Friday, August 26, 2016

Cessna 172N Skyhawk, N17SK: Accident occurred August 25, 2016 near Sky King Airport (3I3), Terre Haute, Vigo County, Indiana

Dr. John Thomas Trump


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Indianapolis FSDO; Plainfield, Indiana
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas
Lycoming Engines; Milliken, Colorado

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N17SK

Andrew T. Fox, Investigator In Charge 

National Transportation Safety Board - Aviation Accident Factual Report

Location: Terre Haute, IN
Accident Number: CEN16FA333
Date & Time: 08/25/2016, 1905 EDT
Registration: N17SK
Aircraft: CESSNA 172N
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Collision during takeoff/land
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

Analysis 

The private pilot, who was interested in purchasing the airplane, was conducting a local flight in the airport traffic pattern to evaluate the airplane. The pilot was seated in the left front seat, and a private-pilot-rated passenger, the airplane's owner, was seated in the right front seat. When the airplane turned onto final approach, it was below a normal approach path to the runway and at a slower-than-normal airspeed. The pilot performed a go-around and remained in the traffic pattern for another approach. During the second final approach, the airplane was again flying at a lower-than-normal altitude and a slow groundspeed when it collided with a 50-ft-tall tree about 1,355 ft short of the runway threshold. The airplane subsequently traveled about 190 ft before impacting a house. No witnesses reported hearing any engine anomalies during the accident flight. Additionally, the postaccident wreckage examination did not reveal any evidence of anomalies that would have precluded normal operation of the airplane. It is likely that the pilot allowed the airplane to descend below a normal approach path to the runway, which resulted in the collision with the tree and the house. The pilot had not flown during the 11 months before the accident, and his most recent flight in the airplane make and model was completed more than 2.5 years before the accident. Additionally, the pilot had not completed a flight review during the 4 years since he received his pilot certificate, and, consequently, he did not demonstrate having an adequate level of flight proficiency on a recurring basis. The pilot's lack of recent flight experience likely contributed to his failure to maintain a normal approach path and the collision with the tree. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's failure to maintain a normal approach path to the runway, which resulted in the airplane colliding with a tree and a house during final approach. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's lack of recent flight experience. 

Findings

Aircraft
Descent/approach/glide path - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)
Recent experience - Pilot (Factor)

Environmental issues
Tree(s) - Contributed to outcome
Residence/building - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Approach-VFR pattern final
Collision during takeoff/land (Defining event)

On August 25, 2016, about 1905 eastern daylight time, a Cessna 172N single-engine airplane, N17SK, collided with trees and a house while on final approach to runway 26 at the Sky King Airport (3I3) located near Terre Haute, Indiana. The private pilot was fatally injured, and the pilot-rated passenger sustained serious injuries. The airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to the pilot-rated passenger and operated by the private pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91 as a personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and a flight plan was not filed for the local flight that departed 3I3 about 1817.

According to the pilot-rated passenger/airplane owner, the airplane was for sale, and the purpose of the flight was to demonstrate the airplane to the private pilot, who was a potential buyer. The owner reported that the flight began with him flying from the left pilot seat and the potential buyer seated in the right pilot seat. After departing runway 26 at 3I3, the flight proceeded direct to Edgar County Airport (PRG), Paris, Indiana, where the owner made an uneventful landing on runway 27. After a short back-taxi, he departed runway 27 for the return flight to 3I3. The owner made an uneventful full-stop landing on runway 26 at 3I3. After the landing, the potential buyer asked if he could fly the airplane in the traffic pattern. The owner agreed, and they switched seats to allow the potential buyer to fly the airplane from the left pilot seat.

The owner reported that the potential buyer made an uneventful takeoff and entered left traffic for runway 26. They flew an extended downwind, about 1 mile past the end of the runway, before turning onto the base leg. The owner noted that the airplane was about 100 ft lower than normal when they turned onto the base leg. Further, when the airplane turned onto the final approach, it was below a normal approach path to the runway and at a slower-than-normal airspeed. The owner's last memory of the flight was losing sight of the runway and telling the potential buyer to "add power and lower the nose for airspeed." The owner acknowledged having some memory loss because of the injuries he sustained during the accident, and, consequently, he did not recall that the potential buyer had performed a go-around and reentered the traffic pattern for another landing attempt.

A witness, who was a flight instructor providing ground instruction to a student at the airport, reported that the airplane approached from the north, entered the traffic pattern, and landed on runway 26. After landing, the airplane back-taxied on runway 26 before it departed again. The witness described the next landing approach as being "high and fast," and he observed the airplane go around before it crossed over the displaced threshold. The witness did not observe the subsequent approach or the crash.

Another flight instructor, who was on a training flight with a new student, reported that, as they approached the airport from the north, he heard the pilot of the accident airplane announce on the common traffic advisory frequency that they were departing runway 26 and would remain in the traffic pattern. The flight instructor stated that he entered the traffic pattern and followed the accident airplane on the downwind and base legs. The flight instructor observed the accident airplane perform a go-around after it turned onto final approach to runway 26. The flight instructor then made a full-stop landing on runway 26. While taxiing toward the ramp, the flight instructor observed the accident airplane on the downwind leg. The flight instructor did not see the crash.

Another witness, located near the accident site, reported hearing the airplane pass over his house and noted that it was significantly louder than normal. He then saw the airplane traveling at a low altitude and slow speed before he heard it collide with a tree. After hearing the collision with the tree, he heard an increase in engine speed before the airplane crashed into a house.

Another witness, who was in her backyard at the time of the accident, observed the airplane flying at a lower-than-normal altitude toward the airport. She stated that the airplane briefly climbed before colliding with a tree. She did not see the airplane's final descent into the house.

A postaccident review of radar track data confirmed the timeline of the flight and the number of approaches that the airplane made. About 1817, the airplane departed runway 26 at 3I3 and proceeded direct to PRG. About 1830, the airplane departed runway 27 at PRG and proceeded back to 3I3. The airplane approached 3I3 from the north and entered the traffic pattern for runway 26 on a left crosswind leg. The airplane then continued in left traffic and landed on runway 26 about 1845. There were no airplanes observed in the traffic pattern for about 10 minutes.

At 1855:09, the airplane departed runway 26 and entered a left traffic pattern. At the same time, another airplane was approaching the airport from the north that subsequently entered the traffic pattern for runway 26 behind the accident airplane. At 1859:09, the accident airplane descended below available radar coverage at 900 ft above mean sea level (msl) on a 1-mile final approach to runway 26. At the same time, the other airplane was in a left turn from the downwind leg to the base leg for runway 26.

At 1900:33, the accident airplane reappeared on radar at 900 ft msl about 1/2 mile from the departure end of runway 26. At 1900:47, the other airplane descended below available radar coverage at 800 ft msl on a 0.6-mile final approach to runway 26. The accident airplane continued in left traffic for runway 26, and, at 1904:24, it descended below available coverage at 900 ft msl while on a 1.4-mile final approach to runway 26. The final radar return was recorded about 1.1 miles east-northeast of the initial impact with the tree.


