Saturday, February 16, 2019

Loss of Control on Ground: Cessna 182T Skylane, C-GBFY, accident occurred July 05, 2017 at Jackson County Airport (KJXN), Michigan

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Belleville, Michigan

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


Location: Jackson, MI
Accident Number: CEN17LA257
Date & Time: 07/05/2017, 1655 EDT
Registration: CGBFY
Aircraft: CESSNA 182T
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

Analysis 

The private pilot was conducting a cross-country flight and was performing a stop-and-go landing at an interim airport. After landing, he fully retracted the flaps. During the subsequent takeoff roll, the pilot had the pilot-rated passenger extend the flaps to 10°, and the airplane began to porpoise and then impacted terrain.

Postaccident examination of the airplane revealed no evidence of any preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures that would have precluded normal operation. During the examination, the nose pitch trim was found in the full nose-down position. Full nose-down pitch trim would have increased the pitch control forces needed to counteract the nose-down pitching tendencies of the airplane when the flaps were initially extended. (Initial flap deflections of up to 15° while moving can cause the airplane to balloon and create nose-down pitching tendencies.) Thus, the combination of the full nose-down pitch trim and the extension of the flaps during the takeoff roll would have required increased pitch control inputs to maintain airplane control. It is likely the pilot did not make such inputs and that this resulted in his loss of pitch control during the attempted takeoff. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to maintain pitch control during the takeoff roll during an attempted takeoff. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's selection of takeoff flaps after he began the takeoff roll.

Findings

Aircraft
Pitch control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)
Incorrect action performance - Pilot (Factor)


Factual Information

On July 5, 2017, at 1655 eastern daylight time, a Cessna 182T, C-GBFY, impacted the runway surface when it porpoised during the takeoff roll of a stop-and-go landing on runway 14 at Jackson County Airport-Reynolds Field (JXN), Jackson, Michigan. The airplane sustained substantial damage. The pilot and pilot-rated passenger were uninjured. The airplane was operated by Brampton Flight Centre under 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a training flight that was not operating on a flight plan. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident. The flight was departing at the time of the accident.

The pilot and pilot-rated passenger were both students of a pilot training program by Brampton Flight Centre, located in Caledon, Ontario. The purpose of the flight was for the pilot to accrue flight time toward the issuance of a Transport Canada commercial pilot license. The flight originated from Brampton Flight Center about 1300 and was destined to JXN. After arrival at JXN, the flight was to continue to Gary/Chicago International Airport (GYY), Gary, Indiana.

According to a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector from the Detroit (East Michigan) Flight Standards District Office, when the airplane arrived at JXN it touched down near the runway 14 numbers with heavy braking consistent with a short field landing and then took off, for a stop-and-go, on runway 14 (4,000 ft by 100 ft, asphalt), which had 80-foot trees about 2,600 ft from the runway departure end.

The pilot submitted three National Transportation Safety Board Accident Pilot/Operator Accident/Incident Reports, form 6120.1, dated from July 12 – July 14, 2017. Each submission followed a conversation that the pilot had with FAA inspector(s), in which the FAA presented their investigative findings to the pilot.

The pilot stated in his initial submission of form 6120.1, that he began the takeoff roll and called out "full power confirmed, temperature pressure in the green, airspeed alive." After reaching the rotate speed of 55 knots, the airplane attained liftoff and climbed to an altitude of about 50 ft above ground level before it was unable to climb higher and remained level for about a second. The pilot said that there was no change in airplane attitude that would have been indicative of an aerodynamic stall. He noted that there was a "transient failure" of several Primary Flight Display instruments (red X's over instruments that would not be operational with an inoperative engine but with the battery on). The airplane pitched down and landed nose wheel first despite his attempt to flare. He determined that attempting a landing off the runway would have resulted in an incursion with the trees or vehicular traffic. He set engine power to idle after the first porpoise and flared the airplane to touch down as smoothly as possible after the first porpoise. Upon initial touchdown, the airplane porpoised approximately three times before the pilot regained control and stopped the airplane near the end of the runway. The pilot stated that the engine continued to operate throughout the entire accident sequence, and that he taxied the airplane off the runway, and the engine was shut down after requested to do so by air traffic control.

The initial submission of form 6120 had the pilot's recommendation of how the accident could have been prevented. He stated that the Cessna 182T is nose heavy, and that he had witnessed hard landings in the airplane because of landing with the engine at idle power. He stated that if the airplane lands with idle power in normal conditions, the nose will drop first with a more rapid descent in comparison to a Cessna 172. He added that if a Cessna 182T were to lose engine power at a low altitude after takeoff, it would porpoise as the nose would drop aggressively; something he had seen when practicing forced landing approaches or power idle descents in the airplane.

On July 13, 2017, FAA inspectors examined the airplane and found that the Garmin 1000 multi-function display did not have an inserted SD memory card. A review of the available maintenance records did not show the aircraft had been updated for the installation of an SD memory card. The nose pitch trim was found in the full-down position. Inspectors applied airplane's battery power and actuated the nose pitch trim through its travel limits and noted that it functioned without anomaly. When one-half of the pitch trim's split-toggle control switch, which was mounted on the pilot's control yoke, was actuated, the trim would not engage, consistent with proper functioning of the control switch. The elevator and ailerons were moved using the pilots (left seat) yoke, which confirmed proper movement of the controls from stop to stop without any evidence of binding or excessive control force.

