Saturday, August 3, 2019

Ground Collision: Cessna 172P Skyhawk, N969RR; accident occurred July 17, 2018 at Chicago Executive Airport (KPWK), Wheeling, Cook County, Illinois

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; DuPage, Illinois

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

https://registry.faa.gov/N969RR

Location: Chicago, IL
Accident Number: GAA18CA588
Date & Time: 07/17/2018, 0920 CDT
Registration: N969RR
Aircraft: Cessna 172
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Ground collision
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

The solo student pilot reported that during taxi to the runway, he saw a fuel truck parked in the grass on the left side of the asphalt taxilane. He "assumed that the truck driver had left room for airplanes to get by," however, as the airplane passed the truck, and the left wing struck the rear of the truck.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the left wing lift strut.

The student reported that there were no mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 53, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 03/31/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 28.3 hours (Total, all aircraft), 28.3 hours (Total, this make and model), 0.4 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 20.2 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 4.9 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 0.8 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N969RR
Model/Series: 172 P
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1982
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Utility
Serial Number: 17275850
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection:  Unknown
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2300 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320
Registered Owner: N969rr Llc
Rated Power: 160 hp
Operator: N969rr Llc
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KPWK, 636 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 0452 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 340°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: Calm /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:
Wind Direction:
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:
Altimeter Setting: 30 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 23°C / 14°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Chicago, IL (PWK)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Chicago, IL (PWK)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1000 CDT
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information

Airport: Chicago Executive (PWK)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 646 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:
VFR Approach/Landing: None

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude: 42.114167, -87.901667 (est)

Loss of Control on Ground: Diamond DA20-C1, N309EF; accident occurred July 17, 2018 at Van Nuys Airport (KVNY), Los Angeles County, California

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Van Nuys, California

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N309EF

Location: Van Nuys, CA
Accident Number: GAA18CA474
Date & Time: 07/17/2018, 1925 PDT
Registration: N309EF
Aircraft: Diamond DA20
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

The student pilot reported that, during landing, shortly after touchdown, a "crosswind lifted the left wing" and the airplane veered left. He corrected with opposite aileron, but the airplane ground looped to the left and the right landing gear collapsed.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the lower right section of the fuselage.

The student pilot reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

The automated weather observation station located on the airport reported that, about 30 minutes before the accident, the wind was from 130° at 8 knots and about 15 minutes after the accident, the wind was from 100º at 9 knots. The airplane landed on runway 16R.

Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial; Private
Age: 24, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Multi-engine; Airplane Single-engine; Instrument Airplane
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 None
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/01/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: (Estimated)

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 24, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: Unknown
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/09/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:  (Estimated) 21 hours (Total, all aircraft), 13 hours (Total, this make and model)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Diamond
Registration: N309EF
Model/Series: DA20 C1
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 2004
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Utility
Serial Number: C0262
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection:  Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.:
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: Continental
ELT:
Engine Model/Series: IO-240 SER
Registered Owner: Amval Llc
Rated Power:
Operator: Amval Llc
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Dusk
Observation Facility, Elevation: KVNY, 770 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 0241 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 71°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 9 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 100°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 29.92 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 26°C / 16°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Van Nuys, CA (VNY)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Van Nuys, CA (VNY)
Type of Clearance: VFR 
Departure Time:  PDT
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information

Airport: VAN NUYS (VNY)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 802 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: 16R
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 8000 ft / 150 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude: 34.209722, -118.490000

Midair Collision: Piper PA-34-200 Seneca, N16281 and Cessna 172N Skyhawk, N6428D, fatal accident occurred July 17, 2018 near Miami Executive Airport (KTMB), Kendall, Miami-Dade County, Florida

Ralph Knight, 72
Designated Pilot Examiner (DPE)
  Piper PA-34-200 Seneca, N16281

Nisha Sejwal, 19
Private Pilot
Piper PA-34-200 Seneca, N16281

Jorge Sanchez, 22
Flight Instructor
 Cessna 172N Skyhawk, N6428D

The fourth victim was identified as Carlos Alfredo Zanetti Scarpati, 22, "a fairly new student pilot" at Dean International Flight School based out of Miami Executive Airport. He was in the Cessna 172N Skyhawk, N6428D with pilot Jorge Sanchez, 22, at the time of the fatal crash.