Todd T. Fox, Investigator In Charge - National Transportation Safety Board and Donald Shipman III and William Schneider of the Federal Aviation Administration. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 60, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 11/06/2014
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:  03/19/2012
Flight Time: 121.4 hours (Total, all aircraft), 12 hours (Total, this make and model), 86.5 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Pilot-Rated Passenger Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 63, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/16/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 07/14/2015
Flight Time:  135.5 hours (Total, all aircraft), 135.5 hours (Total, this make and model), 48.6 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 2.4 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

--- Pilot (Potential Buyer) ---

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records, the 60-year-old pilot held a private pilot certificate with a single-engine land airplane rating that was issued on March 19, 2012. His most recent FAA third-class medical certificate was issued on November 6, 2014, with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings.

The pilot's flight history was established using his logbook. The final logbook entry was dated August 13, 2015, at which time he had 121.4 hours total flight time of which 118.9 hours were in single-engine land airplanes and 2.5 hours were in a glider. The pilot had logged 12 hours in Cessna 172 airplanes, which were flown between December 19, 2013, and January 3, 2014. He had logged 86.5 hours as pilot-in-command, 4.3 hours at night, and 32.8 hours in simulated instrument conditions. The logbook did not contain any recorded flights during the 12 months before the accident. A review of invoices for a rental airplane established that the pilot's last flight, which was 0.7 hours, occurred on September 22, 2015, in a Piper PA-28-181 single-engine airplane. Additionally, there was no record that the pilot had ever completed a flight review, as required by 14 CFR 61.56, after being issued his private pilot certificate on March 19, 2012.

--- Pilot-Rated Passenger (Airplane Owner) ---

According to FAA records, the 63-year-old pilot-rated passenger held a private pilot certificate with a single-engine land airplane rating that was issued on July 14, 2015. His most recent FAA third-class medical certificate was issued on May 16, 2016, with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings.

The pilot's flight history was established using his logbook. The final logbook entry was dated July 31, 2016, at which time he had 135.5 hours total flight time, all in Cessna 172 single-engine airplanes. He had logged 48.6 hours as pilot-in-command, 3.4 hours at night, 5.0 hours in actual instrument meteorological conditions, and 12.9 hours in simulated instrument conditions. He had flown 24.7 hours during the 12 months before the accident, 4.4 hours during the 6 months before the accident, 2.4 hours during the 90 days before the accident, and 1 hour during the month before the accident. The logbook did not contain any recorded flight time for the 24-hour period before the accident flight. The pilot's only flight review, as required by 14 CFR 61.56, was completed upon the issuance of his private pilot certificate dated July 14, 2015. 



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N17SK
Model/Series: 172N
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1980
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 17273809
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 12/09/2015, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2300 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 48 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 15073 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91A installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-H2AD
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 160 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held:  None 

The 1980-model-year airplane, serial number 17273809, was a high-wing monoplane of aluminum semi-monocoque construction. The airplane was powered by a 160-horsepower, 4-cylinder, Lycoming O-320-H2AD reciprocating engine, serial number L-495-76T. The engine provided thrust through a fixed-pitch, two-blade, McCauley 1C160/DTM7557 propeller, serial number 82011. The four-seat airplane was equipped with a fixed tricycle landing gear, wing flaps, and had a maximum allowable takeoff weight of 2,300 pounds. The FAA issued the airplane a standard airworthiness certificate on February 13, 1980. The pilot-rated passenger purchased the airplane on December 17, 2014.

According to maintenance documentation, the last annual inspection was completed on December 9, 2015, at 15,025.1 total airframe hours. The airplane's recording hour meter indicated 3,903.7 hours before the accident flight and 3,904.6 hours at the accident site. The airframe had accumulated a total service time of 15,073 hours. The engine had accumulated a total service time of 9,554.6 hours since new and had accumulated 378.6 hours since being overhauled on August 1, 2013. A postaccident review of the maintenance records found no history of unresolved airworthiness issues. The airplane had two fuel tanks, one located in each wing, and a total fuel capacity of 42 gallons. A review of fueling records established that the airplane's fuel tanks were topped-off on July 31, 2016, and that the airplane had accumulated 1.8 hours since this refueling. 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: HUF, 589 ft msl
Observation Time: 1853 EDT
Distance from Accident Site: 7 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 151°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 31°C / 23°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 5 knots, 280°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting:  30.03 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Terre Haute, IN (3I3)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Terre Haute, IN (3I3)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1817 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class G 

A postaccident review of available meteorological data established that day visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the accident site. The nearest aviation weather reporting station was located at Terre Haute International Airport (HUF) about 7 miles south-southeast of the accident site. At 1853, about 12 minutes before the accident, the HUF automated surface observing system reported: wind 280° at 5 knots, 10 miles surface visibility, a clear sky, temperature 31°C, dew point 23°C, and an altimeter setting 30.03 inches of mercury.

Airport Information

Airport: Sky King Airport (3I3)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 496 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 26
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3557 ft / 50 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Traffic Pattern 

3I3, a public airport located about 5 miles north of Terre Haute, Indiana, was owned and operated by Sky King Airport, Inc. The airport field elevation was 496 ft msl. The airport was served by two asphalt runways, runway 8/26 (3,557 ft by 50 ft) and runway 18/36 (1,978 ft by 50 ft). Runway 26 had a displaced threshold that reduced the available runway landing length by 812 ft. The airport was not equipped with an air traffic control tower. 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Latitude, Longitude:  39.549444, -87.369167 

The initial impact point was the top of a large 50-ft-tall oak tree located about 190 ft east of the house where the main wreckage came to rest. The oak tree was located along the extended runway 26 centerline about 1,355 ft from the runway's displaced threshold. There were numerous small limbs and leaves distributed between the initial impact point and the house. The airplane's final resting position inside the house was consistent with a near vertical descent through the roof of the house.

A postaccident examination of the airplane confirmed flight control cable continuity from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. The wing flaps were found extended to 10°. The throttle and mixture controls were full open and full rich, respectively. The magneto switch was found in the "BOTH" position. The carburetor heat control was found in the "ON" position. The altimeter's Kollsman window was centered on 30.04 inches of mercury. The fuel selector was positioned to draw fuel from both wing fuel tanks. No fuel was recovered from either wing tank; however, there was a significant odor of aviation fuel beneath the wreckage at the accident site. Additionally, a witness reported seeing fuel drain from the wreckage immediately following the accident. The airframe fuel strainer assembly contained a blue fluid consistent with 100-low-lead aviation fuel. The recovered fuel was not contaminated with water or particulates.

The engine remained attached to the firewall through its mounts. Mechanical continuity was confirmed from the engine components to their respective cockpit controls. Internal engine and valve train continuity were confirmed as the engine crankshaft was rotated. Compression and suction were noted on all cylinders in conjunction with crankshaft rotation. The spark plugs were removed and exhibited features consistent with normal engine operation. The single-drive dual magneto provided spark on all leads as the engine crankshaft was rotated. A borescope inspection revealed no anomalies with the cylinders, pistons, valves, or valve seats. There were no obstructions between the air filter housing and the carburetor. The carburetor fuel bowl contained residual liquid that had the odor of 100 low-lead aviation fuel. The propeller separated from the engine crankshaft flange. Both propeller blades exhibited S-shape bends, blade twisting, and chordwise burnishing.

