Sunday, December 08, 2019

System/Component Malfunction/Failure (Non-Power): Cessna T210M Turbo Centurion II, N1237M; accident occurred January 06, 2019 at Bishop International Airport (KFNT), Flint, Genesee County, Michigan

Front view of airplane on runway.
Federal Aviation Administration

Rear view of airplane on runway.
Federal Aviation Administration

Nose landing gear well with leaking hydraulic hose.
Federal Aviation Administration

Close view of degraded hydraulic hose.
Federal Aviation Administration

Hydraulic fluid dipstick.

Federal Aviation Administration

The National Transportation Safety Board not travel to the scene of this accident.

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Belleville, Michigan

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:

Location: Flint, MI
Accident Number: CEN19LA059
Date & Time: 01/06/2019, 1640 EST
Registration: N1237M
Aircraft: Cessna T210
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Sys/Comp malf/fail (non-power)
Injuries: 4 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

On January 6, 2019, about 1640 eastern standard time, a Cessna T210 airplane, N1237M, experienced an unsafe landing gear indication and landed with the gear partially extended at Bishop International Airport (FNT), Flint, Michigan. The private pilot and 3 passengers were not injured, and the airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to Fly Happy LLC and operated by the pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident and a flight plan was not filed. The flight originated from Clare Municipal Airport (48D), Clare, Michigan, about 1600, and was destined for FNT.

The pilot reported that after departure from 48D he raised the landing gear handle and the gear motor continued to operate longer than normal with an abnormal sound toward the end of the retract sequence. The right main gear did not fully retract and hung about 45° rearward; the left main gear was not visible from the pilot's vantage. The pilot troubleshot the issue for 20 to 25 minutes by completing the emergency procedure checklists, but the landing gear did not respond. At some point during the pilot's troubleshooting, the nose landing gear fully extended. The pilot continued the flight to FNT and declared an emergency with air traffic control (ATC). Before landing the pilot attempted to extend the landing gear but was only able to get the nose gear to extend. During a flyby ATC confirmed that both main landing gear were not extended.

During the emergency landing at FNT, the nose gear remained extended and the two main gear were partially retracted. The airplane spun about 180° and came to rest on the runway (figure 1).

Figure 1. Accident airplane on runway

The responding Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector completed a postaccident examination of the airplane and provided oversight for a functional test of the landing gear system. The examination revealed the nose gear well partially covered in red hydraulic fluid, no hydraulic fluid observed on the corresponding dipstick, and a damaged nose gear door actuator hydraulic hose, part number (p/n) S2178-4-0095A (figure 2).

Figure 2. Damaged hydraulic hose

To facilitate a functional test of the hydraulic system, the airplane was raised on jack stands and about 16 ounces of hydraulic fluid was added to the hydraulic reservoir. The emergency gear extension handle was actuated in attempt to extend the main landing gear before preforming the full functional test. After 10 to 12 pumps, hydraulic fluid sprayed from the damaged hydraulic hose. There was no resistance felt from the emergency handle during actuation. The hydraulic system was unable to build pressure so the functional test was terminated. The damaged hose was replaced with a new hose and the functional test was resumed. With the new hose installed, the emergency handle was actuated and the main landing gear extended and locked without anomaly.

A review of the airplane's maintenance records revealed that the last annual inspection was completed on September 9, 2018, at 3,840.2 hours total airframe time. The airplane accumulated 32.8 hours since the annual inspection with no hydraulic hose or landing gear discrepancies noted. The nose gear door actuator hose was first replaced in October 1977, and then replaced again on April 4, 1996, at 2,059.2 hours total time. The airplane had accumulated 1,813.4 hours total time since the hydraulic hose was replaced.

The airplane manufacturer's inspection guidelines are to perform a functional test and inspect the landing gear system every 200 hours. The maintenance manual states, "Each 5 years, overhaul all retraction and brake system components. Check for wear and replace all rubber packings and backups and hydraulic hoses." This maintenance requirement applied to this airplane. Additional guidance associated with the inspection was Cessna service newsletter, SNL85-54, issued during November 1985, which changed the 5-year overhaul/replacement requirement to an "on condition" overhaul/replacement interval based on part numbers involved. The damaged hose, p/n S2178-4-0095A, was considered an "on condition" component and could be replaced based on its condition at the time of maintenance.

In 1992, the airplane manufacturer released Cessna service bulletin, SEB92-8, that called for the replacement of all S2178-4 hydraulic hoses with p/n S2888-4-0095. According to available maintenance documentation, the airplane was never equipped with the updated hydraulic hose. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 54, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine; Instrument Airplane
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/26/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 09/30/2017
Flight Time:  1877 hours (Total, all aircraft), 309 hours (Total, this make and model), 1762 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 22 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 7 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N1237M
Model/Series: T210 M
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1977
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 21061927
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 6
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 09/05/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 4000 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3873 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Continental Motors
ELT: C126 installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: TSIO-520-R
Registered Owner: Fly Happy LLC
Rated Power: 310 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KFNT, 766 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time:1653 EST 
Direction from Accident Site: 115°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 9 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: /
Wind Direction: 40°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: /
Altimeter Setting: 30.32 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 1°C / -6°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Clare, MI (48D)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Flint, MI (FNT)
Type of Clearance: VFR; VFR Flight Following
Departure Time: 1600 EST
Type of Airspace: Class C

Airport Information

Airport: Bishop Intl (FNT)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 782 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 09
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 7201 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Traffic Pattern 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 3 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 4 None
Latitude, Longitude: 42.969167, -83.755278 (est)

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