Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Loss of Control on Ground: Cessna 172M Skyhawk, N12181, accident occurred January 02, 2019 at Appleton Municipal Airport (KAQP), Swift County, Minnesota



Additional Participating Entity:
Federal Aviation Administration / Flight Standards District Office; Minneapolis, Minnesota

Aviation Accident Final Report - National Transportation Safety Board: https://app.ntsb.gov/pdf

Investigation Docket - National Transportation Safety Board: https://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms

https://registry.faa.gov/N12181

Location: Appleton, MN
Accident Number: GAA19CA118
Date & Time: 01/02/2019, 1140 CST
Registration: N12181
Aircraft: Cessna 172
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Defining Event: Loss of control on ground
Injuries: 1 None
Flight Conducted Under: Part 91: General Aviation - Instructional

Analysis 

The student pilot reported that, during a solo cross-country flight, he flew over the airport to assess the runway conditions. He saw that the windsock indicated that he would be landing with a right crosswind, and he determined that the runway was suitable for landing. During the landing roll, the airplane encountered ice on the runway and drifted left. He added power to abort the landing, but the airplane exited the left side of the runway and collided with runway lighting. He pulled back on the yoke, and the airplane climbed momentarily, but the airplane did not have enough airspeed to sustain flight. The airplane touched down on the left side of the runway and nosed over.

The airplane sustained substantial damage to the right wing strut.

The student reported that there were no preaccident mechanical malfunctions or failures with the airplane that would have precluded normal operation.

The student reported that the wind during the landing was from 180° at 10 knots with no gusts. He landed the airplane on runway 13.

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The student pilot's loss of directional control while landing on an ice-covered runway, which resulted in a loss of directional control, and his failure to attain sufficient airspeed during a subsequent aborted landing, which resulted in a nose-over.

Findings

Aircraft
Directional control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)
Airspeed - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues
Aircraft control - Student pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues
Snow/slush/ice covered surface - Effect on operation (Cause)
Sign/marker - Contributed to outcome

Factual Information

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll
Loss of control on ground (Defining event)
Attempted remediation/recovery
Runway excursion
Collision with terr/obj (non-CFIT)
Nose over/nose down



Pilot Information

Certificate: Student
Age: 42, Male
Airplane Rating(s): None
Seat Occupied: Left
Other Aircraft Rating(s): None
Restraint Used: 3-point
Instrument Rating(s): None
Second Pilot Present: No
Instructor Rating(s): None
Toxicology Performed: No
Medical Certification: Class 3 With Waivers/Limitations
Last FAA Medical Exam: 12/20/2017
Occupational Pilot: No
Last Flight Review or Equivalent:
Flight Time:   (Estimated) 71.3 hours (Total, all aircraft), 13 hours (Total, this make and model), 11.1 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 2.2 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 2.2 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 1 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make: Cessna
Registration: N12181
Model/Series: 172 M
Aircraft Category: Airplane
Year of Manufacture: 1973
Amateur Built: No
Airworthiness Certificate: Normal
Serial Number: 17261865
Landing Gear Type: Tricycle
Seats: 4
Date/Type of Last Inspection: 03/01/2018, Annual
Certified Max Gross Wt.: 2300 lbs
Time Since Last Inspection:
Engines: 1 Reciprocating
Airframe Total Time: 8140 Hours at time of accident
Engine Manufacturer: Lycoming
ELT: C91  installed, activated, aided in locating accident
Engine Model/Series: O-320-E2D
Registered Owner: Wild River Flying Club Inc
Rated Power: 160 hp
Operator: Wild River Flying Club Inc
Operating Certificate(s) Held: None

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions
Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KAQP, 1100 ft msl
Distance from Accident Site: 1 Nautical Miles
Observation Time: 1130 CST
Direction from Accident Site: 285°
Lowest Cloud Condition:
Visibility:  10 Miles
Lowest Ceiling: Broken / 10000 ft agl
Visibility (RVR):
Wind Speed/Gusts: 10 knots /
Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:
Wind Direction: 180°
Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:
Altimeter Setting: 29.9 inches Hg
Temperature/Dew Point: -15°C / -19°C
Precipitation and Obscuration:
Departure Point: Osceola, WI (WN86)
Type of Flight Plan Filed: None
Destination: Appleton, MN (AQP)
Type of Clearance: None
Departure Time: 1015 CST
Type of Airspace: Class G 

Airport Information

Airport: Appleton Muni (AQP)
Runway Surface Type: Asphalt; Ice
Airport Elevation: 1021 ft
Runway Surface Condition: Ice
Runway Used: 13
IFR Approach: None
Runway Length/Width: 3500 ft / 75 ft
VFR Approach/Landing: Touch and Go; Traffic Pattern

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries: 1 None
Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Passenger Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Fire: None
Ground Injuries: N/A
Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 1 None
Latitude, Longitude:  45.227500, -96.004444 (est)

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