Saturday, May 19, 2018

Piper PA-22-135 Tri-Pacer, N2591A: Accident occurred August 14, 2017 near Panola County Airport (4F2), Texas


The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Irving, Texas
Lycoming Engines; Williamsport, Pennsylvania 

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


http://registry.faa.gov/N2591A



Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board


Location: Beckville, TX
Accident Number: CEN17LA317
Date & Time: 08/14/2017, 1017 CDT
Registration: N2591A
Aircraft: PIPER PA22
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (partial)
Injuries: 1 Minor
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Aerial Observation 

On August 14, 2017, about 1017 central daylight time, a Piper PA22-135 airplane, N2591A, was substantially damaged during a forced landing following a partial loss of engine power near Beckville, Texas. The pilot sustained minor injuries. The airplane was registered to and operated by private individuals as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed. The flight was not operated on a flight plan. The pipeline surveillance flight originated from Cypress River Airport (24F), Jefferson, Texas, about 0800. The intended destination was the Gladewater Municipal Airport (07F), Gladewater, Texas.

The pilot reported fueling the airplane at 24F before departing on his planned pipeline surveillance route. About 2 hours into the flight, en route to 07F, the engine began running rough. He initially established a course to Panola County Airport (4F2) about 8 miles away. However, the engine was not producing enough power to maintain altitude. He subsequently executed a forced landing to a pasture, which resulted in substantial damage to the left wing.

A postaccident engine examination revealed that the no. 3 cylinder exhaust valve fractured at the stem seat. The intake valve appeared intact. The cylinder walls exhibited impact and scraping marks consistent with secondary damage from the separated exhaust valve head. The piston had fractured at several locations; the features appeared consistent with overstress fractures. The piston crown exhibited multiple impact marks similar to the cylinder walls.

Metallurgical examination revealed that the fracture surface on the separated valve head was obliterated consistent with secondary mechanical damage after separation from the stem. The mating fracture surface on the stem was relatively undamaged. The fracture features were consistent with torsional loading at fracture. The stem was tapered adjacent to the fracture, and interconnected voids were observed at the fracture surface. Surface oxidation, sub-surface intergranular oxidation and deposits of lead-based compounds were also observed. The presence of the voids, the tapering of the stem, and the oxidation are consistent with high-temperature deformation under stress. Further examination revealed grain structure and sub-surface oxidation consistent with exposure to elevated temperatures over an extended period of time.

The available airplane maintenance records included an entry, dated April 5, 1968, that noted: "major overhaul of engine this date;" the associated tachometer time was 1,153 hours. No subsequent entries regarding an engine overhaul were observed in the records. The most recent annual inspection was completed on April 22, 2017, at 1,770.4 hours tachometer time. The current owner purchased the airplane on April 23, 2017. The most recent engine maintenance consisted of an oil change on August 1, 2017. The tachometer indicated 1,986.5 hours at the accident site.

The engine manufacturer recommended time between overhaul (TBO) was 1,500 hours operating time or 12 calendar years. Federal Aviation Administration regulations do not require Part 91 operators to comply with an engine manufacturer's TBO interval provided the engine meets annual inspection requirements.



Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 60, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/18/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 06/26/2016
Flight Time:  5941 hours (Total, all aircraft), 203 hours (Total, this make and model), 240 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 70 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: PIPER
Registration: N2591A
Model/Series: PA22 135
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1952
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 22-876
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 04/22/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2000 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 216 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 1986 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-290-D2
Registered Owner: Steve Chance
Rated Power: 135 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: GGG, 365 ft msl
Observation Time: 0953 CDT
Distance from Accident Site: 20 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 323°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 1000 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 27°C / 26°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  8 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 8 knots, 230°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 29.91 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Jefferson, TX (24F)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Gladewater, TX (07F)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 0800 CDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor
Latitude, Longitude:  32.243611, -94.455833 (est)




NTSB Identification: CEN17LA317
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Monday, August 14, 2017 in Beckville, TX
Aircraft: PIPER PA 22-135, registration: N2591A
Injuries: 1 Minor.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On August 14, 2017, about 1017 central daylight time, a Piper PA22-135 airplane, N2591A, was substantially damaged during a forced landing following a partial loss of engine power near Beckville, Texas. The pilot sustained minor injuries. The airplane was registered to and operated by private individuals as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed. The flight was not operated on a flight plan. The pipeline surveillance flight originated from Cypress River Airport (24F), Jefferson, Texas, about 0800. The intended destination was the Gladewater Municipal Airport (07F), Gladewater, Texas.

The pilot reported fueling the airplane at 24F before departing on his planned pipeline surveillance route. About 2 hours into the flight, en route to 07F, the engine partially lost power. His efforts to restore full power were unsuccessful. Unable to maintain flight, the pilot executed a forced landing to a pasture. A detailed examination of the airplane is planned after recovery from the accident site.

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