The postaccident wreckage examination did not reveal evidence of any anomalies that would have precluded normal operation of the airplane during the accident flight. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The pilot initially survived the accident; however, he subsequently died 9 days after the accident from the injuries that he sustained during the accident. The Office of the Associate Chief Medical Examiner, Frankfort, Kentucky, performed an autopsy on the pilot. The cause of death was attributed to an anoxic brain injury due to multiple blunt-force injuries. No toxicological testing was performed due to the lack of available specimens taken on, or near, the date of the accident.






























NTSB Identification: CEN16FA333 
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Thursday, August 25, 2016 in Terre Haute, IN
Aircraft: CESSNA 172N, registration: N17SK
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On August 25, 2016, about 1910 eastern daylight time, a Cessna model 172N single-engine airplane, N17SK, was substantially damaged when it collided with trees and a house while on final approach to runway 26 at the Sky King Airport (3I3) located near Terre Haute, Indiana. There were two private pilots onboard. One pilot sustained fatal injuries and the other serious injuries. The airplane was registered to and operated by a private individual under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the local flight that departed 3I3 about 1816.

A witness, who was a flight instructor providing ground instruction at the airport, reported that the accident airplane approached from the north and entered the traffic pattern for runway 26 (3,557 feet by 50 feet, asphalt). He then observed the airplane touchdown between the half-moon runway turnoff and the runway 18/36 intersection. After landing, the airplane was observed to back-taxi on runway 26 before it departed again. The witness described the next landing approach as being "high and fast" and that a go-around was performed before the airplane crossed over the displaced threshold. The witness did not observe the subsequent landing approach or the crash.

Another witness, located near the accident site, reported that he heard an airplane pass over his house and that it was much louder than typical. He then saw the airplane traveling at a low altitude and slow speed before he heard it collide with a tree. The witness reported that, following the collision with the tree, he heard the airplane increase engine power before it crashed into the house.

According to preliminary information, the current owner of the accident airplane was attempting to sell the airplane and that the accident flight was with a potential buyer. The pilot who survived the accident was unable to provide a written statement or to be interviewed before the release of this preliminary report. According to fire department personnel, following the accident, the potential buyer was recovered from the left cockpit seat and the current airplane owner was recovered from the right cockpit seat.

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records, the current airplane owner, age 63, held a private pilot certificate with a single engine land airplane rating. His last aviation medical examination was completed on May 16, 2016, when he was issued a third-class medical certificate with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings. His last flight review, as required by FAA regulation 61.56, was completed upon the issuance of his private pilot certificate dated July 14, 2015. The pilot's flight history was reconstructed using logbook documentation. His most recent pilot logbook entry was dated July 31, 2016, at which time he had accumulated 135.5 hours total flight time, of which 48.6 hours were listed as pilot-in-command. All of his flight time had been completed in a Cessna model 172N single-engine airplane. He had accumulated 5.0 hours in actual instrument meteorological conditions, 12.9 hours in simulated instrument meteorological conditions, and 3.4 hours at night. He had flown 24.7 hours during the prior 12 months, 4.4 hours in the previous 6 months, 2.4 hours during prior 90 days, and 1 hour in the 30 day period before the accident flight. The pilot's logbook did not contain any recorded flight time for the 24 hour period before the accident flight.

According to FAA records, the potential buyer, age 60, held a private pilot certificate with a single engine land airplane rating. His last aviation medical examination was completed on November 6, 2014, when he was issued a third-class medical certificate with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings. A pilot logbook was not recovered during the on-scene investigation; however, on the application for his current medical certificate, he reported having accumulated 120 hours of flight experience.

The accident airplane was a 1980 Cessna model 172N, serial number 17273809. A 160-horsepower Lycoming model O-320-H2AD reciprocating engine, serial number L-495-76T, powered the airplane through a fixed-pitch, two blade, McCauley model 1C160/DTM7557 propeller, serial number 82011. The airplane had a fixed tricycle landing gear, was capable of seating four individuals, and had a certified maximum gross weight of 2,300 pounds. The airplane was issued a standard airworthiness certificate on February 13, 1980. According to an airplane utilization logbook, the airplane's HOBBS hour meter indicated 3,903.7 hours before the accident flight. The airplane's HOBBS hour meter indicated 3,904.6 hours at the accident site. The airframe had accumulated a total service time of 15,073 hours. The engine had accumulated a total service time of 9,554.6 hours since new. The engine had accumulated 378.6 hours since being overhauled on August 1, 2013. The last annual inspection of the airplane was completed on December 9, 2015, at 15,025.1 total airframe hours. A postaccident review of the maintenance records found no history of unresolved airworthiness issues. The airplane had a total fuel capacity of 42 gallons (40 gallons usable) distributed between two wing fuel tanks. A review of fueling records established that the airplane fuel tanks were topped-off on July 31, 2016. According to available information, the airplane had flown 1.8 hours since the last refueling.

The nearest aviation weather reporting station was located at Terre Haute International Airport (HUF), Terre Haute, Indiana, about 7 miles south-southeast of the accident site. At 1853, the HUF automated surface observing system reported the following weather conditions: wind 280 degrees true at 5 knots, visibility 10 miles, sky clear, temperature 31 degrees Celsius, dew point 23 degrees Celsius, and an altimeter setting 30.03 inches of mercury.

The initial point-of-impact was the top of a large 50-foot tall oak tree located about 190 feet east of the house where the main wreckage came to rest. The oak tree was located along the extended runway 26 centerline about 1,355 feet from the runway displaced threshold. There were numerous small limbs and leaves distributed between the initial point-of-impact and the house. Based on the orientation of the wreckage in the house, the accident airplane descended through the roof of the house in a near vertical flight path. A postaccident examination of the airplane confirmed flight control cable continuity from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. The wing flaps were found extended 10-degrees. The throttle and mixture controls were full open and full rich. The magneto switch was found in the BOTH position. The carburetor heat control was found ON. The fuel selector was positioned to draw fuel from both wing fuel tanks. No fuel was recovered from either wing tank; however, there was a significant odor of aviation fuel at the accident site beneath the wreckage. Additionally, a witness reported seeing fuel drain from the wreckage immediately following the accident. The airframe fuel strainer contained a blue fluid consistent with 100 low lead aviation fuel. The fuel recovered from the strainer did not contain any water or particulate contamination.

The engine remained attached to the firewall by its mounts. Mechanical continuity was confirmed from the engine components to their respective cockpit controls. Internal engine and valve train continuity was confirmed as the engine crankshaft was rotated. Compression and suction were noted on all cylinders in conjunction with crankshaft rotation. The spark plugs were removed and exhibited features consistent with normal engine operation. The single-drive dual magneto provided spark on all leads as the engine crankshaft was rotated. A borescope inspection revealed no anomalies with the cylinders, valves, or pistons. There were no obstructions between the air filter housing and the carburetor. The carburetor fuel bowl contained residual liquid that had the odor of 100 low-lead aviation fuel. The propeller had separated from the engine crankshaft flange. Both propeller blades exhibited S-shape bends, blade twisting, and chordwise burnishing.


