Friday, September 14, 2018

Piper PA-18-150, N7184B: Accident occurred September 13, 2018 and accident occurred August 27, 2016 in Kenai, Alaska

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Kenai, Alaska

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


https://registry.faa.gov/N7184B

Location: Kenai, AK
Accident Number: GAA18CA558
Date & Time: 09/13/2018, 1110 AKD
Registration: N7184B
Aircraft: Piper PA18
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

The pilot reported that, the purpose of the flight was to land at, and then clear an unimproved airstrip, by removing small trees and brush. During approach he made a relatively steep descent with full flaps. During the touch down, the tailwheel-equipped airplane landed hard and bounced. The airplane touched down again angled to the left and veered off the runway to the left during the roll on the uneven, dirt surface. Subsequently, the left wing impacted a tree and the airplane pivoted into an adjacent tree.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the left wing and fuselage.

The pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 70, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 09/28/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 08/31/2018
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 1045 hours (Total, all aircraft), 773 hours (Total, this make and model), 1025 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 38 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 15 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information


Aircraft Make: Piper
Registration: N7184B
Model/Series: PA18 150
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1956
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18-5224
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 09/28/2017, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1750 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3754 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-A2A
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: PALV, 60 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 12 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1953 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 232°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 7 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 40°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.08 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 16°C / 9°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Kenai, AK (ENA)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Kenai, AK
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1040 AKD
Type of Airspace: Class G

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:  60.940833, -151.960556 (est)

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Aviation Accident Data Summary - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Location: Kenai, AK
Accident Number: GAA16CA456
Date & Time: 08/27/2016, 1155 AKD
Registration: N7184B
Aircraft: PIPER PA18
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Nose over/nose down
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

Analysis 

The pilot of the tailwheel and tundra tire equipped airplane reported that during landing on a soft grass airstrip he conducted a wheel landing instead of a three-point landing. The pilot further reported that during the landing roll, the main landing gear dug into the ground, which resulted in a nose over and substantial damage to both wing struts and empennage.

The pilot reported that there were no preimpact mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airframe or engine that would have precluded normal operation.

According to the FAA Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-3A;

SOFT-FIELD LANDING

The tailwheel should touch down simultaneously with or just before the main wheels, and should then be held down by maintaining firm back-elevator pressure throughout the landing roll. This will minimize any tendency for the airplane to nose over and will provide aerodynamic braking. The use of brakes on a soft field is not needed because the soft or rough surface itself will provide sufficient reduction in the airplane's forward speed. Often it will be found that upon landing on a very soft field, the pilot will need to increase power to keep the airplane moving and from becoming stuck in the soft surface.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot's improper soft field landing technique on a soft grass airstrip, which resulted in a nose over.

Findings

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)
Use of policy/procedure - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Soft surface - Effect on operation (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll
Nose over/nose down (Defining event) 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 68, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 09/17/2015
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 07/29/2016
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 994 hours (Total, all aircraft), 721 hours (Total, this make and model), 973 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 12 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 5 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: PIPER
Registration: N7184B
Model/Series: PA18 150
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1956
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18-5224
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/24/2016, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1750 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 3690.8 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-A2A
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 150 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: PAEN, 92 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 23 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1953 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 121°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility: 10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 18 knots / 24 knots
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: / None
Wind Direction: 360°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 21°C / 8°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: KENAI, AK (ENA)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Off Airport, AK
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1130 AKD 
Type of Airspace: Class G 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 60.774167, -151.898611 (est)

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