Saturday, November 28, 2020

Hard Landing: Cessna 172S Skyhawk, N103VK; accident occurred August 18, 2020 at Phoenix Deer Valley Airport (KDVT), Arizona

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board

Additional Participating Entity: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Scottsdale, Arizona

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:

Westwind School of Aeronautics Phoenix LLC

Location: Phoenix, Arizona
Accident Number: WPR20CA293
Date & Time: August 18, 2020, 12:00 Local 
Registration: N103VK
Aircraft: Cessna 172 
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Hard landing
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Instructional 


The pilot receiving instruction reported that, while practicing a short field landing, he misjudged the touch down location, flared early and the airplane landed hard. The flight instructor reported that, he warned the pilot to maintain his pitch attitude, but he continued to flare and the airplane landed hard. The airplane sustained substantial damage to the fuselage aft of the nose wheel.

The flight instructor reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's improper pitch attitude and landing flare, which resulted in a hard landing. Contributing to the accident was the flight instructors delayed remedial action. 


Aircraft Landing flare - Not attained/maintained
Aircraft Pitch control - Not attained/maintained
Personnel issues Aircraft control - Pilot
Personnel issues Monitoring other person - Instructor/check pilot
Personnel issues Delayed action - Instructor/check pilot

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing Miscellaneous/other
Landing-flare/touchdown Hard landing (Defining event)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 20,Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land 
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane 
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None 
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 With waivers/limitations 
Last FAA Medical Exam: June 19, 2019
Occupational Pilot: No 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated) 205 hours (Total, all aircraft), 205 hours (Total, this make and model), 109 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 62 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 15 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Flight instructor Information

Certificate: Commercial; Flight instructor 
Age: 30,Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land 
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s):
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane single-engine
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With waivers/limitations 
Last FAA Medical Exam: June 1, 2019
Occupational Pilot: Yes 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: July 24, 2019
Flight Time: (Estimated) 639 hours (Total, all aircraft), 328 hours (Total, this make and model), 563 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 74 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 49 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna 
Registration: N103VK
Model/Series: 172 S 
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2000
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal; Utility 
Serial Number: 172S8532
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: August 7, 2020 100 hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2558 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 35.3 Hrs
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 4369.7 Hrs at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91 installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: IO-360-L2A
Registered Owner: 
Rated Power: 180 Horsepower
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Pilot school (141)

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual (VMC) 
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KDVT,1455 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 19:53 Local 
Direction from Accident Site: 129°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear 
Visibility: 10 miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 7 knots / 
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 230° 
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.93 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 42°C / 9°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Phoenix, AZ (DVT)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Phoenix, AZ (DVT) 
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 11:00 Local
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information

Airport: Phoenix Deer Valley DVT
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1478 ft msl 
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 07R
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 8196 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Touch and go;Traffic pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries:
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A 
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None 
Latitude, Longitude: 33.688331,-112.082496(est)

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