Dr. John Thomas Trump


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Indianapolis FSDO; Plainfield, Indiana
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas
Lycoming Engines; Milliken, Colorado

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N17SK

Andrew T. Fox, Investigator In Charge 

National Transportation Safety Board - Aviation Accident Factual Report

Location: Terre Haute, IN
Accident Number: CEN16FA333
Date & Time: 08/25/2016, 1905 EDT
Registration: N17SK
Aircraft: CESSNA 172N
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Collision during takeoff/land
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On August 25, 2016, about 1905 eastern daylight time, a Cessna 172N single-engine airplane, N17SK, collided with trees and a house while on final approach to runway 26 at the Sky King Airport (3I3) located near Terre Haute, Indiana. The private pilot was fatally injured, and the pilot-rated passenger sustained serious injuries. The airplane sustained substantial damage. The airplane was registered to the pilot-rated passenger and operated by the private pilot under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91 as a personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and a flight plan was not filed for the local flight that departed 3I3 about 1817.

According to the pilot-rated passenger/airplane owner, the airplane was for sale, and the purpose of the flight was to demonstrate the airplane to the private pilot, who was a potential buyer. The owner reported that the flight began with him flying from the left pilot seat and the potential buyer seated in the right pilot seat. After departing runway 26 at 3I3, the flight proceeded direct to Edgar County Airport (PRG), Paris, Indiana, where the owner made an uneventful landing on runway 27. After a short back-taxi, he departed runway 27 for the return flight to 3I3. The owner made an uneventful full-stop landing on runway 26 at 3I3. After the landing, the potential buyer asked if he could fly the airplane in the traffic pattern. The owner agreed, and they switched seats to allow the potential buyer to fly the airplane from the left pilot seat.

The owner reported that the potential buyer made an uneventful takeoff and entered left traffic for runway 26. They flew an extended downwind, about 1 mile past the end of the runway, before turning onto the base leg. The owner noted that the airplane was about 100 ft lower than normal when they turned onto the base leg. Further, when the airplane turned onto the final approach, it was below a normal approach path to the runway and at a slower-than-normal airspeed. The owner's last memory of the flight was losing sight of the runway and telling the potential buyer to "add power and lower the nose for airspeed." The owner acknowledged having some memory loss because of the injuries he sustained during the accident, and, consequently, he did not recall that the potential buyer had performed a go-around and reentered the traffic pattern for another landing attempt.

A witness, who was a flight instructor providing ground instruction to a student at the airport, reported that the airplane approached from the north, entered the traffic pattern, and landed on runway 26. After landing, the airplane back-taxied on runway 26 before it departed again. The witness described the next landing approach as being "high and fast," and he observed the airplane go around before it crossed over the displaced threshold. The witness did not observe the subsequent approach or the crash.

Another flight instructor, who was on a training flight with a new student, reported that, as they approached the airport from the north, he heard the pilot of the accident airplane announce on the common traffic advisory frequency that they were departing runway 26 and would remain in the traffic pattern. The flight instructor stated that he entered the traffic pattern and followed the accident airplane on the downwind and base legs. The flight instructor observed the accident airplane perform a go-around after it turned onto final approach to runway 26. The flight instructor then made a full-stop landing on runway 26. While taxiing toward the ramp, the flight instructor observed the accident airplane on the downwind leg. The flight instructor did not see the crash.

Another witness, located near the accident site, reported hearing the airplane pass over his house and noted that it was significantly louder than normal. He then saw the airplane traveling at a low altitude and slow speed before he heard it collide with a tree. After hearing the collision with the tree, he heard an increase in engine speed before the airplane crashed into a house.

Another witness, who was in her backyard at the time of the accident, observed the airplane flying at a lower-than-normal altitude toward the airport. She stated that the airplane briefly climbed before colliding with a tree. She did not see the airplane's final descent into the house.

A postaccident review of radar track data confirmed the timeline of the flight and the number of approaches that the airplane made. About 1817, the airplane departed runway 26 at 3I3 and proceeded direct to PRG. About 1830, the airplane departed runway 27 at PRG and proceeded back to 3I3. The airplane approached 3I3 from the north and entered the traffic pattern for runway 26 on a left crosswind leg. The airplane then continued in left traffic and landed on runway 26 about 1845. There were no airplanes observed in the traffic pattern for about 10 minutes.

At 1855:09, the airplane departed runway 26 and entered a left traffic pattern. At the same time, another airplane was approaching the airport from the north that subsequently entered the traffic pattern for runway 26 behind the accident airplane. At 1859:09, the accident airplane descended below available radar coverage at 900 ft above mean sea level (msl) on a 1-mile final approach to runway 26. At the same time, the other airplane was in a left turn from the downwind leg to the base leg for runway 26.

At 1900:33, the accident airplane reappeared on radar at 900 ft msl about 1/2 mile from the departure end of runway 26. At 1900:47, the other airplane descended below available radar coverage at 800 ft msl on a 0.6-mile final approach to runway 26. The accident airplane continued in left traffic for runway 26, and, at 1904:24, it descended below available coverage at 900 ft msl while on a 1.4-mile final approach to runway 26. The final radar return was recorded about 1.1 miles east-northeast of the initial impact with the tree.


Todd T. Fox, Investigator In Charge - National Transportation Safety Board and Donald Shipman III and William Schneider of the Federal Aviation Administration. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 60, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 11/06/2014
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:  03/19/2012
Flight Time: 121.4 hours (Total, all aircraft), 12 hours (Total, this make and model), 86.5 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 0 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

Pilot-Rated Passenger Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 63, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/16/2016
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 07/14/2015
Flight Time:  135.5 hours (Total, all aircraft), 135.5 hours (Total, this make and model), 48.6 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 2.4 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft) 

--- Pilot (Potential Buyer) ---

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records, the 60-year-old pilot held a private pilot certificate with a single-engine land airplane rating that was issued on March 19, 2012. His most recent FAA third-class medical certificate was issued on November 6, 2014, with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings.

The pilot's flight history was established using his logbook. The final logbook entry was dated August 13, 2015, at which time he had 121.4 hours total flight time of which 118.9 hours were in single-engine land airplanes and 2.5 hours were in a glider. The pilot had logged 12 hours in Cessna 172 airplanes, which were flown between December 19, 2013, and January 3, 2014. He had logged 86.5 hours as pilot-in-command, 4.3 hours at night, and 32.8 hours in simulated instrument conditions. The logbook did not contain any recorded flights during the 12 months before the accident. A review of invoices for a rental airplane established that the pilot's last flight, which was 0.7 hours, occurred on September 22, 2015, in a Piper PA-28-181 single-engine airplane. Additionally, there was no record that the pilot had ever completed a flight review, as required by 14 CFR 61.56, after being issued his private pilot certificate on March 19, 2012.