The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entities:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Miramar, Florida
Piper Aircraft; Vero Beach, Florida
Textron; Wichita, Kansas 

N16281 Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


N16281 Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N16281



Location: Miami, FL
Accident Number: ERA18FA194A
Date & Time: 07/17/2018, 1259 EDT
Registration: N16281
Aircraft: Piper PA34
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Midair collision
Injuries: 2 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

On July 17, 2018, at 1259 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-34-200, N16281, and a Cessna 172N, N6428D, collided in midair about 9 miles northwest of Miami Executive Airport (TMB), Miami, Florida. The private pilot and designated pilot examiner (DPE) onboard the Piper and the flight instructor and student pilot onboard the Cessna were fatally injured; both airplanes were destroyed. Both airplanes were registered to and were being operated by Dean International, Inc., as Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 flights. The Piper pilots were conducting an evaluation flight for a commercial pilot certificate and the Cessna pilots were conducting a cross-country instructional flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed and no flight plan was filed for either flight. The Piper departed TMB on a local flight at 1253, and the Cessna departed Immokalee Regional Airport (IMM), Immokalee, Florida, at 1217, destined for TMB.

According air traffic control data provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Piper was en route to a nearby training area at an altitude of about 1,500 ft mean sea level (msl) and was no longer communicating with the TMB tower controller as the airplane was outside the Class D airspace. The Cessna was returning to TMB at an altitude of about 1,500 ft msl and had contacted the TMB tower controller just before the collision. The controller acknowledged the transmission and issued a traffic advisory, but no further communications were received from the Cessna. Review of radar data revealed the two targets converged nearly straight-on. At the time of the collision, the Piper was flying northwest and the Cessna was flying southeast.

Pilot Information

Certificate: Private
Age: 19, Female
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s):None 
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 09/29/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 253 hours (Total, all aircraft)

Check Pilot Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Commercial
Age: 72, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Multi-engine Land; Multi-engine Sea; Single-engine Land; Single-engine Sea
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Glider
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Multi-engine; Airplane Single-engine; Instrument Airplane
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 08/16/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 26000 hours (Total, all aircraft)




Piper

The pilot held a private pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land and instrument airplane. Her most recent first-class FAA medical certificate was issued on September 29, 2017. According to her application for a commercial pilot certificate, dated July 17, 2018, she reported a total flight experience of 253 hours. The pilot's logbook was not recovered.

The DPE held an airline transport pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane single-engine sea, airplane multiengine land, and airplane multiengine sea. He also held a commercial pilot certificate with a rating for glider. Additionally, he held a flight instructor certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine, airplane multiengine, and instrument airplane. His most recent second-class FAA medical certificate was issued on August 16, 2017. At that time, he reported a total flight experience of 26,000 hours. The DPE's logbook was not recovered.

Cessna

The flight instructor held a commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land and instrument airplane. He also held a flight instructor certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine. His most recent first-class FAA medical certificate was issued on December 15, 2014. According to his application for a flight instructor certificate, dated March 18, 2018, he reported a total flight experience of 311 hours. The flight instructor's logbook was not recovered.

The student pilot's most recent first-class FAA medical certificate was issued on March 20, 2018. According to the student pilot's logbook, he had a total flight experience of 52 hours.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Piper
Registration: N16281
Model/Series: PA34 200
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture:1973 
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 34-7350122
Landing Gear Type: Retractable - Tricycle
Seats: 6
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/19/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 4200 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 2 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 10153 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91  installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: IO-360-C1E6
Registered Owner: Dean International Inc
Rated Power: 200 hp
Operator: Dean International Inc
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Pilot School (141) 

The Piper was a six-seat, low-wing, retractable tricycle gear airplane manufactured in 1973. It was powered by two counter-rotating Lycoming IO-360 200-horsepower engines, both equipped with two-blade Hartzell constant-speed propellers. Review of maintenance records revealed that the most recent annual inspection was completed on June 19, 2018. At that time, the airframe had accumulated about 10,153 total hours of operation. The left engine had accumulated about 10,207 total hours of operation, of which 1,147 hours were since major overhaul. The right engine had accumulated about 11,401 total hours of operation, of which 1,147 hours were since major overhaul.

