Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Piper PA-28-181 Archer, N915PA, registered to Bird Acquisition LLC and operated by TransPac Aviation Academy: Accident occurred August 14, 2017 -and- Incident occurred June 12, 2017 at Chandler Municipal Airport (KCHD), Maricopa County, Arizona

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Location: Chandler, AZ 
Accident Number: GAA17CA487
Date & Time: 08/14/2017, 0758 MST
Registration: N915PA
Aircraft: PIPER PA28
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

Analysis 

The solo student pilot reported that, after completing three takeoffs and landings unassisted with his flight instructor, he took off for his first solo. He added that, during the first solo landing, the airplane "floated" in ground effect for about 4 to 5 seconds, and he added rudder to align the airplane with the runway centerline. He further added that the airplane's nosewheel was "not straight when it touched [down]" on the runway. Subsequently, the student pilot applied brake to maintain directional control and then applied power to abort the landing, but the airplane veered off the runway to the right. He then reduced power to idle and stopped the airplane in the grass next to the runway and awaited instructions from air traffic control.

The left wing sustained substantial damage.

The student pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The student pilot's failure to maintain directional control during landing. 

Findings

Aircraft
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Student pilot (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Attempted remediation/recovery
Runway excursion 

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 21, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/19/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated) 31 hours (Total, all aircraft), 31 hours (Total, this make and model), 31 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 3 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: PIPER
Registration: N915PA
Model/Series: PA28 181
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1999
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 2843304
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 08/11/2017, AAIP
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2550 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 18932 Hours
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: C91A installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-360-A4M
Registered Owner: BIRD ACQUISITION LLC
Rated Power: 180 hp
Operator: TransPac Aviation Academy
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Pilot School (141)

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KCHD, 1243 ft msl
Observation Time: 1447 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 0°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 12000 ft agl
Temperature/Dew Point: 30°C / 18°C
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 7 knots, 130°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 29.87 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Chandler, AZ (CHD)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Chandler, AZ (CHD)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 0748 MST
Type of Airspace: Class D 

Airport Information

Airport: CHANDLER MUNI (CHD)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 1243 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 04L
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 4401 ft / 75 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Stop and Go; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 33.269167, -111.811111 (est)

Preventing Similar Accidents 

Stay Centered: Preventing Loss of Control During Landing

Loss of control during landing is one of the leading causes of general aviation accidents and is often attributed to operational issues. Although most loss of control during landing accidents do not result in serious injuries, they typically require extensive airplane repairs and may involve potential damage to nearby objects such as fences, signs, and lighting.

Often, wind plays a role in these accidents. Landing in a crosswind presents challenges for pilots of all experience levels. Other wind conditions, such as gusting wind, tailwind, variable wind, or wind shifts, can also interfere with pilots’ abilities to land the airplane and maintain directional control.

What can pilots do?

Evaluate your mental and physical fitness before each flight using the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) “I'M SAFE Checklist." Being emotionally and physically ready will help you stay alert and potentially avoid common and preventable loss of control during landing accidents.

Check wind conditions and forecasts often. Take time during every approach briefing to fully understand the wind conditions. Use simple rules of thumb to help (for example, if the wind direction is 30 degrees off the runway heading, the crosswind component will be half of the total wind velocity).

Know your limitations and those of the airplane you are flying. Stay current and practice landings on different runways and during various wind conditions. If possible, practice with a flight instructor on board who can provide useful feedback and techniques for maintaining and improving your landing procedures.

Prepare early to perform a go around if the approach is not stabilized and does not go as planned or if you do not feel comfortable with the landing. Once you are airborne and stable again, you can decide to attempt to land again, reassess your landing runway, or land at an alternate airport. Incorporate go-around procedures into your recurrent training.

During landing, stay aligned with the centerline. Any misalignment reduces the time available to react if an unexpected event such as a wind gust or a tire blowout occurs.

Do not allow the airplane to touch down in a drift or in a crab. For airplanes with tricycle landing gear, do not allow the nosewheel to touch down first.

Maintain positive control of the airplane throughout the landing and be alert for directional control difficulties immediately upon and after touchdown. A loss of directional control can lead to a nose-over or ground loop, which can cause the airplane to tip or lean enough for the wing tip to contact the ground.

Stay mentally focused throughout the landing roll and taxi. During landing, avoid distractions, such as conversations with passengers or setting radio frequencies.

Interested in More Information?

The FAA’s “Airplane Flying Handbook” (FAA-H-8083-3B), chapter 8, “Approaches and Landings,” provides guidance about how to conduct crosswind approaches and landings and discusses maximum safe crosswind velocities. The handbook can be accessed from the FAA’s website (www.faa.gov).

The FAA Safety Team (FAASTeam) provides access to online training courses, seminars, and webinars as part of the FAA’s “WINGS—Pilot Proficiency Program.” This program includes targeted flight training designed to help pilots develop the knowledge and skills needed to achieve flight proficiency and to assess and mitigate the risks associated with the most common causes of accidents, including loss of directional control. The courses listed below can be accessed from the FAASTeam website (www.faasafety.gov).

Avoiding Loss of Control

Maneuvering: Approach and Landing

Normal Approach and Landing

Takeoffs, Landings, and Aircraft Control

The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Air Safety Institute offers several interactive courses, presentations, publications, and other safety resources that can be accessed from its website (www.aopa.org/asf/).

The NTSB’s Aviation Information Resources web page, www.ntsb.gov/air, provides convenient access to NTSB aviation safety products.

The NTSB presents this information to prevent recurrence of similar accidents. Note that this should not be considered guidance from the regulator, nor does this supersede existing FAA Regulations (FARs).

Additional Participating Entity: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Scottsdale, Arizona

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Registered Owner:  Bird Acquisition LLC

Operator: TransPac Aviation Academy

http://registry.faa.gov/N915PA


NTSB Identification: GAA17CA487
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Monday, August 14, 2017 in Chandler, AZ
Aircraft: PIPER PA28, registration: N915PA
Injuries: 1 Uninjured.

NTSB investigators used data provided by various entities, including, but not limited to, the Federal Aviation Administration and/or the operator and did not travel in support of this investigation to prepare this aircraft accident report.

The solo student pilot reported that, after completing three takeoffs and landings unassisted with his flight instructor, he took off for his first solo. He added that, during the first landing, the airplane "floated" in ground effect for about 4 to 5 seconds, and he added rudder to align the airplane with the runway centerline. He further added that the airplane's nose wheel was "not straight when it touched [down]" on the runway. Subsequently, the student pilot applied brake to maintain directional and then applied power to abort the landing, but the airplane veered off the runway to the right. He then reduced power to idle and stopped the airplane in the grass next the runway and awaited instructions from air traffic control.

The left wing sustained substantial damage during the runway excursion. 

The student pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Aircraft on landing, struck the propeller.

Date: 12-JUN-17
Time: 20:35:00Z
Regis#: N915PA
Aircraft Make: PIPER
Aircraft Model: PA28
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: MINOR
Activity: INSTRUCTION
Flight Phase: LANDING (LDG)
City: CHANDLER
State: ARIZONA Additional Participating Entity: 
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Scottsdale, Arizona

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Registered Owner:  Bird Acquisition LLC

Operator: TransPac Aviation Academy

http://registry.faa.gov/N915PA


NTSB Identification: GAA17CA487
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Monday, August 14, 2017 in Chandler, AZ
Aircraft: PIPER PA28, registration: N915PA
Injuries: 1 Uninjured.

NTSB investigators used data provided by various entities, including, but not limited to, the Federal Aviation Administration and/or the operator and did not travel in support of this investigation to prepare this aircraft accident report.

The solo student pilot reported that, after completing three takeoffs and landings unassisted with his flight instructor, he took off for his first solo. He added that, during the first landing, the airplane "floated" in ground effect for about 4 to 5 seconds, and he added rudder to align the airplane with the runway centerline. He further added that the airplane's nose wheel was "not straight when it touched [down]" on the runway. Subsequently, the student pilot applied brake to maintain directional and then applied power to abort the landing, but the airplane veered off the runway to the right. He then reduced power to idle and stopped the airplane in the grass next the runway and awaited instructions from air traffic control.

The left wing sustained substantial damage during the runway excursion. 

The student pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Aircraft on landing, struck the propeller.

Date: 12-JUN-17
Time: 20:35:00Z
Regis#: N915PA
Aircraft Make: PIPER
Aircraft Model: PA28
Event Type: INCIDENT
Highest Injury: NONE
Aircraft Missing: No
Damage: MINOR
Activity: INSTRUCTION
Flight Phase: LANDING (LDG)
City: CHANDLER
State: ARIZONA

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