crash because of some trees, but did hear "a loud thump" which the witness described as the sound of the airplane impacting the ground.

A third witness reported that the airplane entered a "straight up climb until it stalled. The plane proceeded to roll upside down in a flat manner" and that's when he heard the engine stall. The airplane then entered a nose-down spin. During the spin, the rate of rotation slowed, and as the airplane got closer to the ground, the witness heard the engine "sputter, but not fire up." The airplane then disappeared behind trees on top of a hill. A couple of seconds later, the witness hear the sound of the airplane impacting the ground.



Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport
Age: 66, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Rear
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/20/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated) 16300 hours (Total, all aircraft) 

Pilot-Rated Passenger Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 19, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 5-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/15/2015
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 03/23/2017
Flight Time: (Estimated) 

The 66-year-old pilot, who was seated in the aft seat, held a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane multi-engine land rating. He also held commercial pilot privileges in single-engine land and sea airplanes and type ratings for the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Boeing 757, 767, and 777 airplanes. The pilot was issued an FAA first-class medical certificate on April 20, 2017, with a limitation to wear corrective lenses. The pilot reported on the application for that medical certificate that he had accumulated 16,300 hours total flight experience and 150 hours in six months before the application. The pilot attended a recurrent King Air course in October, 2016. In connection with the course, the course instructor gave the pilot FAA Wings credit on October 6, 2016, through the Wings website. This recurrent course was in addition to the King Air initial course that the pilot previously attended.

A flight instructor, that sold the accident airplane to the pilot in August, 2013 reported that the pilot's Pitts S 2A check out training consisted of ground and flight instruction in the accident airplane. The instruction, in part, included Lycoming engine operation with Bendix fuel injection, fuel system operation, management of fuel from the top tank, range and endurance planning, start-up procedures, leaning procedures, weight and balance, normal and aerobatic loading, proper trimming of the airplane, P factor, torque and gyroscopic forces, slow flight, angle of attack control, stall recognition, stall prevention, stall recovery power on and off, how to recognize the incipient spin, recovery from normal upright, inverted, accelerated, crossover, and flat spins by the normal recovery method, the power-on method, and the emergency maneuver recovery method, upset recovery, engine-out approach and landing, in-flight power loss recovery, and emergency landing field determination.

The 19-year-old pilot-rated passenger, who was seated in the front seat, held an FAA private pilot certificate with airplane single-engine land and instrument airplane ratings. He was issued an FAA third-class medical certificate on June 15, 2015, with no limitations. He did not report his flight experience on the application for that medical certificate. 



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: AEROTEK
Registration: N67PN
Model/Series: PITTS S 2A
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1981
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Aerobatic; Normal
Serial Number: 2219
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 03/23/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1575 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 2258.7 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: AEIO-360-A1E
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 200 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

The accident airplane was a 1981 model Aerotek Pitts S 2A factory-built, tandem two-seat, single-engine, fixed-gear tailwheel biplane. It was equipped with a 200-horsepower aerobatic Lycoming AEIO-360-A1E engine, with serial No. L-20565-51A. A three-bladed MT propeller, model MTV-9-B-C/ C188-18b, serial No. 140237, was installed in accordance with supplemental type certificate No. SA00457DE. The airplane was equipped with a 24-gallon fuselage fuel tank with a usable fuel capacity of 23 gallons. A bill of sale showed the pilot purchased the airplane on August 20, 2013.

A mechanic reported that he recovered and repainted the airplane during January of 2016. The mechanic replaced fuel hoses and the fuel tank flop tube, and modified the airplane by installing an additional 5-gallon fuel tank. The mechanic flew the airplane through "all aerobatic" maneuvers and spins, during which the airplane recovered from the spins using normal and emergency recovery methods. An endorsement in the airplane logbook stated that the airplane had an annual inspection completed on March 23, 2017, as of that date, it had accumulated 2,258.7 hours total time.

The airplane flight manual (AFM) listed the airplane's maximum gross weight in the normal category as 1,575 lbs and a maximum gross weight in the acrobatic category as 1,500 lbs. The airplane's most forward center of gravity at maximum gross weight in the normal category was 96.13 inches and most forward center of gravity at maximum gross weight in the acrobatic category was 96.50 inches. The airplane's most aft center of gravity in the normal category was 97.50 inches at 1,472 lbs and most aft center of gravity in the acrobatic category was 97.12 at 1,440 lbs.