The Cessna was a four-seat, high-wing, fixed tricycle gear airplane, manufactured in 1979. It was powered by a Lycoming O-320, 160-horsepower engine equipped with a two-blade McCauley fixed-pitch propeller. Review of maintenance records revealed that the most 100-hour inspection was completed on June 13, 2018. At that time, the airframe had accumulated about 18,447 total hours of operation. The engine had accumulated about 13,256 total hours of operation, of which 2,541 hours were since major overhaul. 



Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: TMB, 10 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 9 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1253 EDT
Direction from Accident Site: 135°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 3500 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 5 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 120°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.1 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 32°C / 24°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Miami, FL (TMB)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Miami, FL (TMB)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1253 EDT
Type of Airspace: 

The recorded weather at TMB at 1253 included wind from 120° at 5 knots, 10 statute miles visibility, scattered clouds at 3,500 ft and 4,200 ft, temperature 32°C, dew point 24°C, altimeter setting of 30.10 inches of mercury.

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 25.757778, -80.556944 (est) 

The Piper main wreckage was located about 620 ft west of the collision point as indicated by radar data. The wreckage was mostly intact and upright, with the vertical stabilizer and outboard section of right wing separated. The vertical stabilizer was located about 50 ft west of the main wreckage and the outboard section of right wing was located by aerial drone about 220 ft north-northeast of the main wreckage. Both engines remained attached to the airframe and the propellers remained attached to their respective engine. The right engine propeller was in a feathered position and the corresponding cockpit controls for both engines were in the aft position, consistent with impact damage. One right propeller blade exhibited little damage and the other right propeller blade was bent forward. One left engine propeller blade exhibited little damage and the other was bent aft. The landing gear selector handle was in the down position and the landing gear was found mid-extension. The flaps were in the retracted position. Flight control continuity was confirmed and measurement of the stabilator trim jackscrew corresponded to a nose-up trim setting midrange between neutral and full nose-up. Measurement of the rudder trim shaft corresponded to an approximate neutral rudder trim. The two front seats were equipped with lapbelts and shoulder harnesses. The right seat restraint was unlatched by rescue personnel and the left seat restraint was cut by rescue personnel.

The Cessna main wreckage was located about 1,340 ft southeast of the collision point, as indicated by radar data. The airplane came to rest upright and its left wing had separated. The left wing was located by aerial drone about 1,320 ft northwest of the main wreckage. The engine remained attached to the airframe and the propeller remained attached to the engine. One propeller blade exhibited little damage and the other blade was bent aft and exhibited chordwise scratches. The flaps were found in the retracted position and flight control continuity was confirmed. Measurement of the elevator trim jackscrew corresponded to an approximate 5° trim tab up (nose-down) position. The two front seats were equipped with lapbelts and shoulder harnesses. The right seat restraint was not recovered and the left seat restraint was separated consistent with overload.

During the wreckage examinations, red and blue paint transfer was found on a top inboard section of Cessna's right wing. Tire marks were found on the Piper's right wingtip and the left main landing gear tire of the Cessna was not recovered. Additionally, the right upper strut attachment fitting from the Cessna was found in the Piper tailcone. The Cessna's left front wing spar carry-through fitting (near the left wing root) was found in the outboard right wing of the Piper. In addition, a section of the Cessna's right wing spar was found in the Piper's vertical stabilizer. The findings were consistent with a nearly head-on, off-center collision with the Cessna in a slight left bank to the Piper's right. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department, Miami, Florida, performed autopsies on all four pilots.

Toxicology testing was performed on all four pilots by the FAA Forensic Sciences Laboratory. The results were negative for the pilot of the Piper. The testing identified ibuprofen in the blood of the DPE in the Piper, which is not considered impairing.