--- Pilot-Rated Passenger (Airplane Owner) ---

According to FAA records, the 63-year-old pilot-rated passenger held a private pilot certificate with a single-engine land airplane rating that was issued on July 14, 2015. His most recent FAA third-class medical certificate was issued on May 16, 2016, with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings.

The pilot's flight history was established using his logbook. The final logbook entry was dated July 31, 2016, at which time he had 135.5 hours total flight time, all in Cessna 172 single-engine airplanes. He had logged 48.6 hours as pilot-in-command, 3.4 hours at night, 5.0 hours in actual instrument meteorological conditions, and 12.9 hours in simulated instrument conditions. He had flown 24.7 hours during the 12 months before the accident, 4.4 hours during the 6 months before the accident, 2.4 hours during the 90 days before the accident, and 1 hour during the month before the accident. The logbook did not contain any recorded flight time for the 24-hour period before the accident flight. The pilot's only flight review, as required by 14 CFR 61.56, was completed upon the issuance of his private pilot certificate dated July 14, 2015. 



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: CESSNA
Registration: N17SK
Model/Series: 172N
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1980
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 17273809
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 12/09/2015, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2300 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 48 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 15073 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91A installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-H2AD
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 160 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held:  None 

The 1980-model-year airplane, serial number 17273809, was a high-wing monoplane of aluminum semi-monocoque construction. The airplane was powered by a 160-horsepower, 4-cylinder, Lycoming O-320-H2AD reciprocating engine, serial number L-495-76T. The engine provided thrust through a fixed-pitch, two-blade, McCauley 1C160/DTM7557 propeller, serial number 82011. The four-seat airplane was equipped with a fixed tricycle landing gear, wing flaps, and had a maximum allowable takeoff weight of 2,300 pounds. The FAA issued the airplane a standard airworthiness certificate on February 13, 1980. The pilot-rated passenger purchased the airplane on December 17, 2014.

According to maintenance documentation, the last annual inspection was completed on December 9, 2015, at 15,025.1 total airframe hours. The airplane's recording hour meter indicated 3,903.7 hours before the accident flight and 3,904.6 hours at the accident site. The airframe had accumulated a total service time of 15,073 hours. The engine had accumulated a total service time of 9,554.6 hours since new and had accumulated 378.6 hours since being overhauled on August 1, 2013. A postaccident review of the maintenance records found no history of unresolved airworthiness issues. The airplane had two fuel tanks, one located in each wing, and a total fuel capacity of 42 gallons. A review of fueling records established that the airplane's fuel tanks were topped-off on July 31, 2016, and that the airplane had accumulated 1.8 hours since this refueling. 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: HUF, 589 ft msl
Observation Time: 1853 EDT
Distance from Accident Site: 7 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 151°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 31°C / 23°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 5 knots, 280°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting:  30.03 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Terre Haute, IN (3I3)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Terre Haute, IN (3I3)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1817 EDT
Type of Airspace: Class G 

A postaccident review of available meteorological data established that day visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the accident site. The nearest aviation weather reporting station was located at Terre Haute International Airport (HUF) about 7 miles south-southeast of the accident site. At 1853, about 12 minutes before the accident, the HUF automated surface observing system reported: wind 280° at 5 knots, 10 miles surface visibility, a clear sky, temperature 31°C, dew point 23°C, and an altimeter setting 30.03 inches of mercury.

Airport Information

Airport: Sky King Airport (3I3)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 496 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 26
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3557 ft / 50 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Traffic Pattern 

3I3, a public airport located about 5 miles north of Terre Haute, Indiana, was owned and operated by Sky King Airport, Inc. The airport field elevation was 496 ft msl. The airport was served by two asphalt runways, runway 8/26 (3,557 ft by 50 ft) and runway 18/36 (1,978 ft by 50 ft). Runway 26 had a displaced threshold that reduced the available runway landing length by 812 ft. The airport was not equipped with an air traffic control tower. 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Serious
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious
Latitude, Longitude:  39.549444, -87.369167 

The initial impact point was the top of a large 50-ft-tall oak tree located about 190 ft east of the house where the main wreckage came to rest. The oak tree was located along the extended runway 26 centerline about 1,355 ft from the runway's displaced threshold. There were numerous small limbs and leaves distributed between the initial impact point and the house. The airplane's final resting position inside the house was consistent with a near vertical descent through the roof of the house.

A postaccident examination of the airplane confirmed flight control cable continuity from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. The wing flaps were found extended to 10°. The throttle and mixture controls were full open and full rich, respectively. The magneto switch was found in the "BOTH" position. The carburetor heat control was found in the "ON" position. The altimeter's Kollsman window was centered on 30.04 inches of mercury. The fuel selector was positioned to draw fuel from both wing fuel tanks. No fuel was recovered from either wing tank; however, there was a significant odor of aviation fuel beneath the wreckage at the accident site. Additionally, a witness reported seeing fuel drain from the wreckage immediately following the accident. The airframe fuel strainer assembly contained a blue fluid consistent with 100-low-lead aviation fuel. The recovered fuel was not contaminated with water or particulates.

The engine remained attached to the firewall through its mounts. Mechanical continuity was confirmed from the engine components to their respective cockpit controls. Internal engine and valve train continuity were confirmed as the engine crankshaft was rotated. Compression and suction were noted on all cylinders in conjunction with crankshaft rotation. The spark plugs were removed and exhibited features consistent with normal engine operation. The single-drive dual magneto provided spark on all leads as the engine crankshaft was rotated. A borescope inspection revealed no anomalies with the cylinders, pistons, valves, or valve seats. There were no obstructions between the air filter housing and the carburetor. The carburetor fuel bowl contained residual liquid that had the odor of 100 low-lead aviation fuel. The propeller separated from the engine crankshaft flange. Both propeller blades exhibited S-shape bends, blade twisting, and chordwise burnishing.

The postaccident wreckage examination did not reveal evidence of any anomalies that would have precluded normal operation of the airplane during the accident flight. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The pilot initially survived the accident; however, he subsequently died 9 days after the accident from the injuries that he sustained during the accident. The Office of the Associate Chief Medical Examiner, Frankfort, Kentucky, performed an autopsy on the pilot. The cause of death was attributed to an anoxic brain injury due to multiple blunt-force injuries. No toxicological testing was performed due to the lack of available specimens taken on, or near, the date of the accident.






























NTSB Identification: CEN16FA333 
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Thursday, August 25, 2016 in Terre Haute, IN
Aircraft: CESSNA 172N, registration: N17SK
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On August 25, 2016, about 1910 eastern daylight time, a Cessna model 172N single-engine airplane, N17SK, was substantially damaged when it collided with trees and a house while on final approach to runway 26 at the Sky King Airport (3I3) located near Terre Haute, Indiana. There were two private pilots onboard. One pilot sustained fatal injuries and the other serious injuries. The airplane was registered to and operated by a private individual under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the local flight that departed 3I3 about 1816.

