Sunday, November 15, 2020

Loss of Control on Ground: Cessna 195, N195BG; accident occurred November 11, 2019 at Kalispell City Airport (S27), Flathead County, Montana

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Helena, Montana 

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:

Location: Kalispell, Montana 
Accident Number: GAA20CA070
Date & Time: November 11, 2019, 13:45 Local 
Registration: N195BG
Aircraft: Cessna 195 Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Personal


The pilot reported that, after a bounced landing, he maintained directional control and conducted a three-point landing back onto the runway. Shortly after, the airplane gradually veered left, but he overcorrected, and the airplane veered right. He corrected with left rudder control and was able to maintain the runway centerline, but as the airplane slowed, it veered left again. He corrected with right rudder and right brake, but the airplane continued left, exited the runway and skidded sideways, and the left landing gear collapsed. The airplane sustained substantial damage to the left wing. Postaccident examination by the pilot's mechanic revealed that there were no mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to maintain directional control during landing, which resulted in a runway excursion and the left main landing gear collapsing.


Aircraft Directional control - Not attained/maintained
Personnel issues Aircraft control - Pilot

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Landing Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial 
Age: 53,Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land; Single-engine sea; Multi-engine land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter 
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane; Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane multi-engine; Airplane single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With waivers/limitations 
Last FAA Medical Exam: August 1, 2019
Occupational Pilot: Yes 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: April 18, 2019
Flight Time: (Estimated) 4188 hours (Total, all aircraft), 52 hours (Total, this make and model), 3940 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 76 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 38 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 3 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Co-pilot Information

Age: Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land; Single-engine sea; Multi-engine land; Multiengine sea
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Glider
Restraint Used: 4-point
Instrument Rating(s): None 
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane multi-engine; Airplane single-engine; Gyroplane; Instrument airplane
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With waivers/limitations 
Last FAA Medical Exam: January 1, 2015
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna 
Registration: N195BG
Model/Series: 195 Undesignated
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1951 
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 7652
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3600 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: Jacobs
Engine Model/Series: L6
Registered Owner: 
Rated Power: 330 Horsepower
On file Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual (VMC)
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KGPI,2973 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 8 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 19:55 Local
Direction from Accident Site: 12°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear 
Visibility: 10 miles
Lowest Ceiling: None 
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: / 
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.53 inches Hg 
Temperature/Dew Point: -3°C / -11°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Kalispell, MT (S27 )
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Kalispell, MT (S27 ) 
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 12:40 Local 
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: Kalispell City S27
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 2932 ft msl
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 31 
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3600 ft / 60 ft 
VFR Approach/Landing: Full stop;Traffic pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None 
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 None 
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None 
Latitude, Longitude: 48.178611,-114.303611(est)


    Serial Number 7652 Status Cert Terminated or In Question

  2. I would say that with that big 330hp radial engine, and a big propeller the Cessna 195 probably has a lot of P-factor on the ground. All tailwheel aircraft exhibit some amount of P-factor, because of the greater angle of the propeller to vertical, but anybody with Cessna 195 experience is it worse?

    1. P-Factor is not a factor-the 195 has a relatively narrow track, and a high center of gravity as well as a springy gear. If the tailwheel gets outboard of the main gear during an excursion, you probably aren't going to bring it back. The high center of gravity will exacerbate the situation. Not to mention that the view to the left is good, while the view to the right is zero, and peripheral vision is almost non-existent due to the location of the wing. So you have far fewer visual cues when you get out of shape. Also, the pilot's seat is angled toward the centerline which doesn't help. Other than those factors, it's an easy plane to land. (Also either 300hp or 275)

    2. Great info, Thanks, I wondered about the visibility myself, of a 195 when on the ground. I have never flown or even sat in a 195, but they are beautiful planes.

  3. In 1949 the US Army began searching for a utility aircraft to replace the low performing Cessna 195/Cessna LC-126A. Chosen was the de Havilland Beaver powered by war surplus Pratt & Whitney Canada 450-hp, nine-cylinder radial R-985 Wasp Junior engines. The outbreak of the Korean War led to hundreds of military orders, followed by orders from around the globe and rest is history.


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