The testing identified ethanol at 0.049 gm/dl in the Cessna student pilot's cavity blood, 0.020 gm/dl in liver, and 0.047 gm/dl in muscle. In addition, N-propanol and N-butanol were found in cavity blood and muscle. Ethanol may be produced in body tissues by microbial activity after death. N-butanol and N-propanol are other alcohols commonly produced in tissues after death.

The testing also identified 0.0015 µg/mL of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana, in the Cessna flight instructor's cavity blood and urine. In addition, two inactive metabolites, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), were found in urine and 0.0044 µg/mL 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) was found in cavity blood. Marijuana is a psychoactive drug with therapeutic levels as low as 0.001 µg/ml. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheets, "It is difficult to establish a relationship between a person's marijuana blood or plasma concentration and performance impairing effects. Concentrations of parent drug and metabolite are very dependent on pattern of use as well as dose. THC concentrations typically peak during the act of smoking, while peak 11-OH THC concentrations occur approximately 9-23 minutes after the start of smoking. Concentrations of both analytes decline rapidly and are often < 0.005 ug/mL at 3 hours."

Additional Information

Aircraft Performance and Cockpit Visibility Study

Automatic Dependent Surveillance—Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services—Broadcast (TIS-B) data were reviewed to calculate the position and orientation of each airplane during the minutes preceding the collision. The information was then used to estimate the approximate location of each airplane in the other airplane's windows and to simulate the traffic information that could have been presented to the pilots had the airplanes been equipped with a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) (neither was so equipped).

The study revealed that the Piper and the Cessna would have remained relatively small, slow-moving objects in each other's windows until about 12 seconds before the collision, and subsequently grown in size suddenly. About 18.5 seconds before the collision, the Cessna would have been obscured from the Piper pilot's (nominal) field of view by the Piper's instrument panel, though the Cessna would have remained unobscured in the Piper DPE's (nominal) field of view.

Simulation of CDTI displays for both airplanes indicated that both pilots could
have been made aware of the presence of the other airplane at least as soon as the Piper became airborne, that is, about 6 minutes and 10 seconds before the collision. However, given the numerous traffic targets near TMB at the time of the accident, there would have been little reason for the pilots of each airplane to pay particular attention to the target representing the other until the airplanes drew much closer to each other. About 39.5 seconds before the collision, each airplane would have received an aural and visual ADS-B Traffic Advisory System (ATAS) alert of the other as they penetrated each other's protected airspace zone. The Cessna would also have received a second ATAS alert 30.5 seconds before the collision, as the ATAS algorithm predicted it would penetrate the Piper's collision airspace zone. The CDTI displays on both aircraft would have depicted the airplanes in alert status (solid yellow arrowheads enclosed in a yellow circle), converging on each other up until the collision occurred.

For more information, see Aircraft Performance & Cockpit Visibility Study in the NTSB public docket for this accident.



N6428D  Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


N6428D  Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board:  https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N6428D

Location: Miami, FL
Accident Number: ERA18FA194B
Date & Time: 07/17/2018, 1259 EDT
Registration: N6428D
Aircraft: Cessna 172
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Defining Event: Midair collision
Injuries: 2 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional 

On July 17, 2018, at 1259 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-34-200, N16281, and a Cessna 172N, N6428D, collided in midair about 9 miles northwest of Miami Executive Airport (TMB), Miami, Florida. The private pilot and designated pilot examiner (DPE) onboard the Piper and the flight instructor and student pilot onboard the Cessna were fatally injured; both airplanes were destroyed. Both airplanes were registered to and were being operated by Dean International, Inc., as Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 flights. The Piper pilots were conducting an evaluation flight for a commercial pilot certificate and the Cessna pilots were conducting a cross-country instructional flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed and no flight plan was filed for either flight. The Piper departed TMB on a local flight at 1253, and the Cessna departed Immokalee Regional Airport (IMM), Immokalee, Florida, at 1217, destined for TMB.

