Sunday, January 14, 2018

Cessna 172 Skyhawk, N8856B: Accident occurred December 09, 2017 near Algona Municipal Airport (KAXA), Kossuth County, Iowa

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Ankeny, Iowa; Des Moines, Iowa

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N8856B

Location: Algona, IA
Accident Number: CEN18LA051
Date & Time: 12/09/2017, 0945 CST
Registration: N8856B
Aircraft: CESSNA 172C
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (total)
Injuries: 3 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

Analysis 

After takeoff for an instructional flight, when the airplane reached 1,800 ft mean sea level, the student pilot began a left turn toward the destination. Shortly after, the engine went silent and stopped producing power. The flight instructor took control, slowed the airplane, and landed into the wind on a gravel road. During the landing roll, the left wheel caught the edge of the road, and the airplane veered into a ditch, which resulted in substantial damage to the wing and fuselage.

Examination of the airplane revealed that the engine's No. 1 cylinder head had separated at the cylinder head-to-barrel interface. The engine had accumulated 605.9 hours since the last engine overhaul, which was conducted over 23 years before the accident. The engine manufacturer's recommended time between overhaul for the accident engine was 1,800 hours or 12 years. However, it could not be determined if the lack of an overhaul within the manufacturer's recommended overhaul period led to the No. 1 cylinder head separating at the cylinder head-to-barrel interface. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The No. 1 cylinder head separating at the cylinder head-to-barrel interface and the subsequent total loss of engine power.

Findings

Aircraft
Recip eng cyl section - Failure (Cause)

Recip eng cyl section - Fatigue/wear/corrosion (Cause)

On December 9, 2017, about 0945 central standard time, a Cessna 172C, N8856B, collided with a ditch during a forced landing after a complete loss of engine power during initial climb from the Algona Municipal Airport (AXA), Algona, Iowa. The pilot, student pilot, and passenger were not injured; and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was owned and operated by a private individual as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 instructional flight. Visual meteorological conditions existed near the accident site at the time of the flight, and a flight plan was not filed. The flight departed AXA about 0945 and was en route to the Eagle Grove Municipal Airport (EAG), Eagle Grove, Iowa.

The flight instructor reported that the student pilot was flying during takeoff from AXA. When the airplane reached 1,800 ft above mean sea level (msl), the student pilot began a left turn on course to EAG. Soon after the turn, the engine went silent and stopped producing power. The flight instructor took control, slowed the airplane, and landed into the wind on a gravel road. During the landing roll, the left wheel caught the edge of the road, and the airplane veered into the ditch, which resulted in substantial damage to the wing and fuselage.

The examination of the airplane revealed that the No. 1 cylinder head had separated at the cylinder head to barrel interface.

The airplane was a Cessna 172C manufactured in 1958. The engine was a 145-horsepower Continental O-300-C, serial number 3156-D-3-C, manufactured in 1958. The last annual inspection was conducted on July 15, 2017. The airplane had a total time of 6080.8 hours, and the engine had a total time of 2,351.8 hours. The engine had 605.9 hours since the last engine overhaul conducted on July 4, 1994.

The Continental Motors Service Information Letter SIL98-9C issued on November 17, 1998, states that the time between overhaul periods for the Continental O-300-C engine is limited to 1,800 hours or 12 years. 

History of Flight

Initial climb
Loss of engine power (total) (Defining event)

Landing
Off-field or emergency landing

Landing-landing roll
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 68, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine; Instrument Airplane
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 10/21/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 1800 hours (Total, all aircraft), 40 hours (Total, this make and model), 1620 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 89 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 35 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 5.4 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 54, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 10/27/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 12 hours (Total, all aircraft), 12 hours (Total, this make and model), 12 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 11 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 3 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N8856B
Model/Series: 172C
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1958
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 36556
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/15/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2299 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 6081 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:  as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: CONT MOTOR
ELT: C91A installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-300-C
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 145 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: AXA, 1216 ft msl
Observation Time: 0935 CST
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 0°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Temperature/Dew Point: -6°C / -10°C
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 2600 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 22 knots/ 28 knots, 330°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.08 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Precipitation
Departure Point: Algona, IA (AXA)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Eagle Grove, IA (EAG)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0945 CST
Type of Airspace: 

Airport Information

Airport: Algona Municipal Airport (AXA)
Runway Surface Type: Concrete
Airport Elevation: 1216 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 30
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3960 ft / 75 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Forced Landing 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 3 None

Latitude, Longitude:  43.078056, -94.271944 (est)

Location: Algona, IA
Accident Number: CEN18LA051
Date & Time: 12/09/2017, 0950 CST
Registration: N8856B
Aircraft: CESSNA 172
Injuries: 3 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

On December 9, 2017, about 0950 central standard time, a Cessna 172, N8856B, collided with a ditch during a forced landing after a complete loss of engine power during initial climb from the Algona Municipal Airport (AXA), Algona, Iowa. The pilot, student pilot, and passenger were not injured; and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was owned and being operated by a private individual as a 14 Code of Federal Regulation Part 91 instructional flight. Visual meteorological conditions existed near the accident site at the time of the flight, and a flight plan was not filed. The flight departed AXA about 0945 and was en route to the Eagle Grove Municipal Airport (EAG), Eagle Grove, Iowa.

At 0935, the surface weather observation at AXA was wind 330 degrees at 22 knots, gusting to 28 knots; 10 miles visibility; skies overcast at 2,600 feet; temperature -6 degrees C; dew point -8 degrees C; altimeter 30.06 inches of mercury. 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N8856B
Model/Series: 172
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Amateur Built:
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: AXA, 1216 ft msl
Observation Time: 0935 CST
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Temperature/Dew Point: -6°C / -10°C
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 22 knots/ 28 knots, 330°
Lowest Ceiling: Overcast / 2600 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Altimeter Setting: 30.08 inches Hg
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Departure Point: Algona, IA (AXA)
Destination: Eagle Grove, IA (EAG)

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 3 None
Latitude, Longitude: 43.078056, -94.271944 (est)

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