Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Cessna 182Q Skylane, Garland Air LLC, N97878: Accident occurred October 23, 2016 in Buffalo, Johnson County, Wyoming

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

The National Transportation Safety Board did not travel to the scene of this accident. 

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Casper, Wyoming
Textron Aviation; Wichita, Kansas
Continental Motors, Inc.; Mobile, Alabama 

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Docket And Docket Items -   National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


GARLAND AIR LLC: http://registry.faa.gov/N97878

NTSB Identification: CEN17LA025 
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Sunday, October 23, 2016 in Buffalo, WY
Probable Cause Approval Date: 05/01/2017
Aircraft: CESSNA 182Q, registration: N97878
Injuries: 1 Serious.

NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

The private pilot reported that, before taking off from the 1,200-ft-long grass/gravel private airstrip, he performed an engine run-up and set the flaps to 20 degrees. He applied full engine throttle and accelerated to 45 knots airspeed for rotation/takeoff. After applying back pressure to the yoke for takeoff, the airplane would not lift off the runway. The airplane "passed the point of no return," and the pilot continued the takeoff. The airplane impacted a metal post near the end of the runway, traveled down an embankment, impacted terrain, cartwheeled, and came to rest inverted. The pilot reported that all engine instruments were in the "green" during the takeoff roll. An engine test run revealed no anomalies that would have precluded the engine's ability to produce rated horsepower. Examination of the airframe revealed the flaps were in the fully retracted or 0° position. According to the supplemental type certificate pilot's checklist, the flaps should be set at 20° for a short field takeoff. The improper flap setting reduced the airplane’s lift and resulted in a longer takeoff roll.

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident as follows:
The pilot’s failure to set the proper flap position before the short field takeoff, which resulted in a runway excursion and impact with terrain.

On October 23, 2016, at 1010 mountain daylight time, a Cessna 182Q single-engine airplane, N97878, impacted terrain following a loss of control during takeoff from a private airstrip near Buffalo, Wyoming. The private pilot, who was the sole occupant, sustained serious injuries, and the airplane sustained substantial damage to the fuselage. The airplane was registered to Garland Air LLC, Buffalo, Wyoming, and operated by a private individual as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident and a flight plan was not filed. The flight was originating at the time of the accident.

Prior to takeoff from the 1,200-foot grass/gravel private airstrip, the pilot reported that he performed an engine run-up and set the flaps to 20 degrees. He applied full engine throttle and advanced to 45 knots airspeed for rotation/takeoff. After applying back pressure to the yoke for takeoff, the airplane would not lift off the runway. The airplane "passed the point of no return" and the pilot kept waiting for the airplane to lift off the runway. Near the end of the left side of the runway, the airplane impacted a metal post, went down an embankment, impacted terrain, cartwheeled, and came to rest inverted. Witnesses to the accident assisted the pilot in exiting the airplane.

According to local authorities, the pilot stated that all engine instruments were in the "green" during the takeoff roll.

Examination of the airplane by a Federal Aviation Administration inspector revealed the fuselage, both wings, and empennage were buckled and bent. The propeller assembly separated from the engine crankshaft and came to rest in the debris field. The engine remained partially attached to the airframe and was crushed aft into the fuselage. The airplane was recovered for further examination.

On November 8, 2016, at the facilities of Beegles Aircraft Services, Greeley, Colorado, the airplane was examined under the supervision of the NTSB investigator-in-charge (IIC). Examination of the airframe revealed the flaps were in the fully retracted or 0-degree position, as confirmed by the flap actuator position. Flight control continuity was established from the cockpit flight controls to the flight control surfaces. Damage, consistent with the impact sequence, was noted on the following engine components: right rear wye pipe separated and missing, front induction balance tube, no. 2 cylinder rocker box cover, propeller governor, right front and rear engine mounts, muffler, lower alternator mount, and exhaust risers/collectors. The engine was manually rotated and thumb compression was confirmed on all six cylinders. Spark was produced at all upper sparkplug ignition leads. The propeller spinner displayed rotational type marks. One propeller blade exhibited rearward twisting and bent about 18 inches outboard of blade root, one blade exhibited rearward twisting and bent about 12 inches outboard of blade root, and one blade was twisted about 180 degrees and was loose in the propeller hub. The blade displayed leading edge and cambered surface gouging. The engine was removed and shipped to the manufacturer for a functional test.

A review of the maintenance records showed the most recent annual inspection was completed on February 15, 2016. On July 9, 2016, a high-left canard was installed in accordance with supplemental type certificate (STC) SA485SW. The STC SA485SW pilot checklist indicated the flaps should be set to 20 degrees extended for short field takeoffs. In addition, a Continental Motors, Inc. (CMI) IO-550D-13B engine, and a McCauley propeller were installed in accordance with STC SA3825SW. At the time of the accident, the engine had accumulated 44.7 hours since factory remanufacture. 

The airplane was equipped with a JPI engine data monitoring (EDM-700) unit. The unit was downloaded at a local Greeley, Colorado, avionics facility. The EDM-700 unit data contained several "flights" of data. The accident flight data was captured on the unit. The accident flight data parameters were consistent with other previous flight data parameters. 


On January 10 and 11, 2017, at the facilities of CMI, Mobile, Alabama, the engine was examined and a functional test of the engine was performed under the supervision of the NTSB IIC. After replacing some components that were damaged in the accident, the engine was placed in a test cell for a functional test. The engine was test run for 30 minutes at various power settings with no anomalies noted that would have precluded the engine's ability to produce rated horsepower. 

NTSB Identification: CEN17LA025
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Sunday, October 23, 2016 in Buffalo, WY
Aircraft: CESSNA 182Q, registration: N97878
Injuries: 1 Serious.

This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators may not have traveled in support of this investigation and used data provided by various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

On October 23, 2016, at 1010 mountain daylight time, a Cessna 182Q single-engine airplane, N97878, impacted terrain following a loss of control during takeoff from a private airstrip near Buffalo, Wyoming. The private pilot, who was the sole occupant, sustained serious injuries, and the airplane sustained substantial damage to the fuselage. The airplane was registered to Garland Air LLC, Buffalo, Wyoming, and operated by a private individual as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident and a flight plan was not filed. The flight was originating at the time of the accident.

According to local authorities who spoke with the pilot, the pilot reported that during takeoff from the private grass/turf airstrip, which was about 1,200 feet in length, the airplane veered to the left at the departure end of the runway. The pilot attempted to correct to the right, but the airplane impacted a metal post, went down an embankment, and impacted terrain. The airplane came to rest inverted and the pilot exited the airplane. The pilot stated that all engine instruments were in the "green" during the takeoff roll.

Examination of the airplane by a Federal Aviation Administration inspector revealed the fuselage, both wings, and empennage were buckled and bent. The engine crankshaft fractured near the propeller hub, and the propeller assembly came to rest in the debris field. The engine remained partially attached to the airframe and was crushed aft into the fuselage.

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