Thursday, January 12, 2017

Cessna 182T Skylane, C-GTBI, registered to Falconair Ltd and operated by the pilot: Accident occurred January 11, 2017 at Green Bay-Austin Straubel International Airport (KGRB), Brown County, Wisconsin

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Falconair Ltd:  http://www.regosearch.com/GTBI

Location: Green Bay, WI
Accident Number: CEN17LA076
Date & Time: 01/11/2017, 1015 CST
Registration: C-GTBI
Aircraft: Cessna 182T
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Structural icing
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Business 

Analysis

The private pilot reported that, during a cross-country flight, the airplane encountered ice that began to accumulate on the wing and landing gear. He then attempted to divert to another airport. Subsequently, ice accumulated rapidly on the windshield and obscured the pilot's vision. The pilot maneuvered the airplane near the diversion airport for about 45 minutes; however, the weather deteriorated, so the pilot diverted to another airport. The pilot stated that, while attempting to land while looking out the side window, the airplane stalled about 30 ft above the ground, which resulted in a hard landing.

A review of weather information for the area where the reported icing encounter occurred revealed no probability of icing at the reported time and altitude of the encounter and only about a 10% chance of trace icing during the hour following the encounter. Based on the available information, the airplane likely encountered unforecast icing during the flight, which resulted in structural icing that obscured the pilot's vision and increased the airplane's stall speed. When the pilot attempted to land, the airplane stalled at a higher-than-expected speed, which resulted in a hard landing.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The airplane's encounter with unforecast icing conditions, which led to structural icing that obscured the pilot's vision, an aerodynamic stall, and a subsequent hard landing. 

Findings

Aircraft
Angle of attack - Capability exceeded (Cause)
Airspeed - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Environmental issues
Conducive to structural icing - Effect on equipment (Cause)
Conducive to structural icing - Effect on personnel (Cause)


Factual Information

On January 11, 2017, about 0913 central standard time (all times cst), a Cessna 182T bearing Canadian registration C-GTBI, was substantially damaged during landing on runway 18 at the Green Bay-Austin Straubel International Airport (GRB), Green Bay, Wisconsin, following an in-flight structural icing encounter. The pilot, who was the sole occupant, was not injured. The airplane incurred structural damage to the forward fuselage and firewall. The aircraft was registered to Falconair Ltd., and operated by the pilot under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a business flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the flight, which was not on a flight plan. The flight originated from Sawyer International Airport (SAW), Marquette, Michigan about 0505, with Falls International Airport-Einarson Field (INL), International Falls, Minnesota as the intended destination.

About 30 minutes into the flight, controllers advised the pilot that moderate icing was reported over Houghton County Memorial Airport (CMX), near Hancock, Michigan. The pilot advised controllers that he would alter his course more to the southwest. About one hour into the flight he noticed ice accumulation on the wing and landing gear and advised controllers that he wanted to divert the flight. He stated that heavier ice accumulation came on quickly and obscured his vision through the windshield.

The pilot diverted to Lakeland Airport/Noble F. Lee Memorial Field (ARV), near Woodruff, Wisconsin. He circled ARV in preparation for landing, but the weather conditions at ARV deteriorated to instrument meteorological conditions. He then advised controllers that he was proceeding south to reach visual meteorological conditions. He opted to land at GRB and received approach guidance from GRB approach controllers. He stated that when 30 ft above the runway, he applied flaps for landing, the airplane stalled, and a hard landing occurred.

Radar track data for the final portion of the accident flight showed the airplane made a left turn near Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, and proceeded on a south-southeast heading toward ARV at an altitude about 2,700 ft. above mean sea level (msl). The airplane maneuvered near ARV, at altitudes varying from 3,000 ft. msl to 1,900 ft. msl, for about 45 minutes before proceeding south. The airplane ultimately turned east toward GRB before making an approach to runway 18 at GRB.

Current Icing Potential (CIP) product information for the area where the pilot reported the icing encounter showed no icing at 3,000 ft. msl. The one-hour Forecast Icing Potential (FIP) icing forecast, valid at 0700 and applicable to 3,000 ft. msl, showed the icing severity as trace ice, an icing probability of about 10%, with the supercooled liquid drop potential as unknown.

For the same location and time, but at a higher altitude of 5,000 ft. msl, the CIP icing severity was light to moderate, the icing probability was 40-50%, with the supercooled liquid drop threat was unknown. The one-hour FIP icing forecast, valid at 0700 and applicable to 5,000 ft. msl, showed the icing severity as light, an icing probability of about 30%, with the supercooled liquid drop potential as unknown.

An Area Forecast that included the state of Wisconsin, Lake Superior and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan was issued at 0445. With regard to the approximate location of the accident aircraft's initial icing encounter: the portion of the Area Forecast directed toward the northwestern portion of Wisconsin forecasted overcast clouds at 3,000 ft msl with cloud tops to 25,000 ft., visibility of three statute miles, light snow; the portion of the Area Forecast directed toward the northeastern portion of Wisconsin forecasted overcast clouds at 6,000 ft. msl with cloud tops to 27,000 ft., broken clouds at 2,500 ft. msl beginning at 0700; the portion of the Area Forecast directed toward the western portion of Lake Superior and Upper Peninsula of Michigan forecasted overcast clouds at 2,000 ft. msl with cloud tops to 25,000 ft., visibility of three statute miles, scattered light snow showers. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 57, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Unknown
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 970 hours (Total, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: Cessna
Registration: C-GTBI
Model/Series: 182T T
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2005
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18281667
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection:  Unknown
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT:
Engine Model/Series: IO-540-AB1A5
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 230 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: GRB
Observation Time: 1553 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 0°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: -7°C / -11°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility: 10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 3 knots, 270°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 29.82 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: MARQUETTE, MI (SAW)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: VFR
Destination: INTERNATIONAL FALLS, MN (INL)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time:
Type of Airspace: Class C 

Airport Information

Airport: GREEN BAY-AUSTIN STRAUBEL INTL (GRB)
Runway Surface Type: Concrete
Airport Elevation: 694 ft
Runway Surface Condition:
Runway Used: 18
IFR Approach: ASR
Runway Length/Width: 8699 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing:  Full Stop; Precautionary Landing; Straight-in 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:  44.484722, -88.129722

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