The AFM In-Flight Engine Restart procedure, in, part stated:
1. Pull mixture control to: IDLE CUT-OFF
2. Establish glide at: 100 MPH [Indicated Air Speed]
3. Fuel selector: ON
4. Master switch: ON
5. Throttle: OPEN 1/4 FULL
6. Engage starter to start propeller windmilling, if it is not turning.
7. Advance mixture control to: FULL RICH

Both the type certificate holder's test pilot and an aerobatic flight school that uses Pitts airplanes indicated that the recovery procedures must be started immediately upon engine failure.

The airplane was based at the Burlington Municipal Airport (BUU), near Burlington, Wisconsin. A fuel receipt showed that the owner purchased 11 gallons of 100LL aviation gasoline at BUU at 1535, the day before the accident. The distance from BUU to SBM was about 68 nautical miles. The airplane was observed departing from BUU with only the pilot on board about 1015 on the day of the accident.

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KSBM, 746 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 3 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1153 CDT
Direction from Accident Site: 86°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 5 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction: 160°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 29.86 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 13°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: SHEBOYGAN, WI (SBM)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: SHEBOYGAN, WI (SBM)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1210 CDT
Type of Airspace: 

At 1153, the recorded weather at SBM included wind from 160° at 5 knots, visibility 10 statute miles, sky condition clear, temperature 16° C, dew point 13° C, and an altimeter setting of 29.86 inches of mercury. 



Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 43.765278, -87.916944 

The airplane came to rest inverted on plowed terrain about 3 nautical miles west of SBM on a magnetic heading about 300°. The airplane remained intact and there was no post-impact ground fire. There were depressions in the ground under the nose, upper wing, and rudder. The airplane remained intact. The engine compartment, fuselage, upper wings, and empennage exhibited crushing and buckling consistent with the ground impact. The engine compartment exhibited rearward crushing. The outboard sections of two propeller blades were visible outside of the lower engine cowling and one propeller blade was covered by the cowling. The leading edges of the upper wings exhibited rearward crushing. The right lower wing exhibited minor damage. However, about 3/4 of the outboard section of the left lower wing trailing edge was buckled. The canopy frame was found under the inverted fuselage and the canopy was fragmented. No baggage or ballast was found in the aft baggage area.

A postaccident examination of the wreckage was conducted. The fuselage fuel tank exhibited impact damage. Separations in flight control tubes were consistent with overload failure and first responder actions . Flight control continuity was established from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. A fitting on the electric fuel pump was removed, power was applied to the pump, and the pump emitted a blue liquid consistent with the smell of 100LL aviation fuel. The other fitting on the electric fuel pump was removed, air pressure was applied to the fitting, and air was heard escaping from a broken valve fitting on the gascolator. The gascolator fitting was sealed with thumb pressure, air pressure was reapplied to the electric fuel pump fitting, and air was heard escaping from the inside of the fuselage fuel tank.

The airplane was lifted during its recovery and the propeller blades were found separated from their hub. The curved back of each propeller did not exhibit any chordwise abrasion. Sections of wooden ribs were found embedded in the ground scar under the upper wing leading edges. During the examination of the engine, a thumb compression was observed in all cylinders when the engine was rotated by hand. The propeller governor was separated from the engine case and its control cable remained attached. The engine control cables were traced from the cockpit to the engine. Three of the top sparkplugs were removed. The No. 1 top sparkplug was separated from its threaded base, its electrode was bent, and the electrode exhibited a normal appearance in reference to a Champion Check-A-Plug chart. Using the same chart, the No. 2 top sparkplug exhibited a normal appearance and the Nos. 3 and 4 top sparkplugs exhibited worn out-normal appearances. Sparkplug wires were cut to remove the magnetos for testing. Both magnetos produced a spark at the end of all leads when rotated. The fuel screen within the fuel servo was inspected and it did not exhibit any debris. The servo contained a blue-colored liquid consistent with the smell of 100LL fuel. The fuel distribution valve was disassembled and a liquid sheen consistent with the smell of 100LL fuel was observed within the valve. A liquid consistent with the smell of 100LL fuel exited a port on the engine-driven fuel pump when its lever arm was manipulated by hand. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The Sheboygan County Medical Examiner's Office, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, performed an autopsy on the pilot and took toxicological samples. The autopsy listed multiple injuries as the cause of death.

