Wednesday, March 03, 2021

Loss of Control on Ground: Cessna 172N Skyhawk, N5815E; accident occurred March 03, 2020 at Madison Municipal Airport (KIMS), Jefferson County, Indiana

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Indianapolis, Indiana

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:
Location: Madison, Indiana
Accident Number: CEN20CA112
Date & Time: March 3, 2020, 17:06 Local
Registration: N5815E
Aircraft: Cessna 172 
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General aviation - Instructional


According to the flight instructor, during the third approach, he took the controls from the student pilot and informed the student that he would land the airplane. The airplane was configured with "minimal flaps" due to gusting crosswind conditions. During landing, the wind shifted from a quartering headwind to a direct crosswind. The airplane bounced on touchdown and subsequently exited the right side of the runway, entered soft mud, and then nosed over. The airplane sustained substantial damage to the left wing lift strut. The instructor stated that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The flight instructor's failure to maintain directional control during landing in gusting crosswind conditions, which resulted in a runway excursion and nose-over.

Personnel issues Aircraft control - Instructor/check pilot
Aircraft Directional control - Not attained/maintained
Environmental issues Gusts - Effect on operation
Environmental issues Crosswind - Effect on operation

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing Other weather encounter
Landing-flare/touchdown Abnormal runway contact
Landing-flare/touchdown Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Landing-flare/touchdown Runway excursion
Landing-flare/touchdown Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)
Landing-flare/touchdown Nose over/nose down

Student pilot Information

Certificate: None 
Age: 18, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None 
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None 
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None 
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: None None 
Last FAA Medical Exam:
Occupational Pilot: No 
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated) 4 hours (Total, all aircraft), 4 hours (Total, this make and model), 4 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 3 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)

Flight instructor Information

Certificate: Flight instructor 
Age: 48, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine land; Multi-engine land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None 
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane 
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane single-engine 
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 2 Without waivers/limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: September 11, 2019
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: July 24, 2018
Flight Time: (Estimated) 1127 hours (Total, all aircraft), 20 hours (Total, this make and model), 1043 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 33 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 17 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N5815E
Model/Series: 172 N
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1978 
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal 
Serial Number: 17271942
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle 
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: November 1, 2019 Annual 
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2300 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 1769.6 Hrs as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C126 installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-360-A4N
Registered Owner: 
Rated Power: 180 Horsepower
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual (VMC) 
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: IMS,819 ft msl 
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 21:55 Local 
Direction from Accident Site: 0°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 7000 ft AGL
Visibility: 10 miles
Lowest Ceiling:
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 19 knots / 27 knots 
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:  /
Wind Direction: 270° 
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:  /
Altimeter Setting: 
Temperature/Dew Point: 13°C / 0°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Madison, IN (IMS)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: VFR
Destination: Madison, IN (IMS)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 16:20 Local
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: Madison Muni IMS 
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 819 ft msl
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 21 
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 5000 ft / 75 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full stop

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries:
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None 
Latitude, Longitude: 38.759998,-85.464721(est)

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