After FAA inspector(s) told the pilot that a post-accident examination of the airplane found the nose trim was found in the full nose-down position, the pilot submitted a second form 6120.1 in which he stated that the autopilot was confirmed to be in the off position twice before landing at JXN and was not engaged for the accident takeoff. The pilot's recommendation in his second submission was he would personally recommend that the electric trim and autopilot be removed. He stated that the trim has a history of running away with the autopilot sometimes performing un-commanded maneuvers and by luck it had happened at high altitudes where recovery was possible; it is a hazard to a pilot who may not be able to recognize it quickly. He said the this was pertinent because the airplane is used by student pilots who may not have the same level of situational awareness just yet.

On July 14, 2017, the pilot-rated passenger stated after the airplane came to a full stop, the pilot asked her to retract the wing flaps from 30° to 0°. A full stop was complete, the pilot asked the pilot-rated passenger to retract the flaps to 0°, from 30°. After "deemed all clear for takeoff", full power was applied. The pilot called gauges green, airspeed alive, airspeed in the green, and rotate; the pilot-rated passenger "observed that the calls were correct." During the takeoff roll, the pilot asked for the flaps to be extended to 10°, the pilot-rated passenger was unsure when the flaps locked into place. The pilot-rated passenger had no recollection of the pitch trim being adjusted, after landing and following the accident, from a full nose-down position.

On July 18, 2017, the pilot provided a statement to the FAA stating that he did not know the cause of the accident and that his "previous suggestions of runaway trim and power loss are my perceptions at the time of the accident; not personally substantiated."

On July 19, 2017, a post-accident examination of the airplane was performed by an airframe and power plant mechanic with inspection authorization under the supervision of the FAA. Flight control continuity, tension, and freedom was confirmed. The control surface deflections for the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim tab, and wing flaps were within limits specified in the airplane's type certificate data sheet. The examination of the Auto Pilot Preflight Self Test performed per 182T NAV III Skylane Information Manual, Supplement 3, pages S3-22 to S3-26. No discrepancies were noted with the autopilot system during the examination. Engine compression from all cylinders was confirmed. Ignition timing was within the engine's type certificate data sheet specifications. Fuel samples taken from the fuel sump drains and header tank revealed no fuel contamination. The engine fuel injector flow and volume were tested, and no anomalies were noted. Examination of the propeller governor adjustment revealed no anomalies.

The Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3B) stated, in part:

"Flap extension has a definite effect on the airplane's pitch behavior. The increased camber from flap deflection produces lift primarily on the rear portion of the wing. This produces a nose-down pitching moment; however, the change in tail loads from the downwash deflected by the flaps over the horizontal tail has a significant influence on the pitching moment. …

Flap deflection of up to 15° primarily produces lift with minimal drag. The airplane has a tendency to balloon up with initial flap deflection because of the lift increase. The nose down pitching moment, however, tends to offset the balloon." 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Foreign; Private
Age: 23, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Glider
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification:  Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 01/06/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 06/19/2017
Flight Time:  278 hours (Total, all aircraft), 37 hours (Total, this make and model), 150 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 77 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 10 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 4 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Pilot-Rated Passenger Information

Certificate:
Age: , Female
Airplane Rating(s):
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s):
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s):
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s):
Toxicology Performed:
Medical Certification:
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 
Flight Time: 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: CESSNA
Registration: CGBFY
Model/Series: 182T
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2004
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal; Utility
Serial Number: 18281413
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 05/25/2017, AAIP
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3100 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 1490.4 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: IO-540-AB1A5
Registered Owner: Brampton Flying Club
Rated Power: 230 hp
Operator: Brampton Flight Centre
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan


Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: JXN, 1001 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1556 EDT
Direction from Accident Site:
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 4 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 120°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.12 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 28°C / 11°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point:  Port Huron, MI (PHN)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Jackson, MI (JXN)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 1655 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information


Airport: Jackson County Airport-Reynold (JXN)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1001 ft
Runway Surface Condition:
Runway Used: 14
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 4000 ft / 100 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Stop and Go

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: On-Ground
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude: 42.260556, -84.460556 (est)

NTSB Identification: CEN17LA257
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Wednesday, July 05, 2017 in Jackson, MI
Aircraft: CESSNA 182T, registration: CGBFY
Injuries: 2 Uninjured.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On July 5, 2017, at 1655 eastern daylight time, a Cessna 182T, C-GBFY, impacted the runway surface when it porpoised during the takeoff phase of a stop-and-go landing on runway 14 at Jackson County Airport-Reynolds Field (JXN), Jackson, Michigan. The airplane sustained substantial damage. The pilot and a pilot-rated passenger were uninjured. The airplane was operated by Brampton Flight Centre under 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a training flight that was not operating on a flight plan. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident. The flight was originating at the time of the accident.

Post-accident examination of the airplane revealed that the pitch trim was in the full nose-down position, and there were no mechanical anomalies that would have precluded normal operation. The pilot-rated passenger stated that the flaps were selected to 10-degrees during the takeoff roll.

1 comment:

oilburner said...

The POH in my 2004 C-T182T recommends 10 deg of flaps to be selected for takeoff; and that the flaps to be set prior to releasing brakes. In flight, such as on climbout, a noticeable pitch trim is required when retracting the flaps. I would never think moving the flaps while on takeoff roll is proper.