According air traffic control data provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Piper was en route to a nearby training area at an altitude of about 1,500 ft mean sea level (msl) and was no longer communicating with the TMB tower controller as the airplane was outside the Class D airspace. The Cessna was returning to TMB at an altitude of about 1,500 ft msl and had contacted the TMB tower controller just before the collision. The controller acknowledged the transmission and issued a traffic advisory, but no further communications were received from the Cessna. Review of radar data revealed the two targets converged nearly straight-on. At the time of the collision, the Piper was flying northwest and the Cessna was flying southeast.



Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 22, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Airplane Single-engine
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 12/15/2014
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 311 hours (Total, all aircraft)

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 22, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 1 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 03/20/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 
Flight Time: 52 hours (Total, all aircraft)

Piper

The pilot held a private pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land and instrument airplane. Her most recent first-class FAA medical certificate was issued on September 29, 2017. According to her application for a commercial pilot certificate, dated July 17, 2018, she reported a total flight experience of 253 hours. The pilot's logbook was not recovered.

The DPE held an airline transport pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane single-engine sea, airplane multiengine land, and airplane multiengine sea. He also held a commercial pilot certificate with a rating for glider. Additionally, he held a flight instructor certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine, airplane multiengine, and instrument airplane. His most recent second-class FAA medical certificate was issued on August 16, 2017. At that time, he reported a total flight experience of 26,000 hours. The DPE's logbook was not recovered.

Cessna

The flight instructor held a commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land and instrument airplane. He also held a flight instructor certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine. His most recent first-class FAA medical certificate was issued on December 15, 2014. According to his application for a flight instructor certificate, dated March 18, 2018, he reported a total flight experience of 311 hours. The flight instructor's logbook was not recovered.

The student pilot's most recent first-class FAA medical certificate was issued on March 20, 2018. According to the student pilot's logbook, he had a total flight experience of 52 hours.

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N6428D
Model/Series: 172 N
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1979
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 17272794
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/13/2018, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2300 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 18447 Hours as of last inspection
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: Installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320-D2G
Registered Owner: Dean International Inc
Rated Power: 160 hp
Operator: Dean International Inc
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Pilot School (141) 

The Piper was a six-seat, low-wing, retractable tricycle gear airplane manufactured in 1973. It was powered by two counter-rotating Lycoming IO-360 200-horsepower engines, both equipped with two-blade Hartzell constant-speed propellers. Review of maintenance records revealed that the most recent annual inspection was completed on June 19, 2018. At that time, the airframe had accumulated about 10,153 total hours of operation. The left engine had accumulated about 10,207 total hours of operation, of which 1,147 hours were since major overhaul. The right engine had accumulated about 11,401 total hours of operation, of which 1,147 hours were since major overhaul.

The Cessna was a four-seat, high-wing, fixed tricycle gear airplane, manufactured in 1979. It was powered by a Lycoming O-320, 160-horsepower engine equipped with a two-blade McCauley fixed-pitch propeller. Review of maintenance records revealed that the most 100-hour inspection was completed on June 13, 2018. At that time, the airframe had accumulated about 18,447 total hours of operation. The engine had accumulated about 13,256 total hours of operation, of which 2,541 hours were since major overhaul. 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: TMB, 10 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 9 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1253 EDT
Direction from Accident Site: 135°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Scattered / 3500 ft agl
Visibility: 10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 5 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual: None / None
Wind Direction: 120°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual: N/A / N/A
Altimeter Setting: 30.1 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 32°C / 24°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Immokalee, FL (IMM)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Miami, FL (TMB)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1217 EDT
Type of Airspace: 

The recorded weather at TMB at 1253 included wind from 120° at 5 knots, 10 statute miles visibility, scattered clouds at 3,500 ft and 4,200 ft, temperature 32°C, dew point 24°C, altimeter setting of 30.10 inches of mercury. 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: On-Ground
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 25.757778, -80.556944 (est) 

