Friday, March 15, 2019

Piper PA-28R-200 Arrow, N94JR: Accident occurred July 28, 2016 near Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport (KECP), Panama City, Bay County, Florida



The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Birmingham, Alabama

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


http://registry.faa.gov/N94JR




Location: Panama City, FL
Accident Number: ERA16LA276
Date & Time: 07/28/2016, 1907 CDT
Registration: N94JR
Aircraft: PIPER PA28R
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of engine power (total)
Injuries: 1 Minor, 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

On July 28, 2016, at 1907 central daylight time, a Piper PA 28R-200, N94JR, was substantially damaged during a forced landing in Panama City, Florida. The flight instructor was not injured, and the pilot receiving instruction sustained minor injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the instructional flight, which was conducted under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. The flight departed Enterprise Municipal Airport (EDN), Enterprise, Alabama, about 1830, and was destined for Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport (ECP), Panama City, Florida.

During an interview with a Federal Aviation Administration inspector, the flight instructor stated that the purpose of the flight was to conduct a training session for the pilot receiving instruction, who was pursuing an instrument rating. While preparing for landing at ECP, at an altitude of 3,500 feet mean sea level (msl), the pilot reduced engine power to slow the airplane during the descent. He subsequently attempted to add power and level off; however, the engine was unresponsive and then lost all power. The flight instructor took control of the airplane and performed the engine failure checklist, but was unsuccessful in his attempts to restart the engine. He contacted the air traffic control tower and advised that they were unable to glide to the airport, and performed a forced landing in a wooded area about 3 miles north of ECP.

Examination of the accident scene by an FAA inspector revealed that the airplane came to rest upright on the floor of a pine forest. The engine and forward section of the airplane were displaced upward and aft, and the propeller blades were undamaged. The right wing exhibited leading edge damage, had separated from the fuselage at the root, and was displaced up and aft. The right fuel tank was breached and was devoid of fuel. The left wing sustained leading edge damage and remained attached, and was nearly full of fuel. The empennage remained attached and was undamaged. The landing gear was found extended.

The airplane was examined again at a salvage facility by an FAA inspector. The inspector used water-detection-paste on a 10-gallon fuel sample drained from the left fuel tank and the fuel was absent of water. The engine crankshaft was rotated by hand at the propeller, and exhibited thumb compression on all four cylinders. Spark was detected at the spark plug leads from the left magneto (which had an impulse coupling) on cylinder Nos. 1, 3 and 4, as the propeller was rotated by hand. Spark could not be detected using this method at the lead for cylinder No. 2, or from any leads from the right magneto, possibly due to insufficient propeller rpm when rotated by hand. The fuel lines leading to the fuel flow gauges, the fuel servo and the fuel distribution manifold were wet with fuel when opened, but did not contain a measurable amount of fuel. The gascolator contained a small amount of fuel and was unobstructed. The fuel pump was connected to an external power source, and produced suction and pressure at the inlet and outlet, respectively.

The four-seat, low-wing, retractable tricycle-gear airplane was manufactured in 1969 and powered by a Lycoming IO-360, 200-hp engine. Review of maintenance records by an FAA inspector revealed that the airplane's most recent annual inspection was completed on April 11, 2016, at which time the engine had accrued a total of 4,008 hours, with 106 hours since overhaul. The airplane flew about 21 hours since that inspection.

Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Instructor
Age: 25, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane; Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Instrument Airplane; Instrument Helicopter
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 07/26/2013
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 22, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/15/2011
Occupational Pilot:
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 



Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: PIPER
Registration: N94JR
Model/Series: PA28R 200
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1969
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 28R-35380
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 04/11/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2600 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 21 Hours
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 5306 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: C91A installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: IO-360-C1C
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 200 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KECP, 69 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 3 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1853 CDT
Direction from Accident Site: 156°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 6 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 200°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.99 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 30°C / 23°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: ENTERPRISE, AL (EDN)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Panama City, FL (ECP)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1830 CDT
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information

Airport: NORTHWEST FLORIDA BEACHES INTL (ECP)
Runway Surface Type: Concrete
Airport Elevation: 68 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 16
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 10000 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Forced Landing

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Minor, 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 Minor, 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:  30.395833, -85.812500 (est)

















