Thursday, April 12, 2018

Robinson R22 BETA, N622MP, registered to Spitzer Helicopter LLC and operated by Capitol Helicopters: Accidents occurred April 10, 2018 and August 29, 2017 at Sacramento Executive Airport (KSAC), California

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Sacramento, California

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf


Investigation Docket  - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms


http://registry.faa.gov/N622MP


Analysis 

The flight instructor in the helicopter reported that, while demonstrating a touchdown autorotation to the pilot receiving instruction, the helicopter landed in a "normal run-on landing configuration." He added that the pilot receiving instruction applied aft cyclic about 15 ft into the forward ground run. The flight instructor moved the cyclic into the neutral position and lowered the collective as quickly as possible to slow the groundspeed. The helicopter "jumped" up and yawed to the left and spun about 150° before coming to rest. The flight instructor felt abnormal vibration in the cyclic and collective. He opened the door to inspect the helicopter and saw that the main rotor had struck the tailboom.

The helicopter sustained substantial damage to the tailboom.

The flight instructor reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the helicopter that would have precluded normal operation.

Federal Aviation Administration's Helicopter Flying Handbook, FAA-H-8083-21A, contains a section titled "Autorotation " which states:

After the helicopter has come to a complete stop after touchdown, lower the collective pitch to the full-down position. Do not try to stop the forward ground run with aft cyclic, as the main rotor blades can strike the tail boom. Rather, by lowering the collective slightly during the ground run, more weight is placed on the undercarriage, slowing the helicopter. 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot receiving instruction's abrupt cyclic control input during the touch-down autorotation.

Findings

Aircraft
Yaw control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)
Flight control system - Incorrect use/operation (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Student pilot (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing
Miscellaneous/other

Loss of control on ground (Defining event)

Location: Franklin, CA 
Accident Number: GAA18CA210
Date & Time: 04/10/2018, 1710 PDT
Registration: N622MP
Aircraft: ROBINSON HELICOPTER R22
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Miscellaneous/other
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

The flight instructor in the helicopter reported that, while demonstrating a touchdown autorotation to the pilot receiving instruction, the helicopter landed in a "normal run-on landing configuration." He added that the pilot receiving instruction applied aft cyclic about 15 ft into the forward ground run. The flight instructor moved the cyclic into the neutral position and lowered the collective as quickly as possible, to slow the ground speed. The helicopter "jumped" up and yawed to the left and spun the helicopter about 150° before coming to rest. The flight instructor felt abnormal vibration in the cyclic and collective. He opened the door to inspect the helicopter and saw that the main rotor had struck the tailboom.

The helicopter sustained substantial damage to the tailboom.

The flight instructor reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the helicopter that would have precluded normal operation.

The automated weather observation station located 12 miles north of the accident airport reported that, about 17 minutes before the accident, the wind was from 220° at 7 knots. The helicopter landed on runway 18.

Federal Aviation Administration's Helicopter Flying Handbook, FAA-H-8083-21A, contains a section titled "Autorotation " which states:

After the helicopter has come to a complete stop after touchdown, lower the collective pitch to the full-down position. Do not try to stop the forward ground run with aft cyclic, as the main rotor blades can strike the tail boom. Rather, by lowering the collective slightly during the ground run, more weight is placed on the undercarriage, slowing the helicopter.

Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Airline Transport; Flight Instructor
Age: 34, Male
Airplane Rating(s): Single-engine Land
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Airplane; Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Helicopter; Instrument Helicopter
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 05/23/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 12/01/2017
Flight Time: (Estimated) 2060 hours (Total, all aircraft), 830 hours (Total, this make and model), 1970 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 146 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 27 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Pilot Information

Certificate: Commercial
Age: 30, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 02/22/2018
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 02/14/2018
Flight Time: (Estimated) 273 hours (Total, all aircraft), 155 hours (Total, this make and model), 176 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 37 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 13 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: ROBINSON HELICOPTER
Registration: N622MP
Model/Series: R22 BETA
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Year of Manufacture: 2006
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 4016
Landing Gear Type: Skid;
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 03/29/2018, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 1370 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 4747 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: O-360-J2A
Registered Owner: SPITZER HELICOPTER LLC
Rated Power: 145 hp
Operator: Capitol Helicopters
Operating Certificate(s) Held:  Pilot School (141); Rotorcraft External Load (133); On-demand Air Taxi (135)