The FAA Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) performed toxicology testing on specimens from the pilot. The report, in part, indicated the specimens sustained putrefaction and further stated:

21.78 (ug/ml, ug/g) acetaminophen was detected in urine and salicylate detected in urine.

The CAMI description of acetaminophen, in part, stated that it is a common over the counter analgesic/antipyretic (Tylenol).

The CAMI description of salicylate, in part, stated that it is an over the counter analgesic used in the treatment of mild pain.

Tests And Research

The airplane manufacturer produced weight and balance calculations using weight and balance data, dated April 16, 2016, and occupant weights at various fuel loads. At full fuel the airplane weighed about 1,623 lbs with a center of gravity of 95.49 inches. At half fuel the airplane weighed about 1,554 lbs with a center of gravity of 96.15 inches. At minimum fuel the airplane weighed about 1,519.5 lbs with a center of gravity of 96.49 inches.


NTSB Identification: CEN17FA197
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Friday, May 26, 2017 in Sheboygan Falls, WI
Aircraft: AEROTEK PITTS S 2A, registration: N67PN
Injuries: 2 Fatal.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On May 26, 2017, about 1230 central daylight time, a Aerotek Pitts S 2A biplane, N67PN, impacted terrain during a descent near Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin. The pilot and pilot rated passenger were fatally injured. The airplane sustained substantial damage during the impact. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations 91 personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed in the area about the time of the accident, and the flight was not operated on a flight plan. The local flight originated from the Sheboygan County Memorial Airport (SBM), near Sheboygan, Wisconsin, about 1210.

According to initial information from a flight instructor at SBM, about 1210 he and some students were listening to the common traffic advisory frequency and they heard the pilot of a Bonanza report that the Bonanza was on a straight in final for runway 13. The flight instructor, in part, stated:

As the [B]onanza passed on the low approach we watched a red colored biplane depart [runway] 13.

We noticed that he rotated before [runway] 04/22 and made a sharp left turn to the north about abeam the [Falls very high frequency omni-directional range navigation aid]. 

The turnout was low to the ground and approximately 45 degrees or [greater] clearing the trees to by 50 to 100 feet. 

The biplane departed the area to the west/southwest at a lower than normal altitude.

According to a friend of the pilot, the purpose of the flight was to perform a fly-by over Road America near Plymouth, Wisconsin, which was located about 6 nautical miles and 285° from SBM.

A witness who worked nearby reported that about 1230 she noticed the familiar sound of a biplane as she sat down on a patio. 

The witness, in part, further stated:

A second later, the plane sound abruptly ceased - this sudden silence caught my attention and I rose to see what was happening. 

The plane was traveling eastbound, was parallel to the horizon, but yet no sound was emitted from the engine. 

That is, no engine buzzing, sputtering, catching, whirring - no sound. 

The plane remained traveling forward while parallel and without losing altitude for between one and five seconds - before the plane stopped making any forward progress. 

This is when the nose of the plane dipped down so the plane was completely vertical and began spiraling clockwise until it made contact with the ground. 

When the plane hit the ground, a light grey/brown cloud of dust and/or smoke arose. 

There was no dark colored or continuous smoke to suggest a fire.

The witness subsequently called 9-1-1.

The rear seated 66-year-old pilot held a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane multiengine land rating. He also held commercial pilot privileges in single-engine land and single-engine sea airplanes. He held type ratings on McDonnell Douglas DC-9 airplanes and Boeing 757, 767, and 777 airplanes. The pilot held an FAA first-class medical certificate issued on April 20, 2017, with a limitation to wear corrective lenses. The pilot reported on the application for that medical certificate that he had accumulated 16,300 hours of total flight time and 150 hours of flight time in six months before the application.

The flight instructor that sold the accident airplane to the pilot reported that the pilot's Pitts S 2A check out training consisted of ground and in-flight instruction. The instruction, in part, included Lycoming engine operation with Bendix fuel injection, fuel system operation, management of fuel from the top tank, range and endurance planning, start-up procedures both cold and hot method, leaning procedures, weight and balance, normal and aerobatic loading, proper trimming of the airplane, P factor, torque and gyroscopic forces, slow flight, angle of attack control, stall recognition, stall prevention, stall recovery power on and off, how to recognize the incipient spin, recovery from normal upright, inverted, accelerated, crossover, and flat spins by the normal recovery method, the power on method, and the emergency maneuver recovery method, upset recovery, engine out approach and landing, in-flight power loss recovery, and emergency landing field determination.