The Piper main wreckage was located about 620 ft west of the collision point as indicated by radar data. The wreckage was mostly intact and upright, with the vertical stabilizer and outboard section of right wing separated. The vertical stabilizer was located about 50 ft west of the main wreckage and the outboard section of right wing was located by aerial drone about 220 ft north-northeast of the main wreckage. Both engines remained attached to the airframe and the propellers remained attached to their respective engine. The right engine propeller was in a feathered position and the corresponding cockpit controls for both engines were in the aft position, consistent with impact damage. One right propeller blade exhibited little damage and the other right propeller blade was bent forward. One left engine propeller blade exhibited little damage and the other was bent aft. The landing gear selector handle was in the down position and the landing gear was found mid-extension. The flaps were in the retracted position. Flight control continuity was confirmed and measurement of the stabilator trim jackscrew corresponded to a nose-up trim setting midrange between neutral and full nose-up. Measurement of the rudder trim shaft corresponded to an approximate neutral rudder trim. The two front seats were equipped with lapbelts and shoulder harnesses. The right seat restraint was unlatched by rescue personnel and the left seat restraint was cut by rescue personnel.

The Cessna main wreckage was located about 1,340 ft southeast of the collision point, as indicated by radar data. The airplane came to rest upright and its left wing had separated. The left wing was located by aerial drone about 1,320 ft northwest of the main wreckage. The engine remained attached to the airframe and the propeller remained attached to the engine. One propeller blade exhibited little damage and the other blade was bent aft and exhibited chordwise scratches. The flaps were found in the retracted position and flight control continuity was confirmed. Measurement of the elevator trim jackscrew corresponded to an approximate 5° trim tab up (nose-down) position. The two front seats were equipped with lapbelts and shoulder harnesses. The right seat restraint was not recovered and the left seat restraint was separated consistent with overload.

During the wreckage examinations, red and blue paint transfer was found on a top inboard section of Cessna's right wing. Tire marks were found on the Piper's right wingtip and the left main landing gear tire of the Cessna was not recovered. Additionally, the right upper strut attachment fitting from the Cessna was found in the Piper tailcone. The Cessna's left front wing spar carry-through fitting (near the left wing root) was found in the outboard right wing of the Piper. In addition, a section of the Cessna's right wing spar was found in the Piper's vertical stabilizer. The findings were consistent with a nearly head-on, off-center collision with the Cessna in a slight left bank to the Piper's right. 

Medical And Pathological Information

The Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department, Miami, Florida, performed autopsies on all four pilots.

Toxicology testing was performed on all four pilots by the FAA Forensic Sciences Laboratory. The results were negative for the pilot of the Piper. The testing identified ibuprofen in the blood of the DPE in the Piper, which is not considered impairing.

The testing identified ethanol at 0.049 gm/dl in the Cessna student pilot's cavity blood, 0.020 gm/dl in liver, and 0.047 gm/dl in muscle. In addition, N-propanol and N-butanol were found in cavity blood and muscle. Ethanol may be produced in body tissues by microbial activity after death. N-butanol and N-propanol are other alcohols commonly produced in tissues after death.

The testing also identified 0.0015 µg/mL of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana, in the Cessna flight instructor's cavity blood and urine. In addition, two inactive metabolites, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), were found in urine and 0.0044 µg/mL 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) was found in cavity blood. Marijuana is a psychoactive drug with therapeutic levels as low as 0.001 µg/ml. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheets, "It is difficult to establish a relationship between a person's marijuana blood or plasma concentration and performance impairing effects. Concentrations of parent drug and metabolite are very dependent on pattern of use as well as dose. THC concentrations typically peak during the act of smoking, while peak 11-OH THC concentrations occur approximately 9-23 minutes after the start of smoking. Concentrations of both analytes decline rapidly and are often < 0.005 ug/mL at 3 hours." 

Additional Information

Aircraft Performance and Cockpit Visibility Study

Automatic Dependent Surveillance—Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services—Broadcast (TIS-B) data were reviewed to calculate the position and orientation of each airplane during the minutes preceding the collision. The information was then used to estimate the approximate location of each airplane in the other airplane's windows and to simulate the traffic information that could have been presented to the pilots had the airplanes been equipped with a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) (neither was so equipped).