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KSAC, 25 ft msl
Observation Time: 2353 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 12 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 345°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Temperature/Dew Point: 18°C / 14°C
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 10000 ft agl
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 7 knots, 220°
Visibility (RVR):
Altimeter Setting: 30.02 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV):
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Franklin, CA (F72)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Franklin, CA (F72)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1530 PDT
Type of Airspace: Class G

Airport Information

Airport: FRANKLIN FIELD (F72)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 23 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry; Rough
Runway Used: 18
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3123 ft / 60 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Full Stop; Straight-in; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude:  38.308611, -121.428333 (est)

Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Sacramento

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

Location: Sacramento, CA
Accident Number: GAA17CA514
Date & Time: 08/29/2017, 1330 PDT
Registration: N622MP
Aircraft: ROBINSON HELICOPTER R22
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control in flight
Injuries: 2 None
Flight Conducted Under:  Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

Analysis

The helicopter flight instructor reported that the student was practicing quick-stops on the taxiway. The student was hovering with a tailwind and began to accelerate when the helicopter started a "fast yaw to the right." He added that they stopped the acceleration, checked the engine gauges, and then accelerated again. As the helicopter was going through effective translational lift, it spun to the right. The flight instructor took the flight controls, noticed the rpm was high, and reduced the throttle. The helicopter impacted the ground backward and slid before coming to rest.

The helicopter sustained substantial damage to the vertical stabilizer.

The flight instructor reported that there were no preaccident mechanical failures or malfunctions with the helicopter that would have precluded normal operation.

A review of recorded data from the automated weather observation station located on the airport reported that, about 37 minutes before the accident, the wind was from 190° at 7 knots. The helicopter was taxiing to the north.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The student pilot's failure to maintain yaw control and the flight instructor's delayed remedial action.

Findings

Aircraft
Yaw control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Student pilot (Cause)
Delayed action - Instructor/check pilot (Cause)

Factual Information

History of Flight


Taxi
Loss of control in flight (Defining event)
Abrupt maneuver
Attempted remediation/recovery
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)
  
Flight Instructor Information

Certificate: Flight Instructor; Commercial
Age: 29, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): Helicopter
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): Helicopter
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): Helicopter
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 06/30/2017
Occupational Pilot: Yes
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 10/17/2016
Flight Time: (Estimated) 660 hours (Total, all aircraft), 489 hours (Total, this make and model), 627 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 92 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 33 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Student Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 32, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Right
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: Yes
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 04/20/2017
Occupational Pilot:No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent: 
Flight Time: (Estimated) 18 hours (Total, all aircraft), 18 hours (Total, this make and model), 18 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 9 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft) 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Manufacturer: ROBINSON HELICOPTER
Registration: N622MP
Model/Series: R22 BETA
Aircraft Category: Helicopter
Year of Manufacture: 2006
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 4016
Landing Gear Type: Skid;
Seats: 2
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 06/15/2017, 100 Hour
Certified Max Gross Wt.:  1370 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection: 
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 273.6 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: LYCOMING
ELT: Not installed
Engine Model/Series: O-360-J2A
Registered Owner: SPITZER HELICOPTER LLC
Rated Power: 145 hp
Operator: Capitol Helicopters
Operating Certificate(s) Held: Pilot School (141)

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KSAC, 25 ft msl
Observation Time: 1953 UTC
Distance from Accident Site: 0 Nautical Miles
Direction from Accident Site: 169°
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear
Temperature/Dew Point: 31°C / 16°C
Lowest Ceiling: None
Visibility:  10 Miles
Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: 7 knots, 190°
Visibility (RVR): 
Altimeter Setting: 29.82 inches Hg
Visibility (RVV): 
Precipitation and Obscuration: No Obscuration; No Precipitation
Departure Point: Sacramento, CA (SAC)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination:Sacramento, CA (SAC)
Type of Clearance: VFR
Departure Time: 1250 PDT
Type of Airspace: Class D

Airport Information

Airport: SACRAMENTO EXECUTIVE (SAC)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt
Airport Elevation: 23 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Dry
Runway Used: N/A
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width:  
VFR Approach/Landing: None

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 2 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 None
Latitude, Longitude:  38.512500, -121.496389 (est)

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