Thursday, February 8, 2018

Piper PA-24-260 Comanche, rental airplane registered to Vic's Aircraft Sales LLC and operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight, N9360P: Accident occurred February 07, 2018 at Hector International Airport (KFAR), Fargo, Cass County, North Dakota

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration; Fargo, North Dakota 

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket- National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms



Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

http://registry.faa.gov/N9360P

Location: Fargo, ND
Accident Number: CEN18LA097
Date & Time: 02/07/2018, 1800 CST
Registration: N9360P
Aircraft: PIPER PA 24-260
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Electrical system malf/failure
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis 

The private pilot taxied the airplane to the airport jet center to pick up a passenger for a personal flight. When leaving the jet center, the airplane's engine did not start. A ground power unit was used to charge the airplane's battery to start the engine. The pilot verified that the battery was charging.

The pilot then taxied the airplane to the runway and performed an engine run-up but did not verify before takeoff that the battery was fully charged by checking the ammeter indication. After departure and after raising the landing gear, the pilot realized that he did not receive a radio call from the tower controller and noticed that all of the radios were inoperative, which indicated a loss of electrical power. The pilot subsequently re-entered the traffic pattern and rocked the airplane's wings to provide an indication to the tower controller of the radio difficulties. The controller provided a green light to indicate that the airplane was cleared to land, and the pilot used normal procedures for the landing. However, due to the loss of electrical power, the pilot initiated an emergency gear extension but was unable to remove the cover plate over the emergency gear handle. The pilot then bent the cover back, placed the emergency extension rod into the right hole on the torque tube, and rocked the rod back and forth. The pilot checked the mirror on the airplane's wing tip, and the landing gear appeared to be down. When the airplane touched down on the runway, the landing gear collapsed, and the airplane slid off the runway and impacted a runway sign, causing substantial damage to the airplane.

The pilot did not use the emergency procedures in the airplane flight manual or abbreviated checklist to properly extend the gear despite being trained to do so. An examination of the electrical system revealed that a faulty alternator caused the electrical failure and that the battery was not fully charged before takeoff.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to use the published emergency procedures to manually extend the landing gear when an electrical failure precluded normal extension of the landing gear, resulting in the gear collapse during landing. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's failure to ensure, before takeoff, that the battery was fully charged after its depletion due to a faulty alternator.

Findings

Aircraft
Gear extension and retract sys - Incorrect use/operation (Cause)
Battery/charger - Failure (Factor)
AC generator-alternator - Failure (Factor)

Personnel issues
Use of checklist - Pilot (Cause)

Preflight inspection - Pilot (Factor)

Factual Information

On February 7, 2018, about 1800 central standard time, a Piper PA-24-260 airplane, N9360P, had a runway excursion when its landing gear collapsed during landing on runway 18 at the Hector International Airport (FAR), near Fargo, North Dakota. The pilot and passenger were uninjured. The airplane sustained substantial wing damage when it contacted a runway sign. The rental airplane was registered to Vic's Aircraft Sales LLC and operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight. Dusk light visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident, and the flight was not operated on a flight plan. The local flight originated from FAR about 1740.

In an interview with a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector, the pilot reported that he'd taxied the airplane to the Jet Center to pick up a passenger. When leaving the Jet Center, the airplane's engine would not start. A ground power unit was used to start the airplane's engine. The pilot ran the airplane's engine in an attempt to charge the battery and verified the charging system by checking the ammeter. The pilot taxied the airplane out to the runway and performed a run-up; however, he did not verify the ammeter indication before takeoff.

After departure, the pilot noticed that he did not receive a radio call from the tower controller and saw that all the radios were inoperative. He subsequently re-entered the traffic pattern at FAR and rocked the airplane's wings to indicate to the tower controller that he was experiencing radio difficulties. The controller gave him a green light to land and the pilot selected the gear down using normal procedures, and then due to the electrical failure, initiated the emergency gear extension. The pilot was unable to remove the cover plate over the emergency gear handle, so he bent the cover back. He then placed the emergency extension rod into the right hole on the torque tube and rocked the rod back and forth. The pilot checked the mirror on the wing tip and the landing gear appeared to be down. On touchdown on the runway, the landing gear collapsed, and the airplane slid off the runway where it impacted a runway sign.

The pilot was not able to see the emergency gear extension instruction printed inside the cover plate as he could not open it, and he did not use the emergency procedures in the airplane flight manual or abbreviated check list to properly extend the gear.

According to the flight instructor who conducted the pilot's checkout in the accident airplane, he'd explained to the pilot how the electrical system fails to charge a battery that has gone completely dead even when you use external power start the engine. The instructor further explained that "for the battery to be charged by the alternator you first need to get at least a minimal charge in the battery to provide enough voltage to open the field for the electricity from the alternator to flow to the battery to fully charge it."

The instructor also explained the emergency landing gear extension and how it would require a mechanic to reset the gear. Once the emergency landing gear extension had been accomplished the pilot cannot retract the gear. The instructor and pilot then pulled the floor panel for the landing gear and visually discussed the landing gear and emergency gear extension for a second time. This included pulling the removable extension handle from its position and demonstrating how it inserted into the socket. The instructor advised that the pilot would feel a positive movement and physical locking of the gear into place when the emergency procedure was completed. He pointed out that during an electrical failure, the pilot would not have a gear down light illuminated but there was the mirror on the left wing that would show at least two of the gear down.

An FAA inspector interviewed a mechanic that troubleshot the aircraft electrical system following the accident. It was determined that the alternator was the cause of the electrical charging failure and that the battery was not fully charged before takeoff. 

History of Flight

Enroute
Electrical system malf/failure (Defining event)

Landing
Landing gear collapse

Landing-landing roll
Runway excursion

Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 18, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Lap Only
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 02/10/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 111 hours (Total, all aircraft), 5.7 hours (Total, this make and model), 29.5 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 12.3 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 0.3 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: PIPER
Registration: N9360P
Model/Series: PA 24-260
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1969
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 24-4860
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection:  Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 3200 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: TIO-540-D4A5
Registered Owner: VIC'S AIRCRAFT SALES LLC
Rated Power: 260 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Dusk
Observation Facility, Elevation: KFAR, 899 ft msl
Observation Time: 1757 CST
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 37°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: -16°C / -20°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility : 10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 4 knots, 190°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.3 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Fargo, ND (FAR)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Fargo, ND (FAR)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 1740 CST
Type of Airspace:

Airport Information

Airport: HECTOR INTL (FAR)
Runway Surface Type: Concrete
Airport Elevation: 901 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 18
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 9001 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude:  46.920556, -96.815833 (est)