The study revealed that the Piper and the Cessna would have remained relatively small, slow-moving objects in each other's windows until about 12 seconds before the collision, and subsequently grown in size suddenly. About 18.5 seconds before the collision, the Cessna would have been obscured from the Piper pilot's (nominal) field of view by the Piper's instrument panel, though the Cessna would have remained unobscured in the Piper DPE's (nominal) field of view.

Simulation of CDTI displays for both airplanes indicated that both pilots could
have been made aware of the presence of the other airplane at least as soon as the Piper became airborne, that is, about 6 minutes and 10 seconds before the collision. However, given the numerous traffic targets near TMB at the time of the accident, there would have been little reason for the pilots of each airplane to pay particular attention to the target representing the other until the airplanes drew much closer to each other. About 39.5 seconds before the collision, each airplane would have received an aural and visual ADS-B Traffic Advisory System (ATAS) alert of the other as they penetrated each other's protected airspace zone. The Cessna would also have received a second ATAS alert 30.5 seconds before the collision, as the ATAS algorithm predicted it would penetrate the Piper's collision airspace zone. The CDTI displays on both aircraft would have depicted the airplanes in alert status (solid yellow arrowheads enclosed in a yellow circle), converging on each other up until the collision occurred.

For more information, see Aircraft Performance & Cockpit Visibility Study in the NTSB public docket for this accident.

Piper PA-18-150 Super Cub, N8664Y: Fatal accident occurred June 24, 2018 in Delta Junction, Alaska

Art Ward poses in front of his Piper PA-18-150 Super Cub.


The National Transportation Safety Board traveled to the scene of this accident.

Additional Participating Entity:

Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Fairbanks, Alaska

Aviation Accident Factual Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

http://registry.faa.gov/N8664Y

Location: Delta Junction, AK
Accident Number: ANC18FA050
Date & Time: 06/24/2018, 1040 AKD
Registration: N8664Y
Aircraft: PIPER PA 18-150
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Unknown or undetermined
Injuries: 2 Fatal
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Personal 

On June 24, 2018, about 1040 Alaska daylight time, a Piper PA-18 airplane, N8664Y, sustained substantial damage when it impacted terrain about 26 miles southwest of Delta Junction, Alaska. The commercial pilot and the passenger were fatally injured. The airplane was registered to and operated by the pilot as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 visual flight rules flight. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan was filed for the personal flight, which departed Sewell Strip, Salcha, Alaska, about 1022 and was destined for a homestead about 8 miles west of McCarthy, Alaska.

On June 25, family members contacted the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center to report the overdue airplane. An alert notice was issued at 1139, and an extensive search began, which consisted of assets from the Alaska Air National Guard, the Alaska Army National Guard, the US Marine Corps, the Civil Air Patrol, the Alaska State Troopers, and volunteers. The airplane was located on June 27 by an aircrew from the Alaska Army National Guard.

A review of archived Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) radar data showed that the airplane departed Sewell Strip about 1022, and the last radar return was about 1037. The accident site was about 9 miles south of the last radar return. 

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 63, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Front
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used:
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: Yes
Medical Certification: Class 3 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/01/2018
Occupational Pilot:
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time: 9600 hours (Total, all aircraft) 

The pilot, age 63, held a commercial pilot certificate with an airplane single-engine land rating. The pilot was issued an FAA third-class airman medical certificate on May 9, 2018, without any limitations. On the application for this medical certificate, the pilot reported that he had accumulated 9,600 total hours of flight experience. 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: PIPER
Registration: N8664Y
Model/Series: PA 18-150 150
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1970
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 18-8895
Landing Gear Type: Tailwheel
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection:
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1750 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time:
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: C91A installed, not activated
Engine Model/Series: O-320 SERIES
Registered Owner: On file
Rated Power: 150 hp
Operator: On file
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

The two-seat, high-wing Piper PA-18 airplane was manufactured in 1970. It was powered by a Lycoming O-320 series engine. The engine was last inspected in accordance with an annual inspection on June 11, 2018. At that time, the engine had accumulated 3,452 total hours, with 1,449 hours since the last major overhaul.

