Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Cessna 182T, N147DD: Accident occurred August 12, 2017 at Clarke County Airport (23M), Quitman, Clarke County, Mississippi

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf 

Location: Quitman, MS
Accident Number: GAA17CA492
Date & Time: 08/12/2017, 1315 CDT
Registration: N147DD
Aircraft: CESSNA 182
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

Analysis 

The solo student pilot in the high-performance airplane reported that, before takeoff, he observed a "dead still" flag and windsock, indicating "no wind." He added that, during the takeoff roll, a wind gust pushed the airplane off the runway to the left. He added that he attempted to recover by reducing power, but the airplane impacted a ditch, the nose landing gear collapsed, and the airplane nosed over. He further added that the wind gust occurred after the airplane had "cleared" a large hill to the west of the runway.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the wings, fuselage, and empennage.

The student pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

A weather reporting station about 18 miles north of the airport reported that, between 1100 and 1320, the wind increased from calm to 8 knots, and no gusts were reported. The wind came predominately from the southwest. The airplane departed from runway 16, and the airport is located in an area of low rolling hills.

The Federal Aviation Administration's Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B, contained a section titled, "Effect of Obstructions on Wind," which stated, in part:

"Obstructions on the ground affect the flow of wind and can be an unseen danger. Ground topography and large buildings can break up the flow of the wind and create wind gusts that change rapidly in direction and speed. These obstructions range from man-made structures, like hangars, to large natural obstructions, such as mountains, bluffs, or canyons. It is especially important to be vigilant when flying in or out of airports that have large buildings or natural obstructions located near the runway.

The intensity of the turbulence associated with ground obstructions depends on the size of the obstacle and the primary velocity of the wind. This can affect the takeoff and landing performance of any aircraft and can present a very serious hazard." 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The student pilot's failure to maintain directional control during takeoff in gusting wind conditions after passing a large hill.

Findings

Aircraft
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Student pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Gusts - Effect on operation
Terrain - Effect on operation

Factual Information

History of Flight

Takeoff
Other weather encounter
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Attempted remediation/recovery
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT) 

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 54, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 02/14/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated) 80.9 hours (Total, all aircraft), 64.8 hours (Total, this make and model), 29.6 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 5.3 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1.6 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N147DD
Model/Series: 182 T
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2013
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18282367
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 08/04/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 271 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: C126 installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: IO-540-AB1A5
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 230 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KMEI, 310 ft msl
Observation Time: 1821 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 18 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 357°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 2600 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 31°C / 25°C
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 3500 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 7 knots, 240°
Visibility (RVR): 
Altimeter Setting: 29.98 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: HATTIESBURG, MS (HBG)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Quitman, MS (23M)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1230 CDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: CLARKE COUNTY (23M)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 321 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 16
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3295 ft / 59 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: None 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor
Latitude, Longitude: 32.040000, -88.728056 (est)

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Jackson, Mississippi

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N147DD

NTSB Identification: GAA17CA492
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Saturday, August 12, 2017 in Quitman, MS
Aircraft: CESSNA 182, registration: N147DD
Injuries: 1 Minor.

NTSB investigators used data provided by various entities, including, but not limited to, the Federal Aviation Administration and/or the operator and did not travel in support of this investigation to prepare this aircraft accident report.

The solo student pilot, in the high-performance airplane, reported that prior to takeoff, he observed a "dead still" flag and windsock, indicating "no wind." He added that, during the takeoff roll, a gust of wind pushed the airplane off the runway to the left. He added that he attempted to recover by reducing power, but the airplane impacted a ditch; the nose landing gear collapsed, and the airplane nosed over. He further added that the wind gust occurred after the airplane had "cleared" a large hill to the west of the runway.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the wings, fuselage, and empennage.

The student pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

A weather reporting station, about 18 miles north of the airport, reported between 1100 and 1320, the wind increased from calm to 8 knots, decreased after 1400, and no gusts were reported. The wind came predominately from the southwest. The airplane departed on runway 16, and the airport is located in an area of low rolling hills. 

The Federal Aviation Administration's Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B, contains a section titled "Effect of Obstructions on Wind" which stated in part:

Another atmospheric hazard exists that can create problems for pilots. Obstructions on the ground affect the flow of wind and can be an unseen danger. Ground topography and large buildings can break up the flow of the wind and create wind gusts that change rapidly in direction and speed. These obstructions range from man-made structures, like hangars, to large natural obstructions, such as mountains, bluffs, or canyons. It is especially important to be vigilant when flying in or out of airports that have large buildings or natural obstructions located near the runway.

The intensity of the turbulence associated with ground obstructions depends on the size of the obstacle and the primary velocity of the wind. This can affect the takeoff and landing performance of any aircraft and can present a very serious hazard.

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