A witness, who was a flight instructor providing ground instruction at the airport, reported that the accident airplane approached from the north and entered the traffic pattern for runway 26 (3,557 feet by 50 feet, asphalt). He then observed the airplane touchdown between the half-moon runway turnoff and the runway 18/36 intersection. After landing, the airplane was observed to back-taxi on runway 26 before it departed again. The witness described the next landing approach as being "high and fast" and that a go-around was performed before the airplane crossed over the displaced threshold. The witness did not observe the subsequent landing approach or the crash.

Another witness, located near the accident site, reported that he heard an airplane pass over his house and that it was much louder than typical. He then saw the airplane traveling at a low altitude and slow speed before he heard it collide with a tree. The witness reported that, following the collision with the tree, he heard the airplane increase engine power before it crashed into the house.

According to preliminary information, the current owner of the accident airplane was attempting to sell the airplane and that the accident flight was with a potential buyer. The pilot who survived the accident was unable to provide a written statement or to be interviewed before the release of this preliminary report. According to fire department personnel, following the accident, the potential buyer was recovered from the left cockpit seat and the current airplane owner was recovered from the right cockpit seat.

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records, the current airplane owner, age 63, held a private pilot certificate with a single engine land airplane rating. His last aviation medical examination was completed on May 16, 2016, when he was issued a third-class medical certificate with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings. His last flight review, as required by FAA regulation 61.56, was completed upon the issuance of his private pilot certificate dated July 14, 2015. The pilot's flight history was reconstructed using logbook documentation. His most recent pilot logbook entry was dated July 31, 2016, at which time he had accumulated 135.5 hours total flight time, of which 48.6 hours were listed as pilot-in-command. All of his flight time had been completed in a Cessna model 172N single-engine airplane. He had accumulated 5.0 hours in actual instrument meteorological conditions, 12.9 hours in simulated instrument meteorological conditions, and 3.4 hours at night. He had flown 24.7 hours during the prior 12 months, 4.4 hours in the previous 6 months, 2.4 hours during prior 90 days, and 1 hour in the 30 day period before the accident flight. The pilot's logbook did not contain any recorded flight time for the 24 hour period before the accident flight.

According to FAA records, the potential buyer, age 60, held a private pilot certificate with a single engine land airplane rating. His last aviation medical examination was completed on November 6, 2014, when he was issued a third-class medical certificate with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings. A pilot logbook was not recovered during the on-scene investigation; however, on the application for his current medical certificate, he reported having accumulated 120 hours of flight experience.

The accident airplane was a 1980 Cessna model 172N, serial number 17273809. A 160-horsepower Lycoming model O-320-H2AD reciprocating engine, serial number L-495-76T, powered the airplane through a fixed-pitch, two blade, McCauley model 1C160/DTM7557 propeller, serial number 82011. The airplane had a fixed tricycle landing gear, was capable of seating four individuals, and had a certified maximum gross weight of 2,300 pounds. The airplane was issued a standard airworthiness certificate on February 13, 1980. According to an airplane utilization logbook, the airplane's HOBBS hour meter indicated 3,903.7 hours before the accident flight. The airplane's HOBBS hour meter indicated 3,904.6 hours at the accident site. The airframe had accumulated a total service time of 15,073 hours. The engine had accumulated a total service time of 9,554.6 hours since new. The engine had accumulated 378.6 hours since being overhauled on August 1, 2013. The last annual inspection of the airplane was completed on December 9, 2015, at 15,025.1 total airframe hours. A postaccident review of the maintenance records found no history of unresolved airworthiness issues. The airplane had a total fuel capacity of 42 gallons (40 gallons usable) distributed between two wing fuel tanks. A review of fueling records established that the airplane fuel tanks were topped-off on July 31, 2016. According to available information, the airplane had flown 1.8 hours since the last refueling.

The nearest aviation weather reporting station was located at Terre Haute International Airport (HUF), Terre Haute, Indiana, about 7 miles south-southeast of the accident site. At 1853, the HUF automated surface observing system reported the following weather conditions: wind 280 degrees true at 5 knots, visibility 10 miles, sky clear, temperature 31 degrees Celsius, dew point 23 degrees Celsius, and an altimeter setting 30.03 inches of mercury.

The initial point-of-impact was the top of a large 50-foot tall oak tree located about 190 feet east of the house where the main wreckage came to rest. The oak tree was located along the extended runway 26 centerline about 1,355 feet from the runway displaced threshold. There were numerous small limbs and leaves distributed between the initial point-of-impact and the house. Based on the orientation of the wreckage in the house, the accident airplane descended through the roof of the house in a near vertical flight path. A postaccident examination of the airplane confirmed flight control cable continuity from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. The wing flaps were found extended 10-degrees. The throttle and mixture controls were full open and full rich. The magneto switch was found in the BOTH position. The carburetor heat control was found ON. The fuel selector was positioned to draw fuel from both wing fuel tanks. No fuel was recovered from either wing tank; however, there was a significant odor of aviation fuel at the accident site beneath the wreckage. Additionally, a witness reported seeing fuel drain from the wreckage immediately following the accident. The airframe fuel strainer contained a blue fluid consistent with 100 low lead aviation fuel. The fuel recovered from the strainer did not contain any water or particulate contamination.

The engine remained attached to the firewall by its mounts. Mechanical continuity was confirmed from the engine components to their respective cockpit controls. Internal engine and valve train continuity was confirmed as the engine crankshaft was rotated. Compression and suction were noted on all cylinders in conjunction with crankshaft rotation. The spark plugs were removed and exhibited features consistent with normal engine operation. The single-drive dual magneto provided spark on all leads as the engine crankshaft was rotated. A borescope inspection revealed no anomalies with the cylinders, valves, or pistons. There were no obstructions between the air filter housing and the carburetor. The carburetor fuel bowl contained residual liquid that had the odor of 100 low-lead aviation fuel. The propeller had separated from the engine crankshaft flange. Both propeller blades exhibited S-shape bends, blade twisting, and chordwise burnishing. http://registry.faa.gov/N17SK

FAA Flight Standards District Office: FAA Indianapolis FSDO-11


NTSB Identification: CEN16FA333
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Thursday, August 25, 2016 in Terre Haute, IN
Aircraft: CESSNA 172N, registration: N17SK
Injuries: 1 Fatal, 1 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On August 25, 2016, about 1910 eastern daylight time, a Cessna model 172N single-engine airplane, N17SK, was substantially damaged when it collided with trees and a house while on final approach to runway 26 at the Sky King Airport (3I3) located near Terre Haute, Indiana. There were two private pilots onboard. One pilot sustained fatal injuries and the other serious injuries. The airplane was registered to and operated by a private individual under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a personal flight. Day visual meteorological conditions prevailed for the local flight that departed 3I3 about 1816.

A witness, who was a flight instructor providing ground instruction at the airport, reported that the accident airplane approached from the north and entered the traffic pattern for runway 26 (3,557 feet by 50 feet, asphalt). He then observed the airplane touchdown between the half-moon runway turnoff and the runway 18/36 intersection. After landing, the airplane was observed to back-taxi on runway 26 before it departed again. The witness described the next landing approach as being "high and fast" and that a go-around was performed before the airplane crossed over the displaced threshold. The witness did not observe the subsequent landing approach or the crash.

