Monday, April 18, 2022

Hard Landing: Cessna 182R Skylane, N9388X; accident occurred April 15, 2022 at Moton Field Municipal Airport (06A), Tuskegee, Macon County, Alabama










Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident. 

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Alabama and NW Florida

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:

Location: Tuskegee, Alabama 
Accident Number: ERA22LA197
Date and Time: April 15, 2022, 14:30 UTC
Registration: N9388X
Aircraft: Cessna 182R 
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Hard landing 
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Personal

Analysis

The pilot reported that while landing and during the landing flare, a gust of wind caused the airplane to drift off centerline and the nose to rise. The airplane ballooned, then subsequently bounced hard before ballooning a second time. The nose dropped sharply, and the pilot was unable to control the airplane before it struck the runway hard on the nose landing gear, causing the landing gear to collapse and fold back, which resulted in substantial damage to the engine compartment, firewall and underside of the airframe. The pilot stated that there were no pre accident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot’s inadequate compensation for the gusty crosswind wind conditions which resulted in a hard landing and subsequent nose gear collapse.

Findings

Aircraft Directional control - Not attained/maintained
Personnel issues Aircraft control - Pilot
Environmental issues Gusts - Response/compensation
Environmental issues Crosswind - Response/compensation

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-flare/touchdown Abnormal runway contact
Landing-flare/touchdown Hard landing (Defining event)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private 
Age: 38, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None 
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None 
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None 
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification: Class 2 Without waivers/limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: March 1, 2021
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: March 11, 2022
Flight Time: 68.2 hours (Total, all aircraft), 7 hours (Total, this make and model), 68.2 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 7.3 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 1.8 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna 
Registration: N9388X
Model/Series: 182R 
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1985 
Amateur Built:
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal 
Serial Number: 18268509
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: December 9, 2021 Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 31.4 Hrs 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 4667.8 Hrs
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91A installed, activated, aided in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-470-U36B
Registered Owner: 
Rated Power: 230 Horsepower
Operator: 
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual (VMC)
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: AUO,776 ft msl 
Distance from Accident Site: 16 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 09:56 Local 
Direction from Accident Site: 53°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility: 10 miles
Lowest Ceiling: None 
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 13 knots / 20 knots
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 100° 
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.21 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 19°C / 4°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Alabaster, AL (EET)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: VFR
Destination: Tuskegee, AL 
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 13:50 UTC
Type of Airspace: Class E

Airport Information

Airport: Moton Field Municipal Airport 06A
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 264 ft msl 
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 13/31
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 5005 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Straight-in

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None 
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries:
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: 
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None 
Latitude, Longitude: 32.460472,-85.680028

Location: Tuskegee, Alabama
Accident Number: ERA22LA197
Date and Time: April 15, 2022, 14:30 UTC
Registration: N9388X
Aircraft: Cessna 182R
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Other work use

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N9388X
Model/Series: 182R
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Amateur Built:
Operator:
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None
Operator Designator Code:

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: VMC
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: AUO,776 ft msl
Observation Time: 09:56 Local
Distance from Accident Site: 16 Nautical Miles
Temperature/Dew Point: 19°C /4°C
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 13 knots / 20 knots, 100°
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility: 10 miles
Altimeter Setting: 30.21 inches Hg 
Type of Flight Plan Filed: VFR
Departure Point: Alabaster, AL (EET)
Destination: Tuskegee, AL

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Unknown
Passenger Injuries:
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: 
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 32.460472,-85.680028 

Aircraft nose gear collapsed on landing. 

Date: 15-APR-22
Time: 15:00:00Z
Regis#: N9388X
Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Aircraft Model: 182
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: MINOR
Activity: PERSONAL
Flight Phase: LANDING (LDG)
Operation: 91
City: TUSKEGEE
State: ALABAMA

5 comments:

  1. I reckon they'll find a buckled firewall, too. I've flown the newer (2017) CAP Cessna 182 a few times, and I can tell you it's nose heavy and drops like a rock if your landing speed and flare marginal. Can almost guarantee you they flared, plane floated, then the nose dropped 10' onto the pavement. Just a guess....

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yep that was my first thought too. These fixed gear don't collapse on their own obviously. It's not just an easy transition to go from a 172 to a 182. It requires serious attention to the flare, and like you said if you get behind on the flare that nose will drop beyond recovery and there goes the bounce and nose gear/firewall damage.

      Delete
  2. Shocked, a CAP pilot willfully unprepared. It’s no longer anecdotal that every “squadron” has the same type of pilot. A 172 or 182 shouldn’t float 1000’+ down the runway in a flair. You’re not in an F16, why does every CAP outfit approach like they are?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I think it’s an instructor training issue. Allowing a newly minted 68 hr. pilot with 7 hrs. in a c182, and with less than 2 hours in the last 30 days, is not safe. I wonder who signed off the pilot?

      CAP needs to take a look at their training program and make improvements to prevent these unsafe flights. No insurance company would allow this type of risk. There are previous CAP incidents on this website that support my opinion.

      Delete
  3. Can’t help but be more than a little disappointed with CAP regarding this incident. When I reviewed the facts it looks like CAP turned loose a 68 hr. TT pilot,with 1.8 hrs in the last 30 days, in the hi performance C182. The CAP air safety investigator determined that the gusty conditions caused the accident. However, looking at the photos clearly shows the plane hit hard on the nose wheel, burying the front gear into the airframe. This type of accident happens very often with a low time trainee, often during first solo.

    The previous commenter is correct regarding the sign off of this pilot and oversight by an insurance company would have prevented this pilot from getting in over his head. There needs be some changes made to not allow this type of situation.

    ReplyDelete