NTSB Identification: ERA16LA276
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Thursday, July 28, 2016 in Panama City, FL
Aircraft: PIPER PA 28R-200, registration: N94JR
Injuries: 1 Minor, 1 Uninjured.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On July 28, 2016, at 1907 central daylight time, a Piper PA 28R-200, N94JR, was substantially damaged during a forced landing in Panama City, Florida. The flight instructor was not injured, and the pilot receiving instruction sustained minor injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the instructional flight, which was conducted under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. The flight departed Enterprise Municipal Airport (EDN), Enterprise, Alabama, about 1830, and was destined for Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport (ECP), Panama City, Florida.

According to the flight instructor, the purpose of the flight was to conduct a training session for the pilot receiving instruction, who was pursuing an instrument rating. While preparing for landing at ECP, at an altitude of 3,500 feet mean sea level (msl), the pilot reduced engine power to slow the airplane during the descent. He subsequently attempted to add power and level off; however, the engine was unresponsive and then lost all power. The flight instructor took control of the airplane and performed the engine failure checklist, but was unsuccessful in his attempts to restart the engine. He contacted the air traffic control tower and advised that they were unable to glide to the airport, and performed a forced landing in a wooded area about 3 miles north of ECP.

Examination of the accident scene by a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector revealed that the airplane came to rest upright on the floor of a pine forest. The engine and forward section of the airplane was displaced upward and aft, the propeller blades were undamaged. The right wing exhibited leading edge damage, had separated from the fuselage at the root, and was displaced up and aft. The right fuel tank was breached and devoid of fuel. The left wing sustained leading edge damage remained attached, and was nearly full of fuel. The empennage remained attached and was undamaged. The landing gear was found extended.

The airplane was examined at a salvage facility by an FAA inspector. The engine crankshaft was rotated by hand at the propeller, and exhibited thumb compression on all four cylinders. Spark was detected at the spark plug leads from the left magneto on cylinder Nos. 1, 3 and 4, as the propeller was rotated by hand. Spark could not be detected using this method at the lead for cylinder No. 2, or from any leads from the right magneto. The fuel lines leading to the fuel flow gauges, the fuel servo and the fuel distribution manifold were wet with fuel when opened, but did not contain a measurable amount of fuel. The gascolator contained a small amount of fuel and was unobstructed. The fuel pump was connected to an external power source, and produced suction and pressure at the inlet and outlet, respectively.

Maintenance records revealed that the airplane's most recent annual inspection was completed on April 11 2016, at which time the engine had accrued a total of 4,008 hours, with 106 hours since overhaul. The airplane flew about 21 hours since that inspection.

The engine was retained for further examination.

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

I didn't read the position of the fuel selector valve in the report. I'm wondering if when the pilot reached down to switch the fuel tanks as I was taught to do every 1/2 hour when flying Pipers, he didn't turn the selector against the stop and that caused a fuel starvation issue. That would explain the lack of fuel in the lines when they were disconnected. I believe all Arrows are fuel injected so that would rule out carb ice causing the engine to quit. From the looks of the damage it's a miracle they weren't seriously hurt or killed.

Anonymous said...

No engine mechanical defects found ? Ambiguous fuel pump performance test post crash. Fuel lines intact and wet with fuel post crash, but not a measurable amount ?

So what is the conclusion here ? Is there one , I'm not seeing it. Fuel selector valve to wrong (empty) tank ? Carb ice ?

Inquiring minds want to know.

Anonymous said...

It's sounds like something interrupted the fuel flow to the engine. I have 40+ hours in a 1971 PA28R-200 Arrow and it has a Lycoming IO-360 fuel injected engine as I think all Arrows were fuel injected so NO CARB icing issues. Looking at the cockpit interior pics it looks like the fuel selector valve is in the proper position but I can't tell if it's against the stop. I've heard that if you position the selector valve in between the two tanks, fuel starvation will occur. The report says fuel was found in the one wing tank but not in the breached tank so did they run a tank dry and then try switching to the fuller tank OR did the breached tank contain usable fuel but it leaked out after the crash? Is it possible the engine-driven mechanical fuel pump failed and they forgot to turn on the electric boost pump?