The airplane was equipped with a legacy, 121.5- MHz emergency locator transmitter (ELT) but was not equipped with a digital 406-MHz ELT that transmits a distress signal to search and rescue satellites, thereby alerting rescue personnel within minutes of the location of the crash site. As of February 1, 2009, the 121.5-MHz ELTs stopped being monitored by search and rescue satellites, and installation of the digital 406-MHz ELTs is on a voluntary basis.

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Unknown
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: PABI, 1277 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 22 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1753 UTC
Direction from Accident Site: 68°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 6000 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 8 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:
Wind Direction: 260°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:
Altimeter Setting: 29.96 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: 13°C / 9°C
Precipitation and Obscuration: Light - Rain
Departure Point: Salcha, AK
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Mccarthy, AK (0AK8)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1022 AKD
Type of Airspace: Unknown 

The closest official weather reporting facility was Allen Army Airfield (PABI), about 22 miles northeast of the accident site. At 0953, a METAR reported, in part, wind 260° at 8 knots; visibility 10 statute miles; light rain; ceiling 6,000 ft broken, 10,000 ft overcast; temperature 55°F; dewpoint 48°F; and altimeter setting of 29.96 inches of mercury.

A review of archived weather information for the area for June 24 between 1000 and 1130 revealed a ceiling between 5,000 ft and 6,000 ft above ground level with forward visibility between 6 and 10 statute miles. 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: 1 Fatal
Aircraft Fire:None 
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Fatal
Latitude, Longitude: 63.858611, -146.493056 

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigator-in-charge (IIC), along with another NTSB investigator and two Alaska State Troopers, reached the accident site on June 28 with assistance from the Alaska Army National Guard. The airplane was located on a knoll consisting of sparsely populated spruce trees and muskeg on a heading of about 265° and an elevation of about 2,550 ft mean sea level. The initial ground scar was discernable by disturbed vegetation and small wreckage fragments, which included the right navigation light lens. The main wreckage came to rest about 100 ft from the initial ground scar.

Both wings sustained substantial damage, and the fuselage exhibited extensive crushing and impact damage.

Flight control continuity was established from the elevator and rudder control surfaces via cables to a point under the cabin floorboard where damage precluded cable movement. Aileron control continuity was established from the control surface via cables to the cuts into the fuselage. The right wing upper cable bell crank was fractured consistent with impact damage. All other cables remained attached.

The propeller separated from the engine at the propeller hub and was located about 20ft prior to the main wreckage. Both blades exhibited torsional twisting and S bending, consistent with the production of power.

The ELT was still secure in the cradle with the antenna attached. Upon removal, it was discovered that the switch was in the "OFF" position. When the switch was moved to the "ON" position, a signal was heard broadcasting on frequency 121.5 MHz. When the switch was moved back to "OFF," the broadcast stopped. The switch was then positioned to "ARM," and ELT G-force activation was tested, at which point the signal was again heard. A placard on the ELT showed the battery was manufactured in April 2017, due to expire in June 2019.

On August 6, the NTSB IIC, along with another NTSB investigator, performed a follow-up examination of the engine and fuel system. No anomalies, contamination, or evidence of malfunction was found in any of the engine accessories. The spark plugs and rocker arm covers were removed from the engine. All spark plugs exhibited normal operational signatures with no defects or anomalies noted. The crankshaft was rotated by hand using a hand tool attached to the propeller flange. Thumb compression and suction were obtained on all four cylinders. Continuity was established throughout the engine and valvetrain. When the crankshaft was rotated, the left and right magnetos produced spark at all ignition wires. 

Postaccident examination of the airplane and engine revealed no evidence of preimpact mechanical failures or malfunctions that would have precluded normal operation. 

Medical And Pathological Information

An autopsy of the pilot was performed by the State of Alaska Medical Examiner's Office, Anchorage, Alaska. His cause of death was multiple blunt force injuries.

Toxicology testing performed by the FAA Forensic Sciences Laboratory on specimens from the pilot was negative for drugs, ethanol, and carbon monoxide.