The front seated pilot-rated passenger, age 19, held an FAA private pilot certificate with airplane single engine land and instrument airplane ratings. He was issued an FAA third-class medical certificate on June 15, 2015, with no limitations.

N67PN was a 1981 model Aerotek Pitts S 2A factory-built, tandem two-seat, single-engine, fixed gear tailwheel biplane. It was equipped with a 200-horsepower aerobatic Lycoming AEIO-360-A1E engine, with serial no. L-20565-51A. A three-bladed MT propeller, model MTV-9-B-C/ C188-18b, serial no. 140237, was installed in accordance with supplemental type certificate no. SA00457DE. The airplane had a 24-gallon fuselage fuel tank with a usable fuel capacity of 23 gallons.

The airplane was based at the Burlington Municipal Airport (BUU), near Burlington, Wisconsin. A fuel receipt showed that the owner purchased 11 gallons of 100 low lead aviation gasoline (avgas) at BUU on May 25, 2017, at 1535. The distance from BUU to SBM was about 68 nautical miles.

At 1153, the recorded weather at SBM was, wind 160° at 5 knots, visibility 10 statute miles, sky condition clear, temperature 16° C, dew point 13° C, altimeter 29.86 inches of mercury.

The airplane came to rest inverted on plowed terrain. The airplane's heading was about 300° magnetic and it was about three nautical miles and 266° from SBM. There was no post impact ground fire. There were depression witness marks under the nose, upper wing, and rudder. The airplane remained intact. The engine compartment, fuselage, upper wings, and empennage exhibited crushing and buckling consistent with the ground impact. The engine compartment exhibited rearward crushing. The outboard sections of two propeller blades were visible outside of the lower engine cowling and one propeller blade was covered by the cowling. The leading edges of the upper wings exhibited rearward crushing. The right lower wing exhibited minor damage. However, about 3/4 of the outboard section of the left lower wing trailing edge was buckled in the direction towards its landing gear. The canopy frame was found under the inverted fuselage and the canopy was found fragmented on the ground. No baggage or ballast was found in the aft baggage area.

A postaccident examination of the wreckage was conducted. The fuselage fuel tank exhibited impact damage. Separations in flight control tubes were consistent with first responder actions and with overload. Flight control continuity was established from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. A fitting on the electric fuel pump was removed, power was applied to the pump, and the pump emitted a blue liquid consistent with the smell of avgas. The other fitting on the electric fuel pump was removed, air pressure was applied to the fitting, and air was heard escaping from a broken valve fitting on the gascolator. The gascolator fitting was sealed with thumb pressure, air pressure reapplied to the electric fuel pump fitting, and air was heard escaping from the inside of the fuselage fuel tank.

The airplane was lifted during its recovery and the propeller blades were found separated from their hub. The curved back of each propeller did not exhibit any chordwise abrasion. Sections of wooden ribs were found embedded in the ground scar under the upper wing leading edges. Examination of the engine revealed that a thumb compression was observed at all cylinders when the engine was rotated by hand. The propeller governor was separated from the engine case and its control cable remained attached. The engine control cables were traced from the cockpit to the engine. Three of the top sparkplugs were removed. The top no. 1 sparkplug was separated from its threaded base, its electrode was bent, and the electrode exhibited a normal appearance in reference to a Champion Check-A-Plug chart. Using the same chart, the top no. 2 sparkplug exhibited a normal appearance and the top no. 3 and no. 4 sparkplugs exhibited a worn out-normal appearance. Sparkplug wires were cut to remove the magnetos for testing. Both magnetos produced a spark at the end of all leads when the magnetos were rotated. The fuel screen within the fuel servo was inspected and it did not exhibit any debris. A blue colored liquid consistent with the smell of avgas exited the servo when the screen was accessed. The fuel distribution valve was disassembled and a liquid sheen consistent with the smell of avgas was observed within the valve. A liquid consistent with the smell of avgas exited a port on the engine driven fuel pump when its lever arm was manipulated by hand.

The Sheboygan County Coroner was asked to arrange for autopsies to be performed on the pilot and pilot-rated passenger and to take toxicological samples.

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