Another witness, located near the accident site, reported that he heard an airplane pass over his house and that it was much louder than typical. He then saw the airplane traveling at a low altitude and slow speed before he heard it collide with a tree. The witness reported that, following the collision with the tree, he heard the airplane increase engine power before it crashed into the house.

According to preliminary information, the current owner of the accident airplane was attempting to sell the airplane and that the accident flight was with a potential buyer. The pilot who survived the accident was unable to provide a written statement or to be interviewed before the release of this preliminary report. According to fire department personnel, following the accident, the potential buyer was recovered from the left cockpit seat and the current airplane owner was recovered from the right cockpit seat.

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records, the current airplane owner, age 63, held a private pilot certificate with a single engine land airplane rating. His last aviation medical examination was completed on May 16, 2016, when he was issued a third-class medical certificate with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings. His last flight review, as required by FAA regulation 61.56, was completed upon the issuance of his private pilot certificate dated July 14, 2015. The pilot's flight history was reconstructed using logbook documentation. His most recent pilot logbook entry was dated July 31, 2016, at which time he had accumulated 135.5 hours total flight time, of which 48.6 hours were listed as pilot-in-command. All of his flight time had been completed in a Cessna model 172N single-engine airplane. He had accumulated 5.0 hours in actual instrument meteorological conditions, 12.9 hours in simulated instrument meteorological conditions, and 3.4 hours at night. He had flown 24.7 hours during the prior 12 months, 4.4 hours in the previous 6 months, 2.4 hours during prior 90 days, and 1 hour in the 30 day period before the accident flight. The pilot's logbook did not contain any recorded flight time for the 24 hour period before the accident flight.

According to FAA records, the potential buyer, age 60, held a private pilot certificate with a single engine land airplane rating. His last aviation medical examination was completed on November 6, 2014, when he was issued a third-class medical certificate with a limitation for corrective lenses. A search of FAA records showed no previous accidents, incidents, or enforcement proceedings. A pilot logbook was not recovered during the on-scene investigation; however, on the application for his current medical certificate, he reported having accumulated 120 hours of flight experience.

The accident airplane was a 1980 Cessna model 172N, serial number 17273809. A 160-horsepower Lycoming model O-320-H2AD reciprocating engine, serial number L-495-76T, powered the airplane through a fixed-pitch, two blade, McCauley model 1C160/DTM7557 propeller, serial number 82011. The airplane had a fixed tricycle landing gear, was capable of seating four individuals, and had a certified maximum gross weight of 2,300 pounds. The airplane was issued a standard airworthiness certificate on February 13, 1980. According to an airplane utilization logbook, the airplane's HOBBS hour meter indicated 3,903.7 hours before the accident flight. The airplane's HOBBS hour meter indicated 3,904.6 hours at the accident site. The airframe had accumulated a total service time of 15,073 hours. The engine had accumulated a total service time of 9,554.6 hours since new. The engine had accumulated 378.6 hours since being overhauled on August 1, 2013. The last annual inspection of the airplane was completed on December 9, 2015, at 15,025.1 total airframe hours. A postaccident review of the maintenance records found no history of unresolved airworthiness issues. The airplane had a total fuel capacity of 42 gallons (40 gallons usable) distributed between two wing fuel tanks. A review of fueling records established that the airplane fuel tanks were topped-off on July 31, 2016. According to available information, the airplane had flown 1.8 hours since the last refueling.

The nearest aviation weather reporting station was located at Terre Haute International Airport (HUF), Terre Haute, Indiana, about 7 miles south-southeast of the accident site. At 1853, the HUF automated surface observing system reported the following weather conditions: wind 280 degrees true at 5 knots, visibility 10 miles, sky clear, temperature 31 degrees Celsius, dew point 23 degrees Celsius, and an altimeter setting 30.03 inches of mercury.

The initial point-of-impact was the top of a large 50-foot tall oak tree located about 190 feet east of the house where the main wreckage came to rest. The oak tree was located along the extended runway 26 centerline about 1,355 feet from the runway displaced threshold. There were numerous small limbs and leaves distributed between the initial point-of-impact and the house. Based on the orientation of the wreckage in the house, the accident airplane descended through the roof of the house in a near vertical flight path. A postaccident examination of the airplane confirmed flight control cable continuity from all flight control surfaces to their respective cockpit controls. The wing flaps were found extended 10-degrees. The throttle and mixture controls were full open and full rich. The magneto switch was found in the BOTH position. The carburetor heat control was found ON. The fuel selector was positioned to draw fuel from both wing fuel tanks. No fuel was recovered from either wing tank; however, there was a significant odor of aviation fuel at the accident site beneath the wreckage. Additionally, a witness reported seeing fuel drain from the wreckage immediately following the accident. The airframe fuel strainer contained a blue fluid consistent with 100 low lead aviation fuel. The fuel recovered from the strainer did not contain any water or particulate contamination.

The engine remained attached to the firewall by its mounts. Mechanical continuity was confirmed from the engine components to their respective cockpit controls. Internal engine and valve train continuity was confirmed as the engine crankshaft was rotated. Compression and suction were noted on all cylinders in conjunction with crankshaft rotation. The spark plugs were removed and exhibited features consistent with normal engine operation. The single-drive dual magneto provided spark on all leads as the engine crankshaft was rotated. A borescope inspection revealed no anomalies with the cylinders, valves, or pistons. There were no obstructions between the air filter housing and the carburetor. The carburetor fuel bowl contained residual liquid that had the odor of 100 low-lead aviation fuel. The propeller had separated from the engine crankshaft flange. Both propeller blades exhibited S-shape bends, blade twisting, and chordwise burnishing.

Todd Fox with the NTSB and Donald Shipman III and William Schneider of the FAA look over the propeller of the single- engine Cessna that crashed Thursday evening north of Terre Haute. The two government entities as well as representatives of insurance companies and manufacturers were at the scene most of the day Friday.

Todd Fox, inspector with the NTSB gave a brief press conference mid-day Friday before the actual work of removing the plane from the house and inspecting it began.

Todd Fox of the NTSB points to a section of the tail of the single-engine Cessna on Friday, the day after it crashed into a house north of Terre Haute. Donald Shipman and Jeff Holtz of the FAA listen in.




Two doctors, both on staff at Terre Haute Regional Hospital, were identified Friday as the men extricated from an airplane that crashed into a home Thursday near Sky King Airport in northern Vigo County.

Pathologist Patrick O’Neill and anesthesiologist John Trump were both airlifted from the crash scene to receive trauma care for critical injuries.

Trump was listed in critical condition Friday at Regional Hospital. Information on O’Neill, who was reportedly transported to Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis, was not available Friday afternoon.

“We ask for your continued thoughts and prayers for both physicians, their loved ones, and colleagues as they navigate this difficult time,” the hospital said in a statement released Friday.

Investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration arrived on the scene Friday to collect evidence and examine the crash site.

NTSB investigator Todd Fox said checking the experience level of the pilot is part of the normal protocol for the crash investigation, as is looking into the maintenance history of the airplane.

Sheriff Greg Ewing said the owner of the house, Matt Fox, was at the scene most of the morning watching as investigators examined both the plane and the house. Several parts from the airplane, including a propeller, could be seen scattered across the lawn of the home.

A large crane was brought to the scene to remove the plane from the house. By early afternoon, the plane had been lifted and set nearby for continued access by investigators.

Ewing said it was unknown when a report on the accident would be released by the NTSB.

The plane, a single-engine Cessna registered to O’Neill, struck the house in the 3100 block of East Rosehill Avenue in North Terre Haute shortly after 7 p.m. Thursday.

The doctors were the only casualties reported. No people were inside the house when the plane hit, and Matt Fox’s dog later emerged uninjured.

Responders included the Vigo County Sheriff’s Department, Otter Creek Fire Department, Indiana State Police, State Excise Police, Trans-Care Ambulance and LifeLine.


http://www.tribstar.com


North Terre Haute, IN   --   Crews removed the wreckage Friday afternoon from a plane that crashed into a home.

The accident happened Thursday night on East Rosehill Avenue in North Terre Haute.

A statement released by Terre Haute Regional Hospital says both occupants were part of their medical staff.

Dr. Patrick O'Neill is a pathologist and Dr. John Trump is an anesthesiologist.

Dr. O'Neill is in stable condition at a hospital in Indianapolis and Dr. Trump is in critical condition at Regional Hospital.

According to FAA records, O'Neill owned the plane that crashed into the home at 3112 East Rosehill Avenue.

The home is near the Sky King Airport and that's where the Vigo County Sheriff's Office says the personal plane was headed for landing, before disaster.

"I heard the plane coming in and then I heard him rev up real hard, and I could hear when he smacked the tree on top. Then he revved up so hard, it sounded like it stalled and then he clipped the tree right here next to the house. Then, it just nosedived over the wires and straight into the house," a neighbor told NBC 2 News.

Fortunately, the homeowner wasn't there when it happened.

A neighborhood resident tells NBC 2 News that he's lived in the area for about 16 years and has never been concerned about the planes that fly overhead.

"They do come in here awfully low," he described. "It's really surprising with a lot of the trees and wires that we haven't had an incident before now."

The National Transportation Safety Board is investigating what caused the plane to crash. Key things they'll be looking at are the pilot's level of experience, the engine of the plane, which is a Cessna 172 N Model, and its maintenance.

"A Cessna 172 aircraft is a very common aircraft, been in production for decades and decades. As for their safety record, it's been in production in a variety of models for decades," says Andrew Fox with the NTSB.

The Indiana Department of Environmental Management was also on the scene Friday, collecting fuel samples to assess clean up after the plane's removal.

Fox says the NTSB should have the engine investigation wrapped up by Sunday.

A preliminary report should be released by the middle of next week. It could take 12 to 15 months before the agency releases a probably cause determination.

Story and video:   http://www.mywabashvalley.com





Emergency responders had to extricate two men from a single-engine plane after it crashed into a home in northern Vigo County shortly after 7 p.m. Thursday.

“We had two patients who were extricated from the aircraft,” Josh Craft of the Otter Creek Fire Department told reporters. “The extent of the injuries are unknown at this time. We do not know why the aircraft crashed. There will be an ongoing investigation.”

Both men were airlifted from the site by LifeLine helicopter.

Vigo County Sheriff Greg Ewing also was at the crash site in the 3100 block of East Rosehill Avenue in North Terre Haute.

“We received a call of a plane into a house,” Ewing said. “It looks like it was coming from the east [toward Sky King Airport]. It clipped those tree limbs right over there. My assumption would be it was headed for a landing.”

The Federal Aviation Administration registry shows the plane’s tail numbers registered to a single-engine Cessna Model 172N.

Ewing and Craft said the FAA had been notified, and its investigators are expected to arrive Friday morning.

“Now this becomes their scene,” said Ewing.

No people were inside the home when the airplane struck, resident Matt Fox said.

Fox was concerned about his fox terrier, Lilly, who eventually came out barking and apparently unharmed, drawing applause from the crowd that had gathered at the site.

Getting the men out of the wreckage was not easy for authorities.

“It obviously was a difficult extrication, not something we normally would train for,” Craft said. “But we worked quickly and worked as a team and got both patients out of the aircraft and loaded into helicopters.”

“One of the main concerns initially when the fire department arrived was the fuselage and the fuel that is held in the wings leaking into the house,” Ewing added. “That’s why you saw the fire department using foam to kind of blanket the area to prevent any type of fire because aircraft fuel is very flammable.”

Despite the risk, there were no reports of flames at the scene.

Craft said he wasn’t sure how long emergency personnel would be at the house.

“It could be quite a while,” he said. “I’m not sure. We’ve never had an aircraft incident like this, at least not in recent history. So it could be an extended stay.”

The home struck by the plane is behind Fox’s Meat Market & Grocery, across Clinton Street from Sky King Airport.

Quincey and Penni Smith said they’d lived in the neighborhood for about 10 years, and this was the first time they’d seen a plane hit a house despite close proximity of homes to Sky King Airport.

Penni called 9-1-1 after the crash, the Smiths said.

“I heard the initial crash from the trees, where it hit,” Quincey Smith said. “It sounded almost like a dump truck, like when they pick up dumpsters and slam ‘em down. It sounded like that, but it had a different sound to it.”

After he realized it was a plane crash, he ran back inside the house and told his wife to call authorities.

“I didn’t see it happen, but I heard it,” Penni said.

Agencies responding to the call, which came in at 7:07 p.m., were the Vigo County Sheriff’s Department, Otter Creek Fire Department, Indiana State Police, State Excise Police, Trans-Care Ambulance and LifeLine.

Ewing said this crash was a first for him, too.

“I don’t know if in my career of 26 years [in law enforcement] — we’ve had plane crashes — but I don’t know that I’ve ever worked a plane crashing into a house,” Ewing said.

Source:  http://www.tribstar.com




























VIGO COUNTY, Ind. (WTHI) – The FAA is expected to begin their investigation Friday morning after a plane crash into a home Thursday night on the north side of Terre Haute.

When News 10’s Melissa Crash was on the scene Friday morning there was only one officer on scene.

The accident happened after 7 p.m. near Sky King Airport.

Officials told News 10 two people were removed from the plane and airlifted to hospitals.

“It’s obviously a difficult extraction. Not something we would normally train for. But we worked quickly and got both patients out of the aircraft and loaded into helicopters,” Otter Creek Fire Department Public Information Officer Josh Craft said.

There was no one inside the home at the time of the crash.

According to online records, the plane was a 1980 Cessna 172N registered to William Patrick O’Neill.

The Vigo County Sheriff’s Office tells News 10 O’Neill was on the plane at the time of the crash. We don’t know at this time if he was the pilot or a passenger.

Source